1937. NEW ZEALAND.
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR CONFERENCE, GENEVA, 1937. REPORT OF NEW ZEALAND GOVERNMENT DELEGATION.
Presented, to both Houses of the General Assembly by Leave.
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR CONFERENCE, TWENTY-THIRD SESSION, GENEVA, 3rd to 23rd JUNE, 1937.
REPORT OP GOVERNMENT DELEGATION. The Right Hon. the Prime Minister, — I have the honour to transmit herewith report on the proceedings of the twenty-third session of the International Labour Conference, held at Geneva from 3rd to 23rd June, 1937. Minister of Labour.
The names of the New Zealand delegates and of an adviser which were communicated to the International Labour Office in terms of paragraph 6 of Article 3 of the Constitution and Standing Orders of the International Labour Organization, were as under : — Government Delegate. —The Hon. H. T. Armstrong, Minister of Labour and Minister of Immigration. Adviser: Mr. W. J. Shanly. Workers' Delegate.—Mr. E. J. Dash, President of the Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants of New Zealand. Employers' Delegate. —Mr. W. E. Anderson, Secretary of the Auckland Employers' Association. The Government members of the delegation sailed from Wellington on the 6th April, and reached London, en route to Geneva, on the 11th May. At London information was received from the Prime Minister that notification had been sent by him to the International Labour Office of an alteration in the status of the adviser to second Government delegate. The Government delegates departed from London for Geneva on the 22nd May, and arrived at Geneva the following day. Pending the commencement of the International Labour Conference on the 3rd June, the Government delegates were attached to the New Zealand delegation to the Extraordinary Session of the Assembly of the League of Nations convened for the purpose of considering the request of Egypt for admission to the League. The Conference held its first sitting on the 3rd June, and its final sitting on the 23rd June. The Conference hall was the Batiment Electoral, 24 Rue General-Dufour, but it is expected that a hall will be completed in the new League of Nations building in time for the 1938 Conference. Of the 62 member States of the organization, 53 were represented at the Conference. There were 101 Government delegates and 97 advisers, 38 employers' delegates and 73 advisers, and 36 workers' delegates and 85 advisers, a total, of 430 delegates and advisers. In addition, many of the delegations were accompanied by secretaries and other staff. I—A. sc.
The President, chosen from the Government delegates, was Mr. Sean Lemas,. member of the Dail Eireann for the South Division of Dublin City, and since 1932 Minister of Industry and Commerce in the Government of the Irish Free State. • Draft Conventions were adopted concerning minimum age for admission of children to industrial employment (revised, 1937) ; minimum age for admission of children to non-industrial employment (revised, 1937) ; reduction of hours in the textile industry and safety provisions in the building industry. Recommendations were adopted concerning international co-operation in respect of public works ; national planning of public works ; minimum age for admission of children to industrial employment in family undertakings ; safety provisions in the building industry ; inspection in the building industry ; co-operation in accident-prevention in the building industry ; and vocational education for the building industry. Resolutions were adopted concerning responsibility of machine builders, &c., as regards safety devices in the building industry ; modifications of the reduction of hours of work (Textile Convention, 1937) in the case of certain countries ; international co-operation with reference to public works ; annual returns of employed children under the school-leaving age ; the protection of migrant persons insured or pensioned under social insurance schemes; indigenous workers; women workers ; uniformity of the protection of workers in China ; obligation of members of the International Labour Organization ; the collaboration of Burma with the International Labour Organization : the calling of an Advisory Tripartite Labour Conference of Asiatic countries and the establishment of an Asiatic Committee, and the generalization of the reduction of the hours of work. The texts of the Draft Conventions, Recommendations, and Resolutions appear in the appendix. Conventions were drafted relating (a) to reduction of hours in the chemical industry, and (6) reduction of hours in the printing and kindred trades ; but both of these failed of adoption. The New Zealand Government delegation is indebted for the willing and informed assistance which was extended to it by the Director of the International Labour Office (Mr. Harold Butler) and all members of his staff with whom it came in contact. The New Zealand member of the Office staff was particularly helpful to the delegation. THE CONSTITUTION AND OBJECTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION. The International Labour Organization is the instrument created in Part XIII of the Treaty of Versailles to give expression to the belief expressed therein that universal peace " can be established only if it is based upon social justice." It was set up in 1919, and held its first Conference in Washington in that year. It is supported by contributions, on a quota basis, from the following member States : — Afghanistan. Ethiopia. Nicaragua. Albania. Finland. Norway. Argentina. France. Panama. Australia. Guatemala. Paraguay. Austria. Greece. Peru. Belgium. Haiti. Poland. Bolivia. Honduras. Portugal. Brazil. Hungary. (Rumania. British Empire. India. Salvador. Bulgaria. Iraq. Siam. Canada. Irish Free State. South Africa. Chile. Iran. Spain. China. Italy. Sweden. Colombia. Japan. Switzerland. Cuba. Latvia. Turkey. Czecho-Slovakia. Liberia. Union of Soviet Socialist Denmark. Lithuania. Republics. Dominican Republic. Luxemburg. United States of America. Ecuador. Mexico. Uruguay. Egypt. Netherlands. Venezuela. Estonia. New Zealand. Yugoslavia. General Principles. The high contracting parties to the Treaty laid down the following general principles and methods as being of special and urgent importance for regulating labour conditions : — First. —The guiding principle that labour should not be regarded merely as a commodity or article of commerce. Second.—The right of association for all lawful purposes by the employed as well as by the employers. Third. —The payment to the employed of a wage adequate to maintain a reasonable standard of life as this is understood in their time and country. Fourth.—The adoption of an eight-hour day or a forty-eight-hour week as the standard to be aimed at where it has not already been attained. Fifth. —The adoption of a weekly rest of at least twenty-four hours, which should include Sunday wherever practicable. Sixth.—The abolition of child labour and the imposition of such limitations on the labour of young persons as shall permit the continuation of their education and assure their proper physical development. Seventh. —The principle that men and women should receive equal remuneration for work of equal value. Eighth.—The standard set by law in each country with respect to the conditions of labour should have due regard to the equitable economic treatment of all workers lawfully resident therein.
Ninth.—Eacli State should make provision for a system of inspection, in which women should take part, in order to ensure the enforcement of the laws and regulations for the protection of the employed. THE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE. The International Labour Office is situated at Geneva. It is controlled by the governing body (see page 24) which appoints the Director, determines the expenditure of the Office out of a budget appropriated for the purpose by the League of Nations, fixes the agenda of the conference, and exercises other duties. The Director is aided by Assistant Directors. The staff of the Office is appointed by the Director, and consists of officials of over forty nationalities, who are not dependent on the authorities in their countries of origin, but are immediately and solely responsible to the Director. The work of the International Labour Office falls into four main groups : — (1) It prepares the agenda of the governing body and the Conference, and attends to the execution of their decisions. (2) It conducts research into a wide field of industrial and economic problems, including conditions of work (contracts, hours, wages, &c.), unemployment, migration, health and safety, social insurance, agricultural work, technical education, labour statistics, &c. (3) It maintains relations with associations and institutions concerned with industrial and social affairs, collects information with regard to current events and movements in the world of labour, and supplies such information to inquirers. (4) It issues a series of periodical and other publications containing information on social and industrial affairs, including comparative studies on various questions in this field. The Office has two official languages, English and French, but a number of other languages, including German, Spanish, and Italian, are in constant use. The standard of training and ability required in the Office interpreters is an exacting one. It is not sufficient in these officers for them to be competent to make leisurely written translations of printed papers. They must have the academic training and technical knowledge to make rapid and accurate oral translations before a large and critical audience at the same speed as that at which the speaker is proceeding. This is done by them with remarkable facility. One officer is able to translate from the Albanian, Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Rumanian, Russian, Serbian, Spanish, and Swedish languages. The Director of the Office is Mr. Harold Butler. After a career in the British Civil Service, Mr. Butler took an active part in the work preparatory to the creation of the Organization, and acted as Secretary-General of the first International Labour Conference in Washington. He was then appointed Deputy-Director. In 1932 he succeeded the first Director, the late Mr. Albert Thomas. A monument to the memory of Albert Thomas was unveiled on Sunday morning, 20th June, 1937. The monument, which stands opposite the main entrance of the International Labour Office, is the work of Mr. Paul Landowsky. It consists of a lofty pedestal, on which stand four sculptured figures, representing the principal races of mankind, with the tools of their trades. The pedestal itself bears four bas-reliefs, one being a portrait of Albert Thomas in a characteristic attitude, the others representing three great divisions of labour —agriculture, mining, and navigation. On the pedestal are also inscribed some of the sayings of' Albert Thomas. The ceremony was attended by the delegates to the International Labour Conference, representatives of the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, the Secretary-General of the League of Nations, and many others. Brief speeches were given by Mr. Ernest Mahaim, Belgian Government delegate to the International Labour Conference and member of the Governing Body ; Mr. Adrien Lachenal, President of the Council of State of Geneva ; Mr. Chardin, Mayor of Champigny-sur-Marne, where Albert Thomas was born ; Mr. Necas, Chairman of the governing body ; Mr. H. C. Oersted, Vice-Chairman of the governing body and Danish employers' delegate, speaking on behalf of the employers' group ; Mr. Leon Jouhaux, Vice-Chairman of the governing body and French workers' delegate, speaking on behalf of the workers' group ; Mr. Joseph Avenol, Secretary-General of the League of Nations ; Mr. Harold Butler, Director of the International Labour Office, on behalf of the staff of the Office ; Mr. Paul Faure, French Minister of State, who apologized for'the unavoidable absence of Mr. Leon Blum, the Prime Minister of France, with whom he recalled that Albert Thomas had passed the last evening of his life. The New Zealand Government delegates paid a visit of inspection to the Office on the 23rd June, and were shown through the various branches. The meeting-room of the Governing Body is an impressive one, made so principally by contributions of furniture and ornaments from member States. France supplied the valuable Gobelin tapestry which almost covers one wall. India furnished the beautiful wood for the wall-panelling, flooring, ceiling, and furniture. Great Britain met the cost of making the furniture supplied by India. Holland gave the large painting by Ferd. 801. Japan's contribution was two large and valuable cloisonne vases. Italy paid the cost of binding the official documents and publications of the Governing Body. Norway presented some attractive Norwegian tapestry , for the private office of the Chairman of the Governing Body. In the vestibule is a bust, of Robert Owen, presented by the people of Wales. Other presentation works of art are placed in various parts of the building, including an impressive stained-glass window, presented by Germany when it was a member of the Organization, representing various phases of German industry. In the main entrance hall is a mural in mosaic, presented by the Third International, reproducing the preamble to the constitution of the Organization. The Office sends out to all parts of the world 1,000 postal packets per day. Swiss postage stamps, over-printed for use by the Office, are used. In a year a total of 35,000 letters is sent and received. In the Periodicals Department 500 periodicals and 500 newspapers are received daily from all parts of the world, and are circulated to the officers concerned for perusal. Some of these publications are scanned by the Periodicals Department, and others are sent for perusal by members of sections. The Periodicals Department prepares about 200 extracts per day from the publications for circulation to sections, and takes out 400 cuttings per day from newspapers. Approximately 4,500 different publications are received into the Office. The number of visitors to the Office annually is placed at 50,000.
The library contains 350,000 volumes on industrial and social subjects. It is the world's most complete international collection of works on industrial and social matters, and may be used by persons engaged on research on related questions. The estimated expenditure on the Office for 1937 is 9,504,140 Swiss francs. Receipts, derived principally from contributions of States who are members of the International Labour Organization, but not members of the League of Nations (Brazil, United States of America, Japan), are estimated at 1,768,034 gold francs. The net estimates are therefore 7,736,106 francs, which, while higher than for 1936, are still lower than the average for the period 1929-1935. In the 1937 estimates 208,000 francs are accounted for in various travelling and removal expenses ; 53,000 francs on office equipment; 700,000 francs in extending accommodation ; 450,000 francs in printing ; 329,000 francs in sessions of the Conference ; 130,000 francs in sessions of the Governing Body ; and 6,718,260 francs in salaries, allowances, and overtime. It has been said that no national budget is so elaborately and minutely examined as that of the International Labour Office, which is scrutinized successively by the Finance Committee of the Governing Body, the Governing Body itself, the Supervisory Commission of the League of Nations, the Fourth Committee of the Assembly of the League, and the Assembly itself. In other respects the International Labour Office is an independent institution. Sections of Office. The Office is divided into sections. The following is a list of the sections, with a summary of the principal activities carried on by each : — 1. Directorate. This consists of the Director, four Assistant Directors, the Director's private Secretariat, Secretaries of the Assistant Directors, and the Information and Press Service. 2. Official Relations Section. Secretariat of the Governing Body (correspondence with members of the Governing Body, drafting of documents and minutes of sessions of the Governing Body, correspondence concerning the execution of decisions of the Governing Body) ; Secretariat of Committees. Official correspondence with Governments and the League of Nations ; editing and publication of the " Official Bulletin." Relations with Workers' Organizations. 3. Conference Section. Preparation of the International Labour Conference ; preparation, publication, and despatch of authentic texts of Conventions and recommendations ; ratification of Conventions ; interpretation of Conventions ; effect given to recommendations ; application of Conventions and recommendations, including examination of reports submitted under Article 22 of the Constitution and complaints concerning failure to apply Conventions which have been ratified ; preparation of ten-yearly reports on the working of Conventions and periodical reports on the application of recommendations ; labour inspection ; maritime, inland, and aerial navigation, maritime and inland fishing. 4. Administrative Section. Deals with all administrative questions concerning finance, staff, material, and household services, and with the general organization of the Office. Directs, co-ordinates, and supervises all the central services. 5. Legal Service. Gives legal opinions on problems concerning the International Labour Office. 6. Social Economics Service. Study of general economic problems from the point of view of their social aspects, and information concerning economic developments throughout the world in so far as they affect the conditions of life and employment of the workers. Economic and social problems concerning agriculture. 7. Statistical Section. Study of statistics connected with labour conditions ; collection and comparison of statistics of prices, cost of living, family budgets, wages, hours of labour, unemployment, migration, and other questions connected with labour. Establishment of standard methods of statistical calculations and tables with a view to securing international comparability and uniformity in labour statistics. Colla,boration with the statistical services of the Secretariat of the League of Nations. 8. Unemployment and Migration Section. Employment and unemployment problems ; placing, insurance, and relief of unemployed ; public works ; migration problems ; population problems. 9. Editorial Section. Preparation of the general programme of publications. Revision, translation, editing, preparation for printing, and organization of the sale and distribution of the publications of the Office ; translation and publication of the more important laws and administrative orders in all countries of the world. 10. Labour Conditions Section. Study of conditions of labour ; contracts of employment, collective agreements, legal decisions on labour law ; hours of work ; conditions in special industries ; employment of women and children ; utilization of workers' spare time ; housing of workers ; vocational training ; professional workers and salaried employees ; social aspects of rationalization ; employers' organizations.
11. Social Insurance Section. General problems of social insurance ; workmen's compensation for accidents; sickness and maternity insurance ; invalidity, old-age, and widows' and orphans' insurance ; medical and actuarial questions concerning social insurance ; social services and social charges. 12. Industrial Hygiene Service. Study of questions concerning industrial hygiene and industrial physiopathology ; general and special inquiries concerning unhealthy occupations ; workmen's compensation for occupational diseases. 13. Safety Service. Study of questions concerning the prevention of industrial accidents. 14. General Information Section. Central Documents Service, Correspondents' offices, and correspondents in Europe ; pamphlets explaining the work of the Office ; broadcasting ; relations with non-official organizations. 15. Extra-European Section. Liaison with extra-European countries ; extra-European Correspondents' offices and correspondents ; pamphlets explaining the work of the Office ; broadcasting ; relations with non-official organizations in extra-European countries. 16. Special Problems Section. Conditions of labour in colonies, protectorates, and mandated territories ; forced labour and slavery ; social aspects of co-operation ; handicrafts. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR CONFERENCE. The International Conference meets at least once a year, usually at Geneva. Occasionally regional conferences are held in other parts of the world. One of these regional conferences was held this year at Washington, with such successful results that it is not unlikely that the practice of holding regional conferences will become more frequent. This year the Conference adopted a resolution urging the Governing Body to redouble its efforts towards the convocation of an Advisory Tripartite Labour Conference of Asiatic countries for the purpose of promoting improvements in conditions of life and labour in Asiatic countries. The Conference is composed (when full delegations are sent) of four representatives of each of the member States, of whom two are Government delegates and the two others are delegates representing respectively the workers and the employers. Each delegate may be accompanied by advisers not exceeding two in number for each item on the agenda. The non-Government delegates and advisers are nominated by the Governments concerned in agreement with the industrial organizations, where such exist, which are most representative of workers and employers. Each delegate has one vote. Advisers are not permitted to address the Conference, except at the request of the delegate whom they accompany, and they may not vote unless they have been appointed in due form to act as their delegate's substitute. The agenda paper is arranged by the Governing Body. The staff of the Conference is provided by the International Labour Office, whose Director acts as Secretary-General of the Conference. The various Governments pay the travelling and subsistence expenses of the delegations from their countries, but the other costs of the Conference are paid by the International Labour Office out of funds allocated for the purpose by the League of Nations. The decisions of the Conference may be embodied either in Draft Conventions, recommendations, or resolutions. Draft recommendations acquire the force of treaties between the States which ratify them. Draft Conventions and recommendations each require, to secure adoption, a majority of two-thirds of the votes cast by the delegates present, but a resolution may be adopted by a simple majority. The proceedings are conducted usually in the official languages of the Conference—viz., English and French —but interpretations in other languages are provided by the Secretariat when required. The interpreters are located immediately below the rostrum from which the delegates address the Conference, and interpret speakers' remarks immediately into microphones adapted specially for the purpose. Each interpreter speaks in a different language and earphones are provided at the desk of each delegate who, by turning a selector knob, can hear the interpretation in the language desired. Shorthand reports are taken of Speeches and these are included in the record which is published daily of the Conference proceedings. All important votes are recorded by calling the name of each delegate, who replies " Yes," " No," or " Abstain." To reduce the possibility of error in recording votes, the Clerk of the Conference, as each delegate announces his vote, acknowledges it by flashing one of three coloured lights which are labelled " Yes," " No," and " Abstain" respectively. If the light which appears does not correctly acknowledge the delegate's decision, he has the opportunity then of having the necessary correction made before it is recorded. The delegates sit in the body of the hall, and accommodation for advisers is provided in low galleries along each wall. The principal officers of the Conference are the President and three Vice-Presidents. The latter must be of diSerent nationalities and may include women. The President is elected at the first sitting of each' Conference. The Government, workers', and employers' delegates form themselves into three groups, each of which meets on the first day and nominates one of their number as a Vice-President at the second sitting,'usually held on the first day. The Vice-Presidents this year were Mr. Garcia Oldini (Government delegate, Chile), Mr. Goldie (employers' delegate, Canada), and Mr. Krekitch (workers' delegate, Yugoslavia). The employers' and workers' groups hold frequent meetings during the Conference to discuss matters which are coming up for consideration in committees or in the Conference ; but the Government group, which does not have the same unanimity of policy, meets only two or three times. The daily order of the business of the Conference, times of meetings of committees, and so forth, are arranged from day to day bv the Selection Committee.
The items on the agenda of the Conference, showing the action taken, were as follows:—
The texts of the various Draft Conventions, Recommendations, and Resolutions are printed in the appendix of this report. _ A table, giving details of each of the record votes, also appears in the Appendix.
Agenda Item. Action taken. j Final Voting. For Against f (a) Draft Convention adopted . . 128 0 (b) Four recommendations adopted concerning— (1) Safety provisions . . 117 3 (2) Inspection .. . . 124- 0 I. Safety provisions for workers in building (3) Co-operation in accident 115 0 construction with reference to scaffolding <( prevention and hoisting machinery. (Second discus- (4) Vocational education 122 0 sion) (c) Resolution adopted concerning responsibility of machinebuilders, &c., as regards safety devices in building industry [ (adopted without vote) P (a) Draft Convention adopted . . 88 41 ! (6) Resolution adopted concerning II. Reduction of hours of work m the textile J modifications of Draft Conindustry. (Second discussion) j vention in certain countries [_ (adopted without vote) f (a) Recommendation adopted con- 148 0 cerning international cooperation III. The planning of public works in relation to . (b) Recommendation adopted con- 147 0 employment. (Single discussion) | cerning national planning | (c) Resolution adopted concerning j international co - operation (adopted without vote) IV. Reduction of hours of work in the printing Convention drafted, but not adopted 72 43 and kindred trades. (Single discussion) V. Reduction of hours of work in the chemical Convention drafted, but not adopted 76 42 industry. (Single discussion) VI. Partial revision of the Minimum Age (Industry) Convention, 1919 (No. 5), with reference to the following points : — (a) Revision of Article 2 so as to raise the minimum age from fourteen to fifteen years (b) Insertion of a provision raising the , . age laid down in Article 4 below which («) Draft-revising Convention 98 18 registration is compulsory adopted (o) Insertion of a provision prescribing (6) Recommendation adopted con- 8 2 18 the age of admission to employment which cerning family undertakings is dangerous to life, health, or morals (d) Revision of the exceptions (e) Substitution for Articles 7 to 14 of the 1919 Convention of the Standard Articles in the form last approved by the Conference VII. Partial revision of the Minimum Age (Non- " industrial Employment) Convention, 1932 (No. 33), with reference to the following points : — (a) Revision of exceptions and exemptions in respect of children between fourteen and fifteen years of age (b) Revision of Article 2 so as to raise the minimum age from, fourteen to fifteen y ears . . , . Draft-revising Convention adopted 81 22 (c) Raising to thirteen years of the age fixed in paragraph 1 of Article 3 (d) Insertion of a clause providing for the registration of workers below a prescribed age (e) Deletion of Article 9 (f) Substitution for Articles 10 to 16 of the 1932 Convention of the Standard Articles in the form last approved by the Conference |J
Oil the issues in respect of which record final votes were taken, the votes of the New Zealand delegation were cast as follows:— [.Abbreviations.—Abs. = Abstained from voting. For = Voted in favour. Agst. = Voted against.]
Reduction of Hours. Minimum Age. Recommendation concerning Textile Industry. Chemical Industry. Printing and Kindred Trades. Convention (Industrial). Convention (Non-industrial). Admission to Industrial Em(Draft Convention adopted.) (Draft Convention not adopted.) (Draft Convention not adopted.) (Revising Convention adopted.) (Revising Convention adopted.) ployment in Family Undertakings. (Adopted.) ! I Government delegates .. I For (2) For (2) For (2) For (2) For (2) For (2) Employers' delegate . . j Agst. Agst. Agst. Agst. Agst. Agst. Workers' delegate .. .. j For For For For For For
/ Planning of Public Works. Building Industry. Recommendation on Recommendation on National Draft Convention concerning Recommendation concerning Recommendation on Co-opera- | Recommendation on Recommendation concerning International Co-operation. Planning. Safety Provisions. Inspection. tion in Accident Prevention. | Vocational Education. Safety Provisions. (Adopted.) (Adopted.) (Adopted.) (Adopted.) (Adopted.) | (Adopted.) (Adopted.) Government- delegates For (2) For (2) For (2) For (2) For (2) For (2) For (2) Employers' delegate For For For Abs. Abs. Abs. Abs. Workers' delegate .. For For For For For For For
Notes on Agenda Items. Items I and II were the subject of preliminary discussion at the Twentieth Session of the Conference (1936), in accordance with the double-discussion procedure described by Article 6 of the Standing Orders of the Conference. As the result of this first discussion, the Conference placed these items on the agenda of the Twenty-third Session for the second and final discussion, and decided the points on which Governments were to be consulted meanwhile by questionnaires. The 1937 session of the Conference was called upon to complete the second stage of the double-discussion procedure and to consider these items with a view to the adoption of proposals in the form of Draft Conventions or recommendations. The Conference accordingly had before it reports on these items. These reports reproduced and analysed the replies of the Governments to the questionnaires addressed to them after the Twentieth Session and concluded with proposals for Draft Conventions and recommendations which the Conference took as a basis for discussion. With regard to item II (reduction of hours of work in the textile industry) the Conference also had before it the Record of Proceedings (First Part) of the Tripartite Technical Conference on the Textile Industry which was held at Washington from 2nd to 17th April, 1937, containing the reports adopted by the Conference, and the Report on the World Textile Industry : Economic and Social Problems, with its Appendices, presented to the Technical Conference by the International Labour Office. Items 111, IV, and V were placed on the agenda by the Governing Body of the International Labour Office for either a first discussion or a single discussion. The first part of each of these reports set out the law and practice on the subject in the different countries, and concluded with a list of points on which the Office suggested that the Governments of States members of the organization might be consulted in the event of the Conference deciding to follow the doublediscussion procedure. The second part contained draft proposals for international regulations which the Conference took as a basis of discussion. Items VI and VII were placed on the agenda by a decision of the Governing Body of the International Labour Office at its Seventy-sixth Session (June, 1936), the precise questions in respect of which revision was to be considered being determined by the Governing Body at its Seventy-seventh Session (November, 1936). In accordance with Article 6a of the Standing Orders of the Conference, the Office prepared and submitted to the Conference blue reports containing draft amendments to the two Conventions in question. Paragraph 1 of this article of the Standing Orders provides that " the Conference shall not revise in whole or in part a Convention which has previously been adopted by it save in respect of the question or questions placed by the Governing Body on the agenda of the Session." JOURNAL OF THE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS. First SittingOpening of the Conference. Election of the President. Presidential Address. Order of Work of the Conference. Second Sitting — Election of Vice-Presidents. Appointment of the Selection Committee. Third Sitting — Selection Committee — Discussion and Adoption of the First Report of the Committee : Constitution of Committees. Fourth Sitting — Selection Committee — Discussion and Adoption of the Second Report (Verbal) of the Committee : Composition of the Committees on Standing Orders, Resolutions, the Application of Conventions, Safety in Building, Public Works, and Minimum Age. Fifth Sitting — Hours of Work in the Printing Trades — General Discussion. Adoption by record vote of the resolution proposing a single discussion submitted by Mr. Mertens, and reference of the Grey-Blue Report on the Printing Trades to the competent Committee. Hours of Work in the Chemical Industry— General Discussion. Adoption by record vote of the resolution proposing a single discussion submitted by Mr. Mertens, and reference of the Grey-Blue Report on the Chemical Industry to the competent Committee. Selection Committee — Adoption of the Second Report (Verbal) of the Committee on the Constitution of the Committees on the Printing Trades, the Chemical Industry, and the Textile Industry.
Sixth Sitting — Selection Committee — Discussion of the Third Report, of the Committee concerning a request made by Mr. Staud, Austrian Workers' Delegate, the Constitution of the Drafting Committee, and the Discussion of the Director's Report. Public Works — General Discussion of the Preliminary Report of the Committee. Adoption of the Preliminary Report of the Committee. Director's Report — Discussion of the Report. Seventh Sitting — Director's Report — Discussion of the Report (continued). Eighth Sitting— Director's Report — Discussion of the Report (continued). Ninth Sitting— Director's Report — Discussion of the Report (continued). Tenth Sitting — Selection Committee — Adoption of the Fourth Report of the Committee on the Date of Submission of Reports by Committees and on the Election of the Governing Body of the International Labour Office. Director's Report — Discussion of the Report (continued). Eleventh Sitting — Director's Report— Discussion of the Report (continued). Director's Reply. Twelfth Sitting — Selection Committee — Adoption of the Fifth Report of the Committee concerning the Collaboration of the Groups with the Selection Committee in the Composition of the Committees, and concerning the Work of the Conference. Application of Conventions — Discussion of the Committee's Report. Adoption of the Committee's Report. Periodical Reports on the Application of Certain Conventions— The Conference takes note of the Periodical Reports on the Application of Conventions Nos. 17, 18, 21, and 29. Standing Orders of the Conference — Adoption of the Committee's Report. Credentials — Adoption of the First, Second, and Third Reports of the Committee on the Composition of the Conference, the Quorum, and Objections. Discussion and Adoption of the Fourth Report of the Committee on the Credentials of the Workers' Delegate of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and her Adviser, of the Estonian Workers' Delegate, and of the Spanish Workers' Delegate, and Workers' Advisers (see observations concerning this on page 25). Discussion of the Fifth Report of the Committee on the Objections to the Credentials of the Austrian, Bulgarian, and Greek Workers' Delegates and Workers' Advisers. Adoption of the Majority Report. Discussion of the Sixth Report of the Committee on the Objections to the Credentials of the Latvian and Lithuanian Workers' Delegates, and Workers' Advisers. Adoption by Record Vote of the Majority View set out in the Committee's Report. Thirteenth Sitting — Public Works — General Discussion of the Committee's Report. Adoption of the Draft Recommendation concerning International Co-operation in respect of Public Works submitted by the Committee, and Reference of the Recommendation to the Drafting Committee. Adoption of the Draft Recommendation concerning the National Planning of Public Works submitted by the Committee and Reference of the Recommendation to the Drafting Committee. Minimum Age-— General "Discussion of the Committee's Report.
2- A. sc.
Fourteenth Sitting — Minimum Age — General Discussion of the Committee's Report (continued). Speech by Mr. Delattre, Belgian Minister of Labour. Discussion of the Amendment to Article 2 of the Revised Convention submitted by Mr. Justin Godart, Mr. Mahaim, Mr. Phocas, Mr. Yeremitch, Miss Abbott, and Mrs. Palencia. Adoption of the Amendment and of Article 2 as amended by the Conference. Adoption of Articles 4, 5, and 6, and of the new Articles A, B, and C. Vote on the Revised Articles proposed by the Committee as a whole and on the Draft Recommendation submitted by the Government Delegates of the United States of America, Spain, France, Belgium, Greece, and Yugoslavia. Postponement for record vote, the quorum not having been attained. Fifteenth Sitting — Minimum Age— Adoption of Revised Articles 2, 3, and 7 of Convention No. 33. Discussion of an Amendment to Article 9, submitted by Mr. Naidu. The amendment was not adopted, the quorum not having been attained. Adoption of Article 9, and of the Revised Articles proposed by the Committee as a whole, and Reference of the Articles to the Drafting Committee. Adoption of the two Resolutions submitted by the Committee. Record Vote on the Revised Articles of the Minimum Age (Industry) Convention (No. 5) as a whole. Record Vote on the Draft Recommendation concerning Family Undertakings (with reference to Convention No. 5) submitted by the Government Delegates of France, Belgium, Greece, Yugoslavia, United States of America, and Spain. Statement of the Chairman of the Selection Committee on the Work of the Conference. Hours of Work in the Textile Industry — General Discussion of the Committee's Report. Sixteenth Sitting — Hours of Work in the Textile Industry— General Discussion of the Committee's Report (continued). Seventeenth Sitting — Hours of Work in the Textile Industry — General Discussion of the Committee's Report (continued). Adoption of the Preamble and Articles 1 to 14. Adoption of the Draft Convention concerning the Reduction of Hours of Work in the Textile Industry and Reference of the Draft Convention to the Drafting Committee. Presentation and Adoption of the Resolution submitted by the Committee on the Textile Industry. Hours of Work in the Chemical Industry — General. Discussion of the Committee's Report. Adoption of the Preamble and Articles 1 to 7 of the Draft Convention submitted by the Committee. Submission of an Amendment by Mr. Lheure. The Amendment was not seconded. Adoption of Articles 8 to 13. Adoption of the Draft Convention submitted by the Committee, and Reference of the Draft Convention to the Drafting Committee. Printing Trades — General Discussion of the Committee's Report. Eighteenth Sitting — Printing Trades — General Discussion of the Committee's Report (continued). Adoption of the Draft Convention submitted by the Committee, and Reference of the Draft Convention to the Drafting Committee. Adoption of the Resolution submitted by the Committee respecting Special Provisions for certain Countries. Resolutions — Discussion of the First Report of the Committee. Discussion of the Resolution (Protection of Insured or Pensioned Persons) submitted by Mr. Komarnicki. Adoption of the Resolution. Adoption of the Resolution (Indigenous Workers) submitted by Mr. Chandra Sen. Discussion of the Resolution (Women Workers) submitted by Mr. McGrady and Miss Grace Abbott. Adoption of the Resolution.
Ministers of Labour present at International Labour Conference, Geneva, 1937.
Left to right: Hon. H. T. Armstrong, M.P. (New Zealand); Hon. Ernest Brown, M.P. (Great Britain); Mr. Draguicha Tzvetkovich (Yugoslavia); Mr. Harold Butler, Director, International Labour Office (Secretary-General of Conference) ; Mr. Sean Lemas, T.D. (Irish Free State), President of ■Conference; Mr. Lebass (France). Absent: Mr. Jaako W. Keto (Finland) ; and Mr. Delattre (Belgium).
To face page 11.\
Nineteenth Sitting— Credentials — Adoption of the Seventh Report of the Committee concerning the Credentials of the Employers' Delegate of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Safety in Building — General Discussion of the Committee's Report. Adoption of the Preamble and Articles 1 to 18. Adoption of the Draft Convention as a Whole and Reference of the Draft Convention to the Drafting Committee. • Adoption of the Four Draft Recommendations and Reference of the Recommendations to the Drafting Committee. Adoption of the Draft Resolution. Resolutions — Discussion of the First Report of the Committee (continued). Discussion of the Three Draft Resolutions combined in a Single Re'solution (Uniformity of the Protection of Workers in China)., submitted by Mr. Chu, Mr. Koizumi, Mr. Sen, and Mr. Mertens. Adoption of the Draft Resolution. Discussion of the Draft Resolution (Obligations of Members of the International Labour Organization), submitted by Mr. Kupers. Adoption of the Draft Resolution. Discussion of the Second Report of the Committee. The Draft Resolution (Smuggling in China), submitted by Mr. Chu, does not fall within the Competence of the International Labour Organization. Discussion of the Draft Resolution (Collaboration of Burma), submitted by Mr. Sen. Adoption of the Resolution. Discussion of the Draft Resolution (calling of an Advisory Tripartite Labour Conference of Asiatic Countries), submitted by Mr. Chu, Mr. Sen, and Mr. Koizumi. Adoption of the Resolution. Discussion of the Draft Convention (Generalization of the Reduction of Hoursof Work), submitted by Mr. Mertens and' Mr. Jouhaux. Adoption of the Resolution. Twentieth Sitting— Public Works— Final Record Vote on the Recommendation concerning International Co-operation in respect of Public Works. Final Record Vote on the Recommendation concerning the National Planning of Public Works. Minimum Age — Final Record Vote on the Draft Convention fixing the Minimum Age for Admission of Children to Industrial Employment (revised, 1937). Final Record Vote on the Draft Convention concerning the Age for Admission of Children to Non-industrial Employment (revised, 1937). Final Record Vote on the Recommendation concerning the Minimum Age for Admission of Children to Industrial Employment in Family Undertakings. Hours of Work in the Textile Industry — Explanation of Vote. Final Record Vote on the Draft Convention concerning the Reduction of Hours of Work in the Textile Industry. Hours of Work in the Chemical Industry— Final Record Vote on the Draft Convention concerning the Reduction of Hours of Work in the Chemical Industry. ■ Hours of Work in the Printing Trades — Final Record Vote on the Draft Convention concerning the Reduction of Hours of Work in the Printing Trades. Twenty-first Sitting — Elections to the Governing Body. Safety in Building — Final Record Vote on the Draft Convention concerning Safety Provisions for Workers in the Building Industry. Final Record Vote on the Recommendation concerning Safety Provisions for Workers in the Building Industry. Final Record Vote on the Recommendation concerning Inspection in the Building Industry. Final Record Vote on the Recommendation concerning Co-operation in Accident Prevention in the Building Industry. Final Record Vote concerning Vocational Education for the Building Industry. Closing Speeches.
DIRECTOR'S ANNUAL REPORT. Points from the Debate. The main debate of the Conference is the discussion which takes place on the Director's report. This report is an annual one, and is circulated to member States prior to the Conference, copies being made available through them to the delegates. A time-limit of fifteen minutes is imposed on delegates' speeches, but the rule is used with care by the President, who is in a position to gauge the depth oi interest which is being taken by the Conference in the remarks of any speaker who has exceeded his No restraint is placed upon the choice of subjects for the speeches, but they usually deal with social problems and progress in the speakers' countries, and with points from the Director s report. The report is in the nature of a world survey of social and economic matters, and is written in a manner which brings a lively interest into what could be a rather clry subject. Delegates find it either stimulating or provocative, according to the views which they nold, but none complain of its dullness Seventy-three speakers took part in the debate, and they included five Ministers of Labour. Evidence given by delegates from various parts of the world of social developments in their countries showed, comparatively, that, while New Zealand has done a good deal in the past eighteen months to regain its former pride of place as a leader in social reform, it cannot yet claim full leadership in all departments. Remarkable developments have occurred in countries which we in this part of the world have been prone to regard as backward ones. .... This development is in most cases , fairly recent, and there is no doubt that, in framing their new codes, the countries concerned have been able to build upon the experiences of countries which, like New Zealand, did pioneering work in this field. Latvia has had no unemployment since 1935. In fact, it has had to introduce 45,000 foreign agricultural workers per year. This year family allowances have been provided for agricultural workers' children under twelve years of age. Subsidies are given to farmers who build homes with a suitable area of garden. Rural workers receive free radio licenses, from ten to fourteen paid holidays annually, and free medical services. Regarding industrial workers, the Government three years ago prohibited any reduction in wages. If an undertaking goes bankrupt, wages due to workers are paid, from, a Government fund. Besides other expenditure on holiday eamps, the Government pays a subsidy in respect of each child under twelve years of age which farmers accept on holiday during the summer months from a working-class home. ' Labour disputes are settled through the channel of a " shop-steward," the trade-union, the Chamber of Labour, or finally by the Government. Special rest-homes for workers while 011 paid holidays have been provided in rural areas, in towns, and at health resorts. To utilize the spare time of workers theatrical performances, operas, concerts, sports, and excursions are organized at very low cost to the workers. To improve nutrition there is a system of distributing meals very cheaply to workers. Free legal assistance is provided for workers. Mexico decided in 1936 that the weekly rest day for workers must be paid for, and that the minimum age for admission to employment was to be fifteen years. Payment for the weekly rest day had increased wages by 16 per cent. According to the Yugoslavian Minister of Labour, who took part m the debate, about thirty decrees bringing about improvements of the agricultural and industrial situations had been, promulgated in Yugoslavia. Steps had been taken in regard to fixing wheat-prices ; settlement of farmers' debts ; fixation of interest-rates ; issue of Treasury bonds ; reorganization of certain co-operative societies ; protection of financial establishments and their creditors ; insurance of workere against invalidity, unemployment, and old age. The capital of the unemployment insurance fund, is invested in the establishment of hospitals, workers' dwellings, &c. The issue of Treasury bonds had had a very favourable eflect on the money-market. Trade had increased by 14T per cent, in 1936, and the average wage of workers had recovered. One important decree dealt with the fixing of minimum-wage rates, the conclusion of collective agreements, conciliation and arbitration. In it provision was made for fixing of minimum rates below which wages could not fall. Collective agreements covered at least half of the undertakings, and half of the workers in an occupation could be applied to the whole of the occupation throughout the territory, and if the parties did not come to an agreement the proper authority could fix a wage-rate. Provision was made for compulsory conciliation and optional arbitration both for workers and employers before stoppages occurred. The Government delegate from Brazil stated that prior to 1930 Brazil's social legislation had been slight, but since then they have reduced excessive hours of work, improved conditions of work, extended the workers' compensation to all workers, and given to various groups compulsory insurance against invalidity, old age, and death. Efforts had been made to give holidays with pay. Employers and workers' organizations have been given new rights and the number of their unions (less than 100 in 1930) have increased to 700. The number of employers' organizations included in this figure is about 400. Wages have been improved and the case of agricultural producers has been improved by creating co-operative societies. _ The Chinese Government delegate gave evidence that during the most critical period of unemployment his country undertook a vast plan of national reconstruction including the employment of a million workers 011 hydro-electric works, the building of 29,840 kilometres of roads, flood and drought protection, and telegraph and telephonic communications. He mentioned incidentally that the population of China equalled one-quarter of the total population of the world. Notwithstanding the regrettable internal situation with which the Spanish Government is contending, that country sent a delegation of fourteen members to the Conference, and gave assurances of its hearty support to the Forty-hour Week Conventions. Mrs. Palencia, the Spanish Minister at
Stockholm, who was one of the delegates, stated in her address during the debate that Spain could look forward with equanimity to as much limitation of working-time as it was possible to obtain. She added that Spain had not been satisfied with mere ratification of Conventions, but had incorporated these Conventions in its laws. When the civil war broke out the Government took over enterprises, such as building works, which had been abandoned, and continued the work, maintaining all the conditions of collective agreements and maintaining a forty-hour week in many industries. Co-operative works, she stated, had within recent years made enormous progress in Spain, 292 new co-operative societies having been registered in the Labour Ministry during 1937. In Finland the number of farms held on lease which have been transformed into small holdings since that country became, in 1918, independent of Russia is in excess of 100,000. Sixty per cent, of the population of Finland earn their living from agriculture and its subsidiary branches, and the majority of the rural population are now landowners. This year Finland brought into force a new Act under which the Government shares in the cost of maintaining employment exchanges. The Government has also extended a network of free employment exchanges. An invalidity and old-age insurance Act was also passed this year, but will not come into force until 1939. It covers the whole adult population of the country, which is about 2,000,000 persons out of a total population of 3,500,000. The State and municipal authorities will pay about one-third and the social institutions about twothirds of the cost. A proposal has been placed before Parliament for maternity assistance, and it is anticipated to be adopted at the end of this year. Bills are being prepared to deal with the housing problem in town and country. In Norway the Government is occupied in the preparation of various plans to counteract the special unemployment which is caused by changes in methods of production. To deal with unemployment generally a Bill was introduced this year under which one-fifth (600,000) of the total Norwegian population will be insured against unemployment and will be entitled to benefit during fifteen weeks in any year. An old-age-pension scheme applicable to all persons who have reached the age of seventy came into force on Ist Jifly of this year. The Norwegian Government delegate who gave this information remarked that if the Conference considered the age of seventy rather high, he would give the reminder that his countrymen were long-lived. The pensions vary according to the cost of living in different regions, and are fixed in such a way as to ensure a modest living. The pension scheme is not contributory. A Bill has also been introduced this year dealing with pensions for the blind, the crippled, and disabled persons over sixty-five. The payments under this heading are to be similar to those under the old-age-pensions scheme. No general invalidity insurance has yet been introduced, but the Government has taken up the question in connection with the problem of extension of sickness insurance to the whole population. Another Act dated 11th June, 1936, provides for at least nine days paid holiday a year to about 500,000 wage-earners and salaried employees —i.e., about one-sixth of the entire population. The Government delegate of Iran during his speech said that whereas their old workshops were simple and quiet and could be governed in a patriarchal manner, their modern factories had certain dangers and risks. They had therefore passed legislation concerning safety and hygiene, insurance against accidents and sickness, and legislation for the protection of women and children. Uruguay, to combat the effects of the depression, has spent approximately 50,000,000 Swiss francs on carrying out a public works plan involving the building of cheap houses for workers. It was carried out with the assistance of the State bank, so that the houses could be rented at a very low figure. No taxation or foreign loan could be used to finance these additional schemes of public works, but the Government was able to obtain ample resources from the profits resulting from the revalorization of the national stock of gold. This year Uruguay has undertaken another scheme which will produce electric power from hydraulic sources, and which will cost 100,000,000 Swiss francs. It is expected that the work will be completed in four years. Over-population was the problem which the Polish Government delegate stressed so far as his country was concerned. He mentioned that the surplus population in rural districts in Poland, from the economic point of view, has been calculated at 5,000,000 people, who could be removed from Poland without any serious harm being done to the agricultural development of the country. It was admitted by the representative, of the Government of Ecuador that legislative work in the field of social progress is only just beginning there, but he pointed out that they had set up Labour Courts, were steadily developing a system of inspection, wages had been considerably increased, and legislation had been passed for the protection of women workers and the prevention of industrial accidents. In Egypt legislation has been passed concerning workers' compensation and the restriction of hours of work in unhealthy and dangerous industries. Unpaid compulsory labour in order to prevent the Nile from overflowing its banks during flood periods has been prohibited. Proposals are being considered to give official recognition to trade-unions for inducing compulsory accident insurance and for the provision of collective agreements. Legislation is being promulgated concerning the individual contracts of employment and especially of closing-hours. A census had been taken, and when its results had been analysed the necessary statistical basis for the passing of social-insurance legislation would be available. A company was established by law in Chile in 1936 for the building of educational establishments in order to combat unemployment. A Wage Board has been established for the purpose of improving workers' wages and nutrition. Four Wage Boards have been established and wages raised in State undertakings, railways, factories, public works, &c., residting in an increase in wage-levels in other undertakings. A plan has been drafted providing for rational nutrition standards, with an increase in the consumption of meat, milk, wheat, beans, and phosphorus-containing foods. Special arrangements have been made for maternity and infant welfare and a Colonization Fund has been arranged to promote the division of large estates. An Act was passed this year giving special attention to the
salaries of employees in commerce and industry. A special fund has been established to enable the erection of workers' dwellings. The number of persons in Chile benefiting from compulsory social insurance is 1,281,000. The Government has authorized the establishment of popular restaurants with very low prices for the benefit of workers and salaried employees. Since 1936 an Act has been in force providing for free breakfasts, paid for by the State and local authorities, for children in all schools. Evidence was given that in Chile wages and salaries had been increased, provision had been made for the erection of cheap dwellings for renting or purchase by instalments, and a plan had been prepared for the nutrition of the masses. Cuba has adopted for the sugar industry a system under which wages automatically reflect the fluctuations in the price of sugar. A certain quantity of the sugar produced is put at the disposal of the workers, its value being fixed in accordance with the current price. Cuban employers have accepted responsibility for providing fourteen days' holiday with pay per year, a shorter workingday, social insurance, &c. Certain industries would shortly be working thirty-six or even thirty-four hours per week. The Department of Labour has authority to protect workers against unwarranted dismissal. Trade-union activity is taking the character of a national movement. A decree provides a six-day week for women, prohibits night work for women, establishes certain conditions of safety and hygiene, reserves certain industrial work for women in consideration of their being excluded from other work, and requires payment of equal wages for equal work. Lithuania has divided one-third of its agricultural land into 60,000 small holdings for occupation by landless peasants and peasants with insufficient land to keep a family, and has equipped the new settlers. Laws have been promulgated establishing contracts of employment, labour inspection, fixing minimum, wages, and instituting sickness and accident insurance. Twelve days' holiday per year is provided for workers. Under consideration is old-age and invalidity insurance, and the establishment of a fund for the erection of workers' dwellings, to become the property of the workers. This fund would be provided by the State, the Communes, the employers, and the workers. Only 8 per cent, of the population are agricultural workers, and 73 per cent, agricultural workers and farmers. Weekly rest, holidays with pay, sharing of workers in profits, and technical education have been recognized in the new constitution of Venezuela. An Act of 1936 deals with contracts of employment, collective agreements, minimum wages, work of domestic servants, work of women and children, hygiene, safety, night work, and employment exchanges. Social insurance is compulsory, and covers occupational risks, invalidity, maternity, old-age, and death. Greece has introduced and extended the system of collective agreements to salaried employees and industrial workers. The agreements have the force of law and are revised in their minimum rates every ten months, with periodical adjustment to the cost of living. They have resulted in the abolition of very low wages, and have influenced an upward trend in all wages and salaries, with great increase in purchasing-power. The eight-hour day and forty-eight-hour week are applied. Overtime is authorized in only quite exceptional circumstances. A recent promulgation fixes the hours of work at seven per day and forty-two per week for certain office workers. Social insurance has been established to cover sickness, old-age, invalidity, and death. Two separate insurance funds have been established to cater for handicraftsmen and business people respectively. A new institution has been set up to study the utilization of workers' leisure. Summary of Speech on Director's Report delivered by Hon. H. T. Armstrong, New Zealand. The speech which the principal New Zealand Government delegate (Hon. H. T. Armstrong) delivered during the debate is summarized below : — New Zealand, which he had the honour to represent, while only a small country, and perhaps further removed than any other from the centre of the world's activities, was, in proportion to its population, one of the most productive in the world. His Government was keenly interested in the work of the International Labour Organization and believed that, properly utilized, it could be a power for good in the world, and that was why New Zealand was fully represented for the first time. However small might be the assistance New Zealand could give to the work of the organization, New Zealand deemed it a duty to do its share in raising the standard of living and working conditions of the people who did the useful work of the world. Referring to the evidence in the report of a return to prosperity, he expressed the hope that the educational work of the organization would be such that the world would not again be plunged into unemployment, misery, penury, and want when there was an abundance of the good things of life to supply the needs of the human family. He gathered that, while there was a substantial reduction in unemployment figures, that reduction was not so great as should be expected from the increased volume of production in nearly all countries. This was only further evidence that the application of science to industry and the development of modern machinery enabled the world's requirements to be produced with a lesser number of workers, which in turn demonstrated that the shortening of hours of labour was a common-sense proposal to help in solving the unemployment problem. In New Zealand the forty-hour week was already operating in most of the industries and in the Civil Service. Saturday work had been eliminated where at all possible, and wages had been restored by legislation. As the result of all the measures taken, workers were now in jeceipt of higher wages for the forty-hour week than they had received for the longer working-week. Employers had feared ruin, but experience had proved the opposite. The right had been restored to workers to have disputes concerning wages and conditions referred to arbitration. The Factories Act and the Shops and Offices Act had been amended to remove unfair conditions of employment. The Workers' • Compensation Act had been amended, improving greatly the benefits to injured workers and their dependents ; maximum rents had been largely regulated by Act of Parliament. For the first time in New Zealand legislation had been passed fixing minimum rates of wages and liberal paid
holiday provision for farm labourers. Pensions had been increased, and it was intended to adopt a social-insurance scheme which would make generous provision against sickness, old-age, and incapacity of every kind. His Government desired, in fact, to remove the fear of want entirely from • New Zealand. New Zealand had not yet ratified any Conventions adopted by the International Conference, but this could not be blamed on the present Government, which had been in office only long enough to hold one session of Parliament. He could say, however, on behalf of his Government, that they intended to take the Conventions seriously and to comply with the rules laid down in the Constitution of the organization. It was his intention to submit proposals to his colleagues to ratify the Conventions already adopted where they could be reasonably applied to New Zealand. New Zealand hoped to make some tangible contribution to the effectiveness of the International Labour Organization. He made reference to the composition of the Governing Body (see page 24). He expressed the desire to see wider distribution in New Zealand of the publications of the International Labour Office for the reason that because of its remoteness New Zealand had to rely very largely on such publications for most of its assistance from the Office. He desired to suggest that the Director of the International Labour Office or his representative pay a visit to New Zealand, both in order that the Government might have his expert advice on some aspects of their problems, and in order that the Office might learn at first hand of the work being done in New Zealand. The speaker referred to the question of currency, and expressed the view that control of currency and credit by the State was necessary if real and permanent prosperity was to be obtained. With that object in view his Government had, by legislation, assumed full and absolute control of currency and credit in the Dominion. He referred to the outline given in the Director's report of progress made in certain European countries towards providing leisure services for workers in order that they might obtain full benefit of their holidajr, and considered that although a large percentage of New Zealand workers enjoyed paid holidays, his country was still lagging in this respect compared with some other countries, fie predicted, however, that New Zealand would not be long in following the lead given by the countries concerned. He concluded by saying that New Zealand once held the proud position of leading the world in social reform, and that it would not be satisfied until it regained that position. Director's Reply. The Director, in his reply to the debate on his report, traversed, in a very interesting speech, the principal points made by the various delegates. As it gives a very good idea of the general trend of the debate, it has been thought worth while to reproduce it below : — The Director (Mr. Harold Butler): "My first duty is the agreeable one of thanking the Conference for the very great indulgence which it has shown, to the report. lam quite aware that the measure of that indulgence has been extreme, not only on the part of those who have paid compliments to the report, but also on the part of those who have criticized it, and I should like, if I may, to mention a few names —Dr. Oersted, Mr. Wistrand, and Dr. Zaalberg —and to thank them for the kindliness and forbearance which they showed in voicing their criticisms. Perhaps I may take this opportunity of saying how sure I am that many members of the Conference will regret with me that this is Mr. Zaalberg's last appearance ; I, among others, shall miss the blunt incisiveness with which he is accustomed to express his opinions. " This has been a long and in many ways a remarkable debate ; and, when one realizes the difficulties which many delegates necessarily experience in expressing themselves, owing to the necessity of doing so in a language which is not their own, one cannot but marvel at the high level which was sustained throughout. I cannot help thinking that it is a good thing that from time to time there should be an opportunity of ventilating opinion on the burning questions of our time. There is, perhaps, no platform so good as this for that purpose. " And although I should be the last person to wish to see this Conference become a kind of debating society, I also think that it would be failing to some extent in its object if it confined its attention to adopting Conventions and recommendations. I believe that a general discussion of this kind is one of the most valuable features of our proceedings. This year the general discussion has been particularly extensive. No less than seventy-three speakers have come to this rostrum. Among them were no less than five Ministers of Labour —those of Finland, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Yugoslavia —and it is perhaps not without some significance that more than onehalf of the speakers came from extra-European countries. " The outstanding impression on my mind which the debate has left is the testimony which it furnishes to the Value and the standing of the International Labour Organization. Listening to speaker after speaker in the debate, I have been impressed as never before by the strength and vitality of the movement of which we are servants. The cause of social progress is no longer an affair of a few philanthropists : it has become the vital concern of Governments not merely in one or two leading countries but in every country represented here. " The note struck by Mr. Armstrong (Minister of Labour, New Zealand) seemed to me to sum up the spirit of the movement. 'He said : ' New Zealand once held the proud position of leading the world in social reform, and we shall not be satisfied till we regain that position.' " That is the true international rivalry of the civilized world, a new rivalry in constructive policy to replace the older rivalry for power, as Mr. Ferguson expressed it. It is that spirit which must animate this organization if it is to play its part worthily in the difficult days that lie before us, and that note, which has been struck more than once during the debate, I think has some political significance. On the one hand, as Mr. Garcia Oldini said, it is now more or less generally accepted that the improvement of living standards is not inconsistent with sound economy, and that suggests that it is possible to advance civilized living without relying on force as the means of national progress.
And a second point, of hardly lesser importance, is the constant insistence on the necessity of international consultation and co-operation if that aim is to be achieved. That, too, is not perhaps without importance at a time when scepticism as to international institutions is momentarily fashionable, and when isolationist and nationalistic policies are receiving a great deal of meense, some of it rather undiscriminating. " When one comes to analyse the discussion somewhat further, it, is a very evident feature of the debate that the general principle to which I have just alluded has found frequent expression in the descriptions given by one delegate after another of the progress made in their own countries during the past year. We have had long and interesting and valuable descriptions of the attempts and the achievements of" a great number of countries, among which I might perhaps mention—though there are no doubt others—Argentina, Chile, Cuba, Egypt (the latest member of the organization), Finland, Greece, Hungary, Iraq, Latvia, Lithuania, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Venezuela, Yugoslavia. _ " Now that is not merely, I think, just a catalogue of legislation, but it is the proof of a living movement: it is the proof, a realization to which I alluded just now, of the fact that social progress has now become a vital concern of Governments and one of their primary preoccupations. " Then there is another point which has been brought up by a number of speakers, and that is the growth of trade-unionism in a number of countries. Mr. Watt spoke of the United States, Mr. Parra of Venezuela, Mr. Diaz Munoz of Mexico, Mr. Chu Ksueh-Tan of China. On the other side we had some complaints, notably from Mr. Koizumi and Mr. Krekitch, that the principle of freedom of association —of free trade-unionism —was not being sufficiently observed. In fact, Mr. Krekitch suggested to the Office that in next year's report special attention should be given to this subject. No one, I think, who has read the Constitution of this organization is likely to dispute the fact that freedom of association is one of its fundamental principles. On the_ other hand, I would point out to delegates that the power of the Office in that respect is strictly limited. Freedom of association like freedom of speech and freedom of the press, is mainly a political manner, and, as every one 111 this room is aware, there is no Convention which has been adopted by this Conference which would warrant the Office in intervening in the internal politics of the various States members of this organization. I say that lest any exaggerated expectations should be aroused as to what it is possible for the Office to do, but when I have said that, I would like to add that as far as is possible within those limitations, the Office will do what it can to make known the situation as it exists m the various countries. i ( . "Well then, the next point which struck me in reading the speeches was the obvious improvement in the economic conditions of the world.' There was a welcome change of tone from the pessimism which on the whole dominated the debates of the past few years. It is true that m some quarters a certain disquiet was expressed as to how real, how lasting, the present recovery might be. There were even some delegates, like Mr. Li Ping-Heng, who considered that the present recovery is neither normal nor solidly grounded, and that the convalescence about which so much has been said was purely illusory. I would not be disposed to go as far as he in that direction. At the same time, the repetition by a number of speakers of the economic dangers of excessive production of armaments necessarily leaves a sinister query in the mind of anybody who reads the whole of this discussion, and it was interesting to note that the fears which were expressed in regard to armaments came not only from speakers from European countries but also from speakers from a number of overseas countries, who, if they may possibly be outside the political danger zone, clearly did not feel that they were outside the economic danger zone. " The whole of that part of the debate was perhaps best summed up m two sentences, one bv Mr. McGrady, who said : ' Every workman engaged in the construction of armaments must be provided with the necessities of life by the labour of those who are engaged in productive enterprise ; the other by Mr. Jouhaux, who said : ' The very conditions of an economy governed by preparation tor war are opposed to the development of social legislation and to the realization of social justice. Those, I think, are two lapidary remarks from which it is very difficult to get away. But, on the whole, there were surprisingly few delegates who re-echoed the question put by Mr. ay ay. Mr. Hayday said : ' What is going to happen when the armaments boom bursts ? What will happen to employment if we emerge from one depression only to plunge into the next ? Although one or two delegates, notably Mr. Knob, suggested that immediate consideration should be given by the Governing Body and by the Office to-what steps could usefully be taken to forestall another depression, less attention was perhaps given to that subject than it deserves. It is not only dependent on the armaments question ; whether there was a considerable increase in the production of armaments or not, the possibility of another depression is not one which could be excluded. Therefore, m the near future that is likely to be one of the foremost preoccupations of countries everywhere. It involves a great social problem which can only be met by organization and by forethought, in some countries that kind of forward-thinking has already begun, and the Office will certainly do its best to collect all the information available in order to indicate what, progress is being made towards solving a problem which has never been solved before, and indeed which no one has ever attempted to solve before, It can hardly be supposed that the right or complete solution will be found at the first attempt, but it is encouraging that at the present time a great deal of thinking and a great deal of discussion is going on in a number of countries as to what can be done to prevent the recurrence of cyclical depression. . 1 " That brings me to the economic section of the discussion, on which I do not propose to say very much. Mr. Zaalberg accused me of making propaganda for dangerous ideas which might have an unfortunate influence on simple-minded people. I confess that on reading the debate I was somewhat alarmed at the responsibility which he sought to place on my shoulders, but I comforted myself with the reflection that the great majority at any rate, if not all the Delegates, who spoke m agreemen
with the general ideas underlying the report, must have acquired their views before they began to read it. It attempted to set out not theories but facts, and in economic affairs, as Mr. Muniz said, it is desirable, as far as may be, to avoid absolutist thinking. I should prefer to be considered a disciple of Locke, Hume, and other empiricists rather than a disciple of Kant and Hagel, but a pragmatic approach to the economic problems of the present day means looking at things as they are, and trying to understand them as they are, without spending too much time in lamenting that they are not different. To attempt to prove that in all the efforts made by Governments at self-help during the recent depression that of State intervention was not only useless but positively harmful, seems to me extraordinarily difficult to reconcile with the facts which we now possess. To me it is very hard to believe that recovery, which began in 1933, had nothing whatever to do with the measures which were taken to stop the decline. In order to prove that, it would be necessary to show not merely that it was a coincidence that all these Government measures took place simultaneously with the progress of recovery. It will be necessary to go much further than that, and to show that recovery began just at the moment when the most energetic steps were being taken to prevent it, but that seems to me a paradox which it is very difficult to uphold. " But I do not intend to embark on a long discussion on the economic questions which have been so fully treated in the debate. All that I shall try to do is to correct one or two misunderstandings to which the report seems to have given rise. " In the first place, I should not like it to be supposed that I regard devaluation as something virtuous and desirable in itself. All I have done is to point out that during the recent depression practically 110 country has been able to avoid it, and that in almost every case recovery has dated from the time at which the value of the currency was readjusted. " But when one has said that it does not mean that stability in international exchanges is a bad thing. On the contrary, it is one of the conditions for restoring and consolidating general prosperity. " The first move in that direction was made by the currency agreement between France, Great Britain, and the United States last September. But again, the fact that the world is now aiming at getting back to fixed parities does not prove, by any means, that devaluation was wrong or avoidable in the emergency conditions which the depression created. " In the second place, there seemed to be some tendency to suppose that economic planning and autarky were the same thing. At the opposite economic pole to Mr. Zaalberg, speakers like Mr. Roman and Mr. O'Leary contended, if I understood them rightly, that complete self-sufficiency was both desirable and feasible. I confess I find it difficult to follow their argument. If Rumania gives up exporting wheat and oil, and if Ireland produces her own coal, iron ore, cotton, wool, petroleum, &c., then perhaps self-sufficiency may be attainable ; but I doubt whether it can be achieved without a considerable decline in the national standard of living. Until it is achieved, both countries will need to buy abroad to a greater or lesser extent. I would rather agree with Mr. Kitaoka and Mr. Bahrami in thinking that, even when a country undertakes a programme of industrialization, that is not incompatible with freer trade. " There can be no doubt that some balance between industry and agriculture is profitable for every country. Up to a point, industrialization enhances the national wealth and makes higher standards of living possible. But it ceases to be profitable when it involves as a permanent feature the uneconomic home production of goods which can better be obtained from some other country by an exchange which is mutually advantageous. " Conversely, it is perfectly legitimate that over-industrialized countries should seek to revive their agriculture. But this process, too, ceases to be profitable when it reaches the point of involving a substantial sacrifice of the living standards of the industrial population. Though, during the last few years, considerable changes have been made in the ratio of industrial and agricultural production in various countries, the international exchange of goods still remains the root of prosperity. " But in making a plea for freer trade the report did not contemplate a return to free trade. In fact, more than once it emphasized the impossibility of any such thing. As Mr. Colbjornsen said, in international trade there can be no ' back to normality. The new elements of planning, regulation, and control must also inevitably enter into the field of international trade expansion.' What, therefore, is now being sought is not a return to the old channels but the digging of new ones. Sir Hormusji P. Mody echoed the same idea. While defending tariffs as necessary to foster home industries in their early stages, he also demanded a ' planned international economy ' ; an economy, that is to say which would fulfil the fundamental postulate so cogently stated by the British Minister of Labour, an economy in which a balance would be struck and preserved between industry and agriculture, not merely within any single country but also over the world as a whole. "Itis in that direction that we seem to be moving by slow degrees. A new technique is being gradually worked out through the various forms of commercial treaty which are being adopted to intensify and facilitate trade between countries in all parts of the world. But the elaboration of what Mr. Colbjornsen called a ' fixed economic order ' —that is to say, an order in which some measure of planning and control was combined with the degree of liberty necessary to preserve initiative and stimulate enterprise —involves more than commercial policy. For the development of the productive resources of the world and the raising of the standard of living in less developed countries, a resumption of international lending is essential. In the old days, as Mr. Komarnicki pointed out, freedom of trade was combined with and largely conditioned by freedom of flow of capital and labour. While it may be true that the resumption of foreign lending is inconsistent with restrictive commercial and exchange policies, it may be equally true that restrictions on exchange and commerce are unavoidable or countries with weak capital resources, unless they can borrow abroad. " The question of monetary inequality, to which Mr. Tzvetkovitch alluded, and the question of raw materials, which occurred several times during the debate, must be solved in any successful attempt 3 —A, sc,
at restoring the economic balance and prosperity of the world. This is not likely to be done at one stroke of the pen by the signature of some all-embracing Convention. It can only be done by the conjugation of a series of successive efforts, but it is encouraging to note a number of symptoms which suggest that the real nature and magnitude of the problem are becoming generally understood, and that a beginning has already been made towards finding its solution. " I now come to the third wave of the debate, the question of work. Here, too, I suggest that there is great virtue in applying the pragmatic method rather than in continuing to treat the question on an a priori basis. As the French Minister of Labour said, the arguments used in the debate are mostly the same as those which have been repeatedly heard on previous occasions, but events have now given a new force to the forty-hour week. In the United States, after four years' experience, we find a Bill introduced into Congress for again enacting the national forty-hour week ; and this is all the more remarkable as, during the past two years, since the National Industrial Recovery Act was declared unconstitutional, American industry could have returned to a longer working-week without any let or hindrance, and yet Mr. Harriman stated that ' because of the use of technology, the representatives of American labour and American business can unite in supporting a wisely-drawn forty-hour Convention at Geneva.' " We heard Mr. West at the Washington Conference relate in detail the favourable results achieved in his own mill through the establishment of the shorter work period. We find Mr. Armstrong telling us that in New Zealand the employers have not been ruined by the forty-hour week as they-expected. Mr. Lebas has stated that, although the decrees applying the forty-hour week to nearly eight million workers and employees in France have only recently come into operation, they have been mainly responsible for restoring a quarter of a million persons to employment. " These are facts, and I venture to think that they cannot any longer be simply dismissed by advancing theories and hypothesis against them —such as that a reduction of hours would disorganize prices, reduce production catastrophically, destroy the balance between industry and agriculture, and so on. These things have apparently not happened in the countries where hours have been reduced. A prima facie case in favour of the shorter working-week has therefore been made out by the actual experience of a number of countries. It is no longer a battle of words and ideas, but a confrontation of facts. "Mr. Oersted reproached me with a lack of objectivity in stating that the eventual adoption of the forty-hour week was inevitable. But I find it impossible to imagine that the present hours position is one at which, henceforward, we shall for ever remain. It is true that at present, at any rate, I should not be inclined to go so far as Mr. Zaalberg and to contemplate a thirty-hour week as a possibility of any discernible future. But I find it very difficult to believe that the industrial countries which have so far refused to look at a forty-hour week are so very different in respect of psychology, conditions of life, and technical efficiency from those in which it has already been introduced. " I cannot persuade myself that what was proved feasible and advantageous in France, New Zealand, and the United States is bound to be disastrous in every other country. No doubt a great deal depends on the degree of technical progress which has been attained. Mr. Harriman suggested that the Office should undertake an inquiry on this point. I doubt whether such an inquiry could be successfully conducted except by the national authorities in each country ; but if, as I hope, such an inquiry is undertaken, I should be very much surprised if it showed so wide a difference between the rate of increase of technical efficiency achieved in Europe and the United States as the speeches and the attitude of many delegates in this Conference seem to suggest. Technical improvement is making the forty-hour week not only economically possible but also socially indispensable, and I would ask the indulgence of the Conference if I dwell on these two points for a few minutes. " What is the present situation ? As Mr. Ernest Brown (British Minister of Labour) emphasized, ' the new fact of our post-war world which overshadowed all others in industry is the amazing scale of new productive manufacturing capacity The last twenty-five years have given us a more tremendous acceleration of mechanical production and greater and more effective machinery than any other period in the world's history.' Mr. Harriman went on to illustrate this point by informing us that it had been calculated in the United States that forty-three men could produce in 1930 as much as 100 men in 1899. And we might ask how many fewer men could produce the same quantity in 1937 ; for technical progress, so far from having been arrested by the depression, has been stimulated by the need for lower costs to even greater achievements. " What does all this mean ? It means, on the one hand, that industry between 1914 and 1937 has become far more adaptable to a shorter working-week owing to the great increase in its productivity. Surely it means that, just as the great advance in productivity brought about between 1850 and 1919 made it possible to introduce the forty-eight-hour week without any disastrous economic consequences, so a similar advance has been made in the last twenty-five years which has brought a further reduction of hours in sight. " But it means something more. It implies that the shorter working-week is not merely economically possible, but that the very conditions which have made it possible have also made it necessary. Mr. Lebas justified the action taken in France on two grounds —that it created new employment and that it afforded greater leisure. I have been reproached for having suggested in the report that this latter reason for shortening hours might be quite as important, if not more important, than the former. It is true that the ground on which the forty-hour week was originally advocated was mainly as a method of spreading employment. Where it has been tried it has, to some extent, fulfilled that expectation. But I am inclined to believe that the more potent reason for the change lies in the need for greater leisure. We do not, perhaps, reflect sufficiently on the little that has been done to adapt the human machine to the conditions of the new age in which we live and work. In all spheres of life we are only subconsciously aware of the increasing pressure on our nervous system. We hardly yet realize the
immense physiological and psychological implications of the technical revolution of the last forty years. The introduction of speed, both in locomotion and in the transmission of ideas, has transformed the conditions of urban life. The motor-car, the airplane, the telephone, and the radio impose a strain upon nerves and brain to which the organism is not yet adapted. After all, it has been built up over tens of thousands of years to meet conditions in which no human being could move faster than a horse and no communication between human being was possible except when they were face to face. In a hundred years an entirely new mode of life has been created, and in no department has it increased nervous tension more than in industry. The careful, self-regulated work of the handicraftsman is now performed by machines moving at ever-increasing speeds, exacting ever greater attention from the workman, imposing the most arbitrary limits on the pace of his work, while at the same time depriving him of any personal feeling of satisfaction in the product to which he makes an infinitesimal contribution. " There can be no doubt that the result is an increased tension, about the limits and effects of which we really know very little. Though the burden of physical effort has been enormously relieved by mechanical devices of every kind, it has been replaced by an increased strain on the nervous system, which the human body is less prepared to resist, and I cannot help thinking that the strain must be particularly felt in Eastern countries which have come into contact with mechanical industry much later than the West. After all, man has been inured to physical toil for thousands of generations. He' has been accustomed to exercise his muscles without undergoing any considerable mental or nervous exertion. Now the process is reversed. He is subjected to constant mental and nervous pressure without being called upon to display that muscular activity to which his frame is so well adapted by long usage as to make it necessary to his bodily health. The result is that we have a whole series of new diseases, nervous diseases. We hear of ' nervous breakdown ' in all walks of life, not only among hard-driven intellectual and professional workers, but also among the least skilled workers exposed to the noise, the speed, the inexorable rhythm ,and discipline of the modern factory. One suspects that physical breakdown among the peasants and artisans of the pre-machine era was an infinitely rarer phenomenon. " In order to restore something like the old balance, we have been driven to allow a larger section of our time to leisure, much of which is devoted to artificial physical exercises. England became the first sporting country, where football, cricket, tennis, rowing, golf, and other games were developed not, I suggest, because the English had a peculiar gift for ball games, but because they were first called upon to resist the impact of urban industrialism. Sport is a substitute for the physical exercise which manual labour used to provide, or which the eighteenth-century merchant or lawyer obtained by riding about his business on horseback. It provides a relaxation for the nerves, but it necessarily demands longer hours of leisure. " In the pre-machine age men worked twelve hours and even longer quite naturally and willingly. They set their own pace ; they produced in their own time ; they were under no constraint, and felt little need for relaxation or leisure. With the industrial revolution came the need for shorter hours. As early as 1848 the mass of working people felt instinctively that eight hours was the proper limit of endurance of the pressure and rigid discipline of factory life. It took seventy years to achieve that goal, though hours of work gradually lessened as the strain of work increased. Now there is a demand for yet shorter hours arising after a period of still greater mechanical development and acceleration. . " Why is this ? Ido not believe it is on account of laziness. On the contrary, man is on the whole a terribly and often irrationally industrious animal. He really likes work as long as it is within his compass. As a rule, he would rather earn more money than do less work. If therefore there is now a growing feeling in favour of shorter hours, I believe it corresponds in the main to a dimly felt need for greater relaxation engendered by the increasing speed and strain of modern industry and modern life generally. It is balanced economically by greater productivity. The faster machine processes move the more is produced in less time, with less human effort but with more human tension, to which the body is as yet incompletely adapted. " That, in my view, is the ultimate explanation of the demand for shorter hours and also for paid holidays, the latter another astonishing development of recent years. Last year we adopted a Convention on paid holidays by a surprisingly large majority. I hope this year we may make a beginning of the international application of the forty-hour week under equally good auspices. At the same time, as has been pointed out by a whole series of speakers, it is not always possible to apply an identical system of hours regulation to all industries or even to all countries. Any one who has studied the measures taken in France, in New Zealand, and in the United States of America, the three countries of which we have experience, will have observed that great care was taken to ensure a considerable measure of elasticity. There are considerable differences as between industry and industry, and elasticity is a necessity if the essential conditions of each industry are to be respected. I therefore feel that the method which has been adopted in the Conference and which is being pursued this year is the right method. At the same time, I agree with speakers like Mr. Koizumi and Mr. Chu, who indicated that in their countries a forty-hour week is at present impossible, but who suggested that a forty-eight hour week was within the present compass. " However that may be, a strong case has been made out in this Conference for giving special consideration to countries whose industrial development is not so great as that of the great industrial countries of the West. Members of the Conference are aware that special provision for this purpose is made in Article 22 of the Constitution, which provides that ' the Conference shall have due regard to those countries in which climatic conditions, the imperfect development of industrial organization or other special circumstances make the industrial conditions substantially different.' lam therefore very glad that in the Governing Body the question of giving special consideration in the Conference
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A-05c INTERNATIONAL LABOUR CONFERENCE, GENEVA, 1937. REPORT OF NEW ZEALAND GOVERNMENT DELEGATION., Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1 January 1937
A-05c INTERNATIONAL LABOUR CONFERENCE, GENEVA, 1937. REPORT OF NEW ZEALAND GOVERNMENT DELEGATION. Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1 January 1937
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