Current Topics AT HOME AND ABROAD.
We have been recently told of the great and sain-
tary changes worked in England in cleansing the 1 Cburob there of the corruptions which it is alleged she had, in tLe course of ages, incurred. Amorjg there corruptions, we are told, for example, a belief
THE BBFOBMATION II ENGLAND.
in a purgatory where relief was to be obtained by expiations and penances done here was one of the worst, and one which by its fruits — such, fpr instance, as the devotion of wealth to procure prayers and oblationß— aroused popular indignation and disgust. It is useful for ue, therefore, to find some explanation of the methods by which the corruptions alluded to were removed, and better things -more pleasing to the people, and more salutary for them— restored or substituted in their place. Let us, for example, take the charitable institutions of the country, which were certainly supported in great part by the money given or bequeathed to gain indulgences or provide prayers for the benefit of suffering souls:— "The Great Hoppital of Norwich," writes the Rev. Dr. Jessopp, a well-kncwn Anglican clergyman, in the Nineteenth Century for June, "is one of the very few survivals of those many refuges for the aged poor which existed in considerable numbers down to the time when the detestable oligarchy which made havoc of the land in the name of King Edward the Sixth swept them all away. . . But it was only one of five hundred hospitals, which were robred of their all in the first half of the sixteenth century." Dr. Jeasopp goes on to describe other actions of the reforming and cleansing powers, which also are not without their suggestiveness. " People," he says, " talk as if the spoliation of the monasteries were the monster act of robbery of that bad time. We are perpetually assured that that measure dealt a crushing blow to the labouring population, as if they were the great losers— the great sufferers. lamby no means sure that it was so. It was the pillage of the hospitals that was the first great wrong done to the poor ; but it was the confiscation of the funds belonging to the guilds that wrought immeasurably greater mischief. It has been calculated that five huDdred hospitals— let us call them almshouses, for they were that, and little else but that— were plundered. Poor old men and old women lost their homes and their maintenance, and were turned out into theroads to beg their bread. That was bad enough ; but there were more.than thirty tlwusaiul guilds that were stripped of their all by a sweep of tae pan. Tae guilds answered partly to our trades union societies, partly to benefit clubs. Some of them had existed for centuries ; some had large acumulated funds, the savings of generations iof penurious thrift, grown habitual to those poor toilers by the discipline of long training in the duty of providing for the future. There was not a village ia the land that was not ruthlessly despoiled of its little hoards. The guilds were absolutely looted : they lost every farthing they possessed, every rag and cup and platter. The gangs of ruffians did their work so thoroughly among the frightened villagers, that not only were they beggared, but the whole machinery of self-help which had been at work from time immemorial was absolutely extinguished." Of the consequences of the rdforming and cleansing measures in question Dr. Jessopp also speaks. " Our modern trades unions and benefit clubs," he says, " are things of yesterday. For more than two centuries after that bideoua spoliation Englishmen of the workingclasses never rose to the conception that they could help themselves. They belonged to the parish and the parish belonged to them ; the parish bred them, as the paiish bred the owls and the pole-cats ; the parish used them till they were past work, then the parish put them into the poor-house, where the idiots drivelled, and the palsied mumbled, and the halt and the blind howled and cursed and raved ; and there they huddled, gaunt and Btolidly desperate till they died] like rats in their holes ; and then they tumbled into their graves, sometimes two or three at a time, the sexton taking care not to go' too deep, for decent, burial couldn't be done at the money." And all this was done, we are continually told-by people, nevertheless, who it is charitable to believe know little of what they are talking about— in order to restore a primitive purity and simplicity,
A CHURCH IN TBANBITION.
IT would seem, however, that " mrch of England itself is by no means free f rruption, and requires even a good deal of - ng. The church in question, indeed, appear* o in a con-
tinual state of transition, and there is no knowir ; when it is to become stationary. Its task in fact , is, as we are git ato understand, to accommodate religion to the progress of the w -Id, ringing tht changes as the successive periods demand it. This ndeer seems to be the rational conclusion from an article written i, the iteresta of the Broad Church party, by the Rey. H. B. Ha eie i the Contemporary Review for June. « The Low Church b c done well," he Bays, « but they have had their day ; they have leivened the laity. The High Church have done well. They have made rsligion fashion, able, but they have not leavened the laity. Pusey -ever got hold of the masses like Wesley. The reason c that is that Puseyism was Italian, Wesley anism was En£l.£ 1. h ; but neither was intellectual, and the reform now needed in the Chorch is essentially an intellectual reform." "We want a form of sound words, 1 " explains the writer, "which will ring true in nineteenth century ears. The creeds and articles are now 'like sweet bells jangled out of tune.'" " The Broad|Church," he explains again " feels the need of bringing the praying and the preachiog of the Anglican Church into harmony with nineteenth century thought and feeling, It does not believe that the theology of Constantino in the fourth century was any more final than the settlement of Henry VIII. in the eixteenth century." The writer evidently does not set too high a value on the work done in the sixteenth century : — " The Luther movement," he says, " became a revolution. England separated from Rome, because Rome would not allow a reform from within. The consequences? External decencies of worship trampled upon, numberless aids' to religion, helps, manuals, organisations for charity ruthlessly Bwept away. Stained-glass smashed, Gothio treasures ruined, the belief in a Divine Presence with the Church enfeebled, half-killed by blows dealt at the supernatural, which is, fence as we will, the life of religion in all its various forms; and only just now are we slowly bringing back Art to the Sanctuary, and the sense of supernatural Principalities and Powers to the world." But, verily, a Church which, as this writer implies, at the outset half-killed the life of religion, and ia only just now, after centuries of existence, atoning for the deed by slowly bringing it back to the world, is hardly to be congratulated on the work accomplished by it. It may, moreover, be permitted us to doubt, without much irreverence, as to the efficacy of its restorative efforts. Meantime, Mr. Haweis bears high testimony to the liberal dealing of the Church of England with its ministers, and tells us what is still wanting to them in order that they may be placed completely abreaßt with the intellectual needs of the period. "We the clergy of the Anglican church," be writes, " have now a liberty in doctrine and ritual unknown to any other Church in Christendom. Is it too much to expect that a Church that can do bo much oat of deference to modern opinions and carry so rapidly such reformß from within, will some day give us simple alternative forms for the Sacraments ? May I add an expnrgated Bible, selected Psslms, one Creedal statement, simpler and briefer, additional qualifying and liberating rubrics, sanctioning a more elastic conduct of the services, and, lastly, a «otal repeal of the Act of Uniformity, an oppressive document unknown to the early Church, and already uDder the Act of 1865, become almost a dead letter." But when the Church of England is fully purged from the corruptions by which it is itself defiled, some of which are pointed out by Mr. Haweis in the passage quoted by us, it will be time enough for its members to descant on the corruptions they imagine to exist elsewhere. This nevertheless, we may add, can hardly ever be, for a Church, in permanent transition and advancting pari passu with the progress of the world, must be still engaged in freeing itself from the condition of each preceding period, now become defilement.
OUT IN HIS BECKONING.
Ireland must also become so, is more comfortable in his mind as tq
Mb. Goldwin Bmith, who has bat a poor opinion of Mr. Balfour's Irish Land Bill, and argues that, because farmers in Ontario, as he says, are deep in the books of mortgagees, peasant proprietors in
the state of the Home Bule question. " As to Home Bale," he says, " it h&B nearly ceased for the present to be a living issue. Lord Roseoery ) Who looks to the future, has almost thrown up the sponge for Disnnion, and Mr. Gladstone, who cleaves to it with senile tenacity) offends and disconcerts his party by doing so." — Mr. Goldwin Smith ) nevertheless, would seem in some sort to be guilty of reckoning without his host in his calculations respecting the subject he deals with. As to farmers in Ontario, we know nothing about their condition, and, therefore, cannot undertake to explain the difficulties under which they labour. As to borrowing, however, Irish peasant proprietors would have before their eyes the warning formerly received by them from falling in arrears with their rents, and the consequences of doing •o. Not that wa intend to argue in favour of Mr. Balfour's Bill— though, otherwise, the creation of peasant- proprietorship appears to as the solution of the Irish land question. Meantime, as to the decline of feeling in favour of Home Rule, it is not easy to see on what Mr. Goldwin Smith bases his opinion. Certainly the question seems as much to tbe fore and as much a subject of lively interest as ever it was. No matter where we turn, in every part of the United Kingdom, or of the Empire, we find it still under discussion. Here, for example, isa paragraph we have taken from a recent copy of the Falkirk Herald-Dr. Jago, we understand, beinga nephew of Mr. Jago, of Dunedin, who is among ourselves an advocate and supporter of the cause :- " Last night Dr. Jago addressed a meeting of the local branch of the Irish National League in the Gladstone Hall. Councillor Flannigan presided, and briefly introduced tha lecturer. In the course of his address Dr. Jago said that if there was less selfish interest displayed among Liberal associations in Falkirk and elsewhere there would be greater political and intellectual activ ity. Those people he could only class as political Pnarisees, (applause.) Leaving theoretical politics for the discussion of practical politics, the doctor went on to state that in Ireland they had a representative system, but not a representative Government, (applause.) Some might argue that Ireland had a representative Government as well as Scotland. He quoted the opinion of Mr. Chamberlain in a speech some years ago, in which he stated that the first condition of good representative government was government by the people themselves, (applause). The cause of the dissatisfaction in Ireland was> heurgad, because the country waa not governed by the people. Umpire had never done good, as it had ruined several nations, and would ruin Great Britain. It was by allowing people to live peace, fully and happily among one another that the empire ought to be felt for good, and when that was so it waa a delusion to object to Ireland's demands on the ground of keepiDg up the integrity of the empire* There was a time when the Government could rule a people as they wished, but that time had long gone by, and the solution of the Irish quest:oD, which he hoped would be found at an early date, was to allow the people to be ruled by their own consent, (applause). Speaking of the land question, he held tbat there was no equitable settlement of the land question in Mr. Balfour's bill. He would give the land to the State, and tax it to a fifth of its value, and devote tne proceeds for public improvements and lor the benefit of the peopleCouncillor Flanuigan, in proposing a vote of thanks to Dr. Jago for his address, saivi the doctor seemed to go further on the land question in Ire'and than even th 3 members of the League were prepared to go. The vote wdß heartily responded to. On the motion of Mr. Stephen Owens a timilar compliment was paid to the Chairman, and the meeting term.nated." A question, therefore, that is of such continuous and unanimous interest, in all parts of the kingdom and of the empire, cannot ceasa to be a living issue. It is Mr. Goldwin Smith himselt, rather than Mr. Gladstone, who betrays a discreditable tenacity, discreditable because arising from the unvarying hostility with which he regards the whole Irish race, whether at home or abroid.
west— San Francisco is in the hands of tbe Jesuits. The Irish Roman Catholics were taught to consider San Francisco as their ' promised and,' and the rich inheritance God had in store for them. The consequence is tbat where you find only a few American. German, and English millionaires in San Francisco, yon count more than fifty Irish Catholic millionaires in that city. The richest bank in San Francisco — the Nevada bank— is in tbe hands of Irish Catholics. All the street railroads of the city belong to tbe Irish Roman Catholics. The principal offices of the city are filled with Irish Roman Catholics. A most all the voluntary military associations are composed of Irish Roman Catholics. The compact unity of the Irish Roman Catholics, with their enormous wealth, makes them almost supreme masters of the mines of California and Nevada. They number 700,000 soldiers, who, under the name of the United States Volunteer Militia, are officered by the most skilful and able generals of the great republic ; for it is a fact, to which the Americans do sot sufficiently pay attention, that the Jesuits have been ahrewd enough to have a vast majority of Roman Catholic officers and generals to command tha army and man the navy of the United States." — Now we say that is a very pretty picture of the prosperity and importance of the Irish Catholic population of the United States, and, painted as it is even by the hand of one of tbe most wretched old miscreants that tbe nineteenth century has produced, it is very pleasant to contemplate. Whether the Christian World of Sydney, as Ohiniquy, no doubt, invites them, can do anything to dislodge the Irish Catholics alluded to from tbe position they hold is another question. That we leave to the learned and pious editor and his supporters to determine. While they face the " Jesuits," however, as best they may, let them not forget to send old Chiniquy the shilling or two his sketch deßerv«s» and which was his chief object in sending it to them.
CHINIQUY TELLS A WOKD OB TWO OF TRUTH.
publishers forget that he is disproving that charge of being thnftle&s, poor, and ignorant, which is commonly advanced against Irish Catholics, as arising from their adherence to a fal c e religion. The Pastor, of course, in his allusions to " Jesuit " influence is as usual pokiDg fun, in his sly way, at the people he addresses — and there really is a good deal of fun in old Chiniquy, miserably as the old rascal makes use of it. Here, however, is what he says, writing to a paper published in Sydney, and called the Christian World :— " Since 1565 the Roman Catholic priests, with the most admirable ability, have massed their Irish legions into the great citieß of the United States, and the Americans must be very blind indeed if they do not see that the day is very near when the Jesuits will rule their cities, from the magnificent White House of Washington to the humblest civil or military departments of this vast republic. They are already the masters of New York, Baltimore, Chicago, St. Paul, Milwaukee, St. Louip, New Orleans, Cincinnati, and San Francisco. Yes, ban Fiaacisco, the great, the beautiful queen of the
Ie detrimental to tbe whole printing trade, should it not immediately be stopped ? " Nay, bat if it can be Bhown that the exclusion of females is detrimental to the whole female sex should they not be admitted into the composing room ? Why, it may reasonably be asked, should the printing trade be made an exception 1 Has not the question of the admission of females to the trades and professions been long Bince settled, and settled in the affirmative? If it belongs to the advancement of the age, as we have been assured over and over again that it does, that women in everything for which nature has fitted them should share the occupations of men, then, if even in one calling they be restricted, a retrogressive step ia taken. There are female doctors, and doubtless the male members of the profession dislike to be brought into competition with them. There are female lawyers, and we may take it for granted that lawyers of the opposite sex— except the very gallant ones— would much prefer to be confronted by learned friends of the masculine gender. What, for example, would Miss Cobbe Bay to this claim that the members of her sex, out of consideration for the interests of any trade should be sent back to the kitchen or the nursery ?—? — What would Miss Emily Faithfull say to this veto especially imposed upon women to handle the type 1 Not, however, that we do not recognise this question of protecting the trades as an important one. The guilds of the middle ages, for example, took care that the ranks of skilled labour were not over-crowded. But we are now arrived at a different stage of the world's progress, a stage of the rights of women, and, moreover, of technical schools, — and the effort of tradesmen to shut out any particular class from sharing their skill must necessarily seem out of joint with the age and abortive. What, besides, is to be done with our girls? — for this is a point of no light consideration. Must we crowd them all into the working-rooms of the dress-maker and milliner — there, indeed, to serve| an apprenticeship for nothing, and afterwards at beat, and as a minority, to earn a mere pittance, hardly enough to keep them in shoes to walk to and fro between home and the place of labour. Is there, again, to be a great increase in the opening for domestic service in these days of improved domestic inventions of all descriptions, and when the desire on the part of the wealthier classes appears to be to gdt rid of servants altogether ? If idleness is the mother of mischief, and we all know the kind of mischief that lies in the way of idle girls, does not the man incur a very heavy responsibility who attempts to deprive females of any honest way of earning their livelihood ? Such a man may possibly live to rue his work, and justly to snfEer for cruel evil of which he has been the cause. But the fact is this question of the distribution of labour, and the earnings to be derived from it, is, as we have said before, a large and difficult one. It is as wide as the world, and can only be settled by a wise recognition of the conditions at which the world has arrived and an adjustment of matters to suit them. The raising of wages the raising of prices, the insistence on a greater expenditure on the part of employers, whose means do not admit of it, can Berve but little towards the solution needed. Those, in short, who demand that boys and girls should be turned adrift, and men employed ia their places,
Why, wonders will never cease. Here is even Pastor Chiniquy himself speaking in a way very (greeable 1o listen to, and actually contriving to tell a word or two of plain truth. The Pastor's
Hebe is one of the questions that the Maritime Council has put to Messrs. Whitcombe and Tombs : " If it can be shown that the employment of females
risk seeing, as the result of their demand, the father Bitting idle at one side of a fireless hearth, and his discharged children at tae other —both idle alike.— For our own part, therefore, as things actually are, we do not see why the interests of a class are to be sacrificed to the interests, or the supposed interests, of any particular trade. We aw convinced that while the circumstances of the times make such a iacrifice retrogressive and inconsistent with what otherwise exists— as in accordance with the progress of the age— it is not only unfair and unjust, but useless as well, and, were it not for the grave considerations connected with it, even highly ridiculous.
THE CHUBCH OP Ahh AGBB.
wanting or lightly considered, and where the Btir. ring Present seems, as it were, nearer than it is elsewhere to a still more stirring future, it might appear to us out of place to expect to find anything signifying an identity with the more reposeful regions where the shadows of the old world still linger. That we do so, and do so even in a very remarkable degree, where, for example, the Catholic Church is concerned, should serve to show us how the religion that Christ himself founded continues the same among all the chances and changes of life, resembling in this its divine Founder— Who is the same yesterday, to-day, and for ever. Let other religions bodies boast of change and advancement with the spirit of the age— still more betraying the falsity of their pretensions to the unity that is a principal note of Christ's Church, and cutting themselves off from the bodies they have succeeded as completely as if they were actually, aa indeed they virtually are, the creations of the present generation! In the Catholic Church the communion of saints remains unbroken' and the Catholic of the present day inherits the doctrine and practices of the Catholic of the middle age, as he did those of the Catholic of the catacombs. From among all the glare and rattle of American life, therefore, we commonly receive accounts that might seem more in agreement with the condition of quiet corners of the older world, where piety has been handed down from father to Bon, undisturbed for centuries, and where the people live in constant familiarity with the supernatural. The accounts, however coming from America, because of their peculiar significance, are infinitely more valuable and consequently more welcome. When, for instance, we are told, as we were the other week, of the appearance of a vision of the Bleßsed Virgin in the cottage of a dying peasant in Ireland, it seems to us in character with the place and the nature of the people, and we hesitate to accord it our belief until a full confirmation reaches us, as possibly having its origin in the excited imaginations of a group of pious people assembled in the room of a dying man and feeling themselves placed upon the almost visible threshold of the other world. Miraculous events, however, reported from America— BUcb, for example, as the preservation of the image of our Lady in a church at Johnstown, where everything else was wrecked and destroyed by the flood, or a like event recorded of the late cyclone at Louisville— are of a very different meaning, and cannot easily b e explained away, or imputed to any effort of the imagination. These miraculous events, moreover, are not the only ones of which we have of late been told as occurring in the United States. A very remarkable case of the sudden cure of a nun, almost in the very agonies of death, was quoted a week or two ago by us from our contemporary, the Aye Maria, and in this case a certificate testifying to the cure on the part of a doctor attached to a Government hospital was also published,— quite as valid witness, we may add, as the publicity attending on the preservation of the statues. We have also seen particulars of certain cures worked on St. Anthony's Day at Troy Hill, near Allegheny, Pennsylvania, by a priest named Mollinger, partly, as we are told, by prayerß and partly by the aid of medicines—but among which several are of a very curious nature— the persons cured, moreover, in some cases being Protestants. The United States, then, notwithstanding the markedly modern character of their civilisation and the life they contain ahead of the progress of the age, still show all the distinctive features of a strictly Catholic country. Nay, they have even their list of saints, steps for whose canonisation have been begun and are more or lesß advanced— among these eaints being one of our own immediate days, a bishop who died only thirty years ago, that is, the late Dr. John Nepomucene Neumann, O.SS.R., Bishop of Philadelphia. The manner, therefore, in which the Catholic Church is found to give practical proof of remaining the miraculous Church of tradition— in the midßt of the newest, the most advanced and restless civilisation of the day, relinquishing nothing of her claims, but putting forth her privileges as boldly and openly as in remote Catholic lands and ages less developed— strikes us as very remarkable and well worthy of attention.
The [following passages, taken from an article on Cardinal Manning by Mr. Stead in the Review of
Reviews for June, seem to ns to form a fitting postscript for what Dr. Jeesopp has told ug concerning the circum-
Btaooes accompanying the foundation of the Church of BDgland, and what Mr. Haweis has told us respecting the work and progress of that Church. We, the: ef ore, quote them without further comment : - 11 How was it that the Cardinal became a Catholic ? ... In the little monograph by •< John Oldcastle," he sets forth briefly what seemed to him the dominating influences in that momentous change. He s vys :— ' I have never thought itmecessary to publish the reasons for my submission to the Church of God. I felt that those who knew me knew my reasons, for they had followed my words and acts ; and they who did not know ma would not care to know.' Still he was prevailed upon to say something, and|this is what he said :— ' I hav c had no other motive than a perpetual and ardent desire to give to others the truth as God has given it to me. ... I could not but declare that which was evidently to me the truth as it is in Jesus. The works which I then published, even without the private records which I have by me, axe enough to mark the progressive, but slow and never-receding, advance of my convictions, from the first conception of a visible Church, its succession and witness for Christ, to the full perception and manifestation of its divine organisation of head and members, and of its supernatural prerogatives of indefectible life, indissoluble unity, infallible discernment and enunciation of the Faith. ... I can well remember at the outset of my l\fe, as a paßtor, as I then alrea ly believed, the necessity of a divine commission forced itself upon me. Next how the necessity of a divine certainty for the message I had to deliver became, if possible, more evident. A divine, that is, an infallible, message by a human messenger is still the truth of God ; but a human or fallible message, by a messenger having a divine commission, would be a source of error, illusion, and all evil. I then perceived the principle of Christian tradition aa an evidence of the truth, and of the visible unity of the Church as the guarantee of that tradition. But it was many years before I perceived that such a Christian tradition was no more than human, and therefore fallible. I had reached the last point to which human history could guide me towards the Church of God. There remained one point more— to know that the Church was not only a human witness in tb,e order of history, but a divine wituess in the order of supernatural facts.— ln the preface to the ' Temporal Mission of the Holy Ghost,' Cardinal Manning sets forth, with the utmost explicitness, how it waß he came to believe that ' Christianity in its perfection and its purity, unmutilated, and full in its orb and circumference, is Catholicism' ; so that ' when I say Catholicism I mean perfect Christianity, undiminished, full-orbed, illuminating all nations, as St. Ireneus says, like the sun, one and the same in every place.' He was once, as Lord Beaconsfield put it a parliamentary Christian. But he came to see that Anglicanism was incipient Rationalism. In bis own phrase, ' The Anglicanism of the Reformation is upon the rocks, like some tall ship stranded upon the shore, and going to pieces by it own weight and the steady action of the sea.' The errors of the past three hundred years seemed to him to be passing fast away, and he saw that :— ' If we are to Berve our generation by the will of God, it must be by the boldest and clearest enunciation of the Divine certainty in matters of faith, and by pointing out the relations of faith to human knowledge, scientific and moral.' But how can we arrive at this certainty ? Cardinal Manning arrived at it by a ladder of four steps. They are as follows : — 'First, that it is a violation of reason not to believe in the existence of a God ; secondly, that it is a violation of our moral sense not to believe that God has made Himself known to man ; thirdly, that the relevation He has given is Christianity ; and, fourthly, that Christianity is Catholicism. These four constitute a proof— the certainty of which exceeds that of any other moral truth I know.' He thereupon humbly retracted what he considered to be the three errors which he had maintained against the Roman Church, and revoked in 1851 the statements which he had made in 1841 and 1838. Be attributed his change of view to his new sense of the temporal mission of the Holy Ghost. Its due significance and the unity of the Church he then perceived for the first time.— Understanding, therefore, aa be never understood before, the meaning of Supreme Pontiff and Vicar of Jesus Christ, he acknowledged that ha had in 1843 spoken rashly, or rather ignorantly, in unbelief, and therefore .he Gorham judgment having occurred opportunely to destroy his fast crumbling faith in the Church of England, he submitted to Rome. — That brief statement will suffice as to his theological transplantation."
Rochfort MacGuire, a wealthy colonist, has been nominated by the Nationalists for the vacant Parliamentary seat in North Donegal. The Freixinnige Zeitung says that during the Chancellorship crisis Prince Bismarck appealed to the ex-Empress to intervene in his favour, and that she replied: 'You know better than anyone that I must not use political influence with my son." Seven school children were bitten by a mad dog at St. Joseph, 111., on May 29, the dog dying a few minutes after in convulsions. A mad stone was applied to each of the children's wounds, and it adhered in each case.
The freedom of the city of Dublin was recently given to Lady Sandhurst, who has made a reputation as a Liberal orator and organiser. She is the only woman upon whom this honour has been conferred in 300 years.
Accustomed as we are to look upon the United States as foremost in the hard and dry progress of the age — as a land where traditions of the past are
Permanent link to this item
New Zealand Tablet, New Zealand Tablet, Volume XVIII, Issue 16, 15 August 1890
Current Topics AT HOME AND ABROAD. New Zealand Tablet, Volume XVIII, Issue 16, 15 August 1890
Using This Item
See our copyright guide for information on how you may use this title.