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H.--40,

1937. NEW ZEALAND.

TRANSPORT DEPARTMENT (ANNUAL REPORT OF).

Presented to both Houses of the General Assembly by Leave.

The Hon. R. Semple, Minister of Transport, Wellington. Sir, — Transport Department, 23rd September, 1937. Herewith I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Transport Department for the year ended 31st March, 1937. I have, &c., G. L. Laurenson, Commissioner of Transport.

INDEX TO CONTENTS.

• Page 1. Introductory ■ • • ■ ■ • • ■ • • • • • • • • • ■ 3 2. Motor-vehicles Insurance (Third-party Risks) Act, 1928 .. .. .. .. . . . . 4 (а) Statistics re Premiums and Claims .. . ■ . • .. . • •. •. 4 (б) Review of Premium Rates, &c. .. .. •. . . .. . • • • . ■ 4 (c) " Hit and Run " Drivers .. .. •. • ■ • ■ ■ ■ • ■ ■ 4 3. Motor-vehicles Act, 1924 . . • • ■ • • • ■ • • • • • • • • • ® (a) Registrations of Motor-vehicles, by Types of Vehicle, 1927-37 .. . . .. .. 5 (b) Registrations of Motor-vehicles, by Country of Manufacture, 1927-37 .. .. . . .. 6 (c) Motor-vehieles licensed at 31st March, 1937 .. .. .. . • . . .. 8 (d) Motor-vehicle Registration-plates .. . . .. .. - • . • . • . • 9 (e) Motor-vehicles actually on the Road . . .. . ■ .. .. .. . • 9 (/) Petrol-consumption, by Motor-vehicles and otherwise .. .. .. .. . . 10 4. Motor-spirits Taxation Act, 1927 . . . ■ • • • • ■ • ■ • ■ ■ ■ • 10 (а) Petrol-tax Yield, 1928-37 .. . • . • • • • • • • • • • • 10 (б) Distribution of Petrol-tax .. .. .. . •• ■■ H (c) Refunds of Petrol-tax .. . . . • • • • • ■ • • • • • • H 5. Special Mileage-taxation . . • ■ ■ ■ • ■ • • • • • ■ ■ • • • 12 6. Road Finance . ■ • ■ ■ • • ■ • • • • • • • • ■ • • • 12 (а) Dominion's Road Bill, 1934-36 .. . • ■ ■ • • .... .. .. 12 (б) Sources of Money expended on Road Bill, 1934-36 .. . . . . .. .. .. 14 (c) Annual Charges per Mile on Roads, Streets, &e., 1934-36 .. .. . . . . .. 15 (d) Motor-taxation . . • • • ■ • • ■ • • ■ • • • • • • ' 7. Heavy Motor-vehicle Regulations, 1932 .. .. .. . . . ■ • • • • • ■ 15 (а) Speeds of Heavy Motor-vehicles .. .. .. . • ■ ■ • • ■ • • • 15 (б) Limitation of Loads on Roads .. .. .. •• •• •• 16

I—H. 40.

H,— 4o

Page 8. Motor-vehicles Amendment Act, 1936 .. . .. .. .. .. .. 17 9. Traffic Census .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. 17 10. Road Safety .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 18 A. Road Accident Statistics .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 18 B. New Zealand Road Safety Council .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 20 C. Preventive Measures .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 21 (i) Publicity and Education .. .. .. .. . . . . .. .. 21 (ii) Traffic Control .. .. .. .. . . . . .. .. .. 22 (iii) Road Conditions .. . . .. .. . . .. .. .. 23 (iv) Improved Visibility at Night .. . . . . .. .. . . .. 23 (v) Vehicle Inspection .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . 23 11. Transport Licensing Act, 1931 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 24 A. Passenger Services — (a) Continuous Passenger-service Licenses, 1936-37 .. .. .. .. .. 25 (b) Seasonal Passenger-service Licenses, 1936-37 . . .. .. .. .. 25 (c) Temporary Passenger-service Licenses, 1936-37 .. . . .. .. .. 25 (d) Traffic and Financial Statistics — (i) Traffic and Operating Statistics .. .. .. .. . . .. 25 (ii) Assets and Liabilities .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 25 (iii) Fare Schedules .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 26 B. Goods Services— (a) Applications for Goods-service Licenses .. .. .. .. .. .. 26 (b) Financial and Operating Statistics .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 27 (c) Assets and Liabilities .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 27 (d) Co-ordination of Road and Rail Long-distance Freight Services .. .. .. 27 C. Appeals .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 27 12. Commercial Air Transport .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 27 13. Changes in Transport Law in New Zealand .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 28 14. Overseas Transport Legislation .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 29 15. Appendices— A. Statistical Tables — 1. Motor-vehicle Registrations by Highways Districts as at 31st December, 1936 .. .. 30 2. Motor-vehicles licensed as at 31st March, 1937 .. .. .. .. .. 30 3. Motor-vehicles licensed during Years 1923 to 1936 .. .. .. . . .. 31 4. Distribution of Petrol-tax to Boroughs for Year ended 31st March, 1937 .. .. 31 5. Lengths of various Classes of Roads, Streets, and Bridges during Years 1922 to 1936 inclusive .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 32 6. Lengths of various Types of Bridges as at 31st March, 1923 to 1936, inclusive .. .. 32 7. Annual Yield from Taxation of Motor-vehicles, 1926 to 1937 . . .. .. .. 33 8. Applications for Passenger-service Licenses for Year ended 31st March, 1937 .. .. 34 9. Traffic and Financial Statistics of Licensed Passenger Services for Years ended 31st March, 1933 to 1937, inclusive .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 35 10. Average Operating Expenses and Revenue, in Pence per Vehicle-mile, of Licensed Passenger Services for Years ending 31st March, 1933 to 1937, inclusive .. .. .. 36 11. Assets and Liabilities of Licensed Passenger Services as at 31st March, 1933 to 1937, inclusive .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . 37 12. Applications for Goods-service Licenses for Year ended 31st March, 1937 .. .. 38 13. Traffic, Revenue, Expenditure, and Capital Statistics of Licensed Goods Services for Years ended March, 1934 to 1937, inclusive .. .. .. .. .. .. 39 14. Analysis of Data relating to Fatal Motor Accidents in the Dominion during the Years ended 31st March, 1930 to 1937, inclusive .. .. .. .. .. .. 40 B. Reports of Sub-committees of the New Zealand Road Safety Council as adopted by the Council — Adult Education and Propaganda .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 41 Child Education and Propaganda .. .. .. . . .. .. .. 45 Vehicle and Highway Lighting .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 46 Lighting of Highways .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. 49 Road Conditions .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 51 Traffic Laws .. . . . . .. .. .. .. . . .. 53 Accident Statistics .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ~ 54

2

H.—4o

REPORT.

1. INTRODUCTION. The summarized outstanding points recorded, for the year are as follows . (a) An expansion of business in both passenger and freight services licensed under the Transport Licensing Act. (b) Good progress made by the four District Transport Licensing Authorities in the licensing and control of the motor passenger and freight services, and in improving the labour conditions in the licensed motor freight services. (c) New car registrations during the year were 25,796, or a daily average of over 70, the highest figure yet recorded ; while the registrations of commercial vehicles (8,999) again exceeded the previous peak year. (d) The estimated quantity of petrol consumed by motor transport during the year was just over 72,000,000 gallons, or 9,000,000 gallons in excess of the figure for the previous peak year, 1930. (e) The receipts from all classes of motor taxation (including Customs duties in respect of vehicles and parts) was just under £5,350,000, nearly £900,000 ahead of the figure for the previous year. (f) The estimated annual expenditure on roads, streets, and bridges during 1935-36 amounted to £8,100,000, or £400,000 in excess of the figure for the previous year. (q) A further 2,068 miles of roads were classified according to load-limits during the year. This brings the percentages of roads classified to 95 per cent, for main highways and 54 per cent, for rural roads. (h) Persons killed in road accidents numbered 213 during the year, an increase ot 10 over the figure for the previous year. (i) A representative conference of all interested sections of the public was convened by the Hon. the Minister of Transport to consider the road-accident problem. (j) A National Road Safety Council was set up to act in an advisory capacity to the Hon. the Minister of Transport. (k) The Traffic Regulations were overhauled, and a Road Code for the guidance of all classes of road-users was prepared. Copies of the Road Code and summary of the regulations supplied to every home and to motorists. (I) Far-reaching measures for road safety instituted. (m) As from Ist April, 1937, the Transport Department assumed control of Traffic Inspectors formerly under the control of the Main Highways Board. (n) General speed-limit of 30 m.p.h. adopted in borough and town districts and closely populated areas. (o) New comprehensive system of statistics relating to road-traffic accidents instituted, (p) Probation scheme for education of traffic offences instituted. (q) Considerable increases during calendar year 1936 in convictions for of negligent or dangerous driving, excessive speed, and drunk in charge of motor-vehicle. (r) System of six-monthly inspections for mechanical fitness of all classes of motor-vehicles, not already required to be inspected, instituted. (s) New provisions relating to the maximum driving-hours and periods of rest in respect of the drivers of all commercial motor-vehicles came into operation. (t) The claims paid and estimated liability in respect of outstanding claims under the thirdparty insurance scheme again exceeded the revenue from premiums received. (u) The number of claims during the year under the agreement relating to "hit-and-run" drivers was 30, compared with 38 for the previous year. (v) Institution of policy of single ownership of road and rail services over certain longdistance routes with a view to securing the co-ordination of these services. (w) Expansion in commercial air transport services.

3

H.—4o

2. MOTOR-VEHICLES INSURANCE (THIRD-PARTY RISKS) ACT, 1928. (a) Statistics. . The Motor-vehicles Insurance (Third-party Risks) Act passed in 1928 compels every owner of a motor-vehicle to insure against liability to pay damages on account of the death or injury to another person caused through the use of a motor-vehicle. Payment of the insurance premiums is made annually to the Deputy Registrars of Motor-vehicles simultaneously with that of the annual license fee payable under the Motor-vehicles Act. Owners of motor-vehicles are required to nominate each year the insurance company with which the contract of insurance is to be made. For the year ended 31st May, 1936, forty-four insurance concerns gave the prescribed notice to undertake business under the Act, and carried on business accordingly. The following table shows the experience of the scheme during the seven years ended 31st May, 1936. The figures for claims do not represent the amount paid during each year, but refer to accidents happening during each particular

(b) Annual Review of Premium Rates. Section 16 of the Act provides that the amount of the premiums to be paid in respect of third - party insurance may be fixed from time to time by Order in Council. In accordance with the usual practice, the financial operations of the companies undertaking this class of insurance were carefully examined, and it was decided to make the following alterations to the premiums for the year 1937-38 :— 6

(c) " Hit-and-Run " Drivers. The table hereunder indicates the number of claims and the amounts paid out under the asn-eement gazetted on the 29th October, 1931, at page 3023, and relating to third-party insurance for victims of Hit-and-run drivers, the negligence of whom has resulted in personal injuries to the victims. The table indicates that the previous rapid increase in numbers of this type of accident has not onlv been checked, but that there is a drop of over 20 per cent, as between this year's figures and those of lclSu y6cir. „ tile in £ crease ln , maximum penalty brought into effect in August, 1936, for this type of oftence (£5OO fine or five years imprisonment, as against the former £20 fine) has assisted this reduction m the number of these claims, although it was effective for only part of the year covered.

4

Claims paid and EstiYear ended 31st May, Revenue from mated Liability for . . Premiums. Claims outstanding Uaim Katio. at 31st May. iqqa „ „ f" £ PerCent. 1930 .. .. .. .. 235,007 202,380 86-12 }™J 242,864 186,379 76-74 JJ55 233/731 161,352 69-03 jqS 229,133 151,095 . 65-94 JSJ i 221,734 198,614 89-57 j™ ! 211/709 288,554 136-30 1J36 ■■ •• •• •• 230,696 320,621 138-98 Totals .. .. ,.| 1,604,874 j 1,508,995 94-03

I ll I Class " 01d Premiums. New Premiums. Class 5 .. .. .. 4ls. 4 , Class 6 . . .. . . 27s. 30s ' Class 8b '' '' ■ • £6, plus 5s. for each seat over 10 £6, plus 2s. 6d. for each seat over 10 Class 8c 1 ( m ™r'/ 10) v. (maximum, £8). • • £6 > P lus 15s - for each seat over 7 £6, plus 7s. 6d. for each seat over 7 (maximum, £12 15s.) (maximum, £9 7s. 6d.).

H,— 4o,

Table of Claims.

3. MOTOR-VEHICLES ACT, 1924. (a) Registrations of Motor-vehicles, by Types of Vehicle. Under the Motor-vehicles Act a new vehicle is registered and simultaneously licensed for the ensuing year or part thereof. The license is renewable each year. If a license is not renewed, the registration is classed as " dormant," and after remaining " dormant " for two complete years is cancelled, the assumption being that the vehicle in question is permanently off the road. If, however, the vehicle is again brought into use after its registration has thus been cancelled, it is treated as a new registration. The registration figures set out hereunder, therefore, are not an exact record of the number of new vehicles introduced into our traffic system ; they include an unknown but probably small number of Vehicles which have been out of commission for more than two years. The following table sets out the annual registrations since 1926 : —

The foregoing figures have been incorporated in the following table, which shows the relative increase or decrease in the annual registrations measured according to the figures for 1926 : —

5

Number of A , „ for Amount paid Expenses incurred Year ending 31st May, which Claims ° ut to , by Underwriters in ma( j e Claimants. handling Claims. £ s. d. £ s. d. 1932 (five months only) . . . , . . 5 595 0 0 145 3 6 1933 .... .. .. .. 11 885 8 0 144 8 7 1934 . . .. . . .. 12 720 2 6 151 10 10 1935 .. .. .. .. .. 29 1,661 11 4 327 8 4 1936 .. .. .. . 38 1,224 9 6 478 9 2 1937 .. .. .. .. .. 30 | 1,372 19 3 215 6 1 Totals .. .. .. .. 125 6,459 10 7 1,462 6 6

Year ended 31st March, j Cars. (Commercial Vehicles. Cycles. Total Registrations. , I _ I i * —j • - - -— 1926 18,811 4,409 5,130 28,350 1927 .. .. .. 16,439 4,692 5,464 26,595 1928 .. .. .. 12,531 | 3,399 4,560 20,490 1929 .. .. .. 18,739 4,167 4,768 27,674 1930 20,802 5,745 4,300 30,847 1931 12,378 4,113 3,139 19,630 1932 6,151 2,656 2,058 10,865 1933 4,716 t 2,640 2,072 9,428 1934 .. .. .. 5,551 3,339 1,956 10,846 1935 .. .. .. 12,895 5,011 2,233 20,139 1936 .. .. .. 19,469 6,445 2,421 28,335 1937 .. .. .. | 25,796 8,999 3,028 37,823

Year ended 31st March, j Gars. Commercial Vehicles.; Cycles. ! Total Registrations. 1926 .. .. 100 100 I 100 100 1927 .. .. 87 ! 106 i 107 94 1928 .... 67 77 89 72 1929 .... 100 95 93 98 1930 .. .. Ill 130 84 109 1931 .... 66 93 j 61 69 1932 .... 33 60 ! 40 38 1933 .... 25 60 40 33 1934 .... 30 76 38 38 1935 .... 69 114 44 71 1936 .. .. 103 146 47 100 1937 .. .. 137 204 59 133 l||

H.—4o,

An interesting feature of the above tables is the response shown by the car, as compared with the commercial vehicle, to conditions of trade boom or depression. The car was influenced earlier by the depression, and has been slower in reacting to the improved conditions. Motor-cycles are falling behind, due, no doubt, to the increasing numbers of small cars. The commercial vehicle was influenced to a relatively smaller degree by the depression, and its rate of entry into our traffic system, taken over a number of years, seems to be accelerating. (b) Registrations of Motor-vehicles, by Country of Manufacture. The following table shows the country of manufacture and the number of motor-vehicles registered during the years ended 31st March, 1927 to 1937, inclusive : —

6

United States of _ , Year ended 31st March, Great Britain. America or Other Countries. . , . Canada. Registrations. Motor-cars. 1927 .. .. 2,185 13,623 631 16,439 1928 .. .. 2,172 10,078 281 12,531 1929 .. .. 2,886 15,667 186 18,739 1930 .. .. 3,675 16,993 i 134 20,802 1931 .. .. 3,265 9,057 56 12,378 1932 .. .. 2,607 3,477 67 6,151 1933 .. .. 2,832 1,834 50 4,716 1934 .. 3,091 2,406 54 5,551 1935 .. .. 6,096 6,730 69 12,895 1936 .. .. 9,396 10,023 50 19,469 1937 .. .. 14,556 11,133 107 25,796 i Totals .. 52,761 101,021 1,685 155,467 Commercial Vehicles. 1927 .. .. 630 3,907 155 4,692 1928 .. .. 522 2,706 171 3,399 1929 .. .. 522 3,318 327 4,167 1930 .. .. 502 4,792 451 5,745 1931 .. .. 392 3,225 496 4,113 1932 .. .. 447 1,574 635 2,656 1933 .. .. 686 1,149 805 2,640 1934 .. .. 941 1,471 927 3,339 1935 .. .. 1,266 2,791 954 5,011 1936 .. .. 1,515 3,785 1,145 6,445 1937 .. .. 1,955 4,991 2,053 8,999 Totals .. 9,378 33,709 8,119 51,206 Motor-cycles. 1927 .. .. 3,851 1,592 j 21 5,464 1928 .. .. 3,479 1,067 ! 14 4,560 1929 .. .. 3,794 949 25 4,768 1930 .. .. 3,486 802 12 4,300 1931 .. .. 2,581 548 10 3,139 1932 .. .. 1,567 483 8 2,058 1933 .. .. 1,515 545 12 2,072 1934 .. .. 1,428 514 14 1,956 1935 .. .. 1,669 542 22 2,233 1936 .. .. 1,897 486 38 2,421 1937 .. .. 2,600 419 9 3,028 Totals .. 27,867 7,947 185 35,999

H.—40

The foregoing figures are expressed as percentages in the following table : —

The above table shows a steady growth of the share of new cars obtained by Great Britain up till the depression year of 1933, when 60 per cent, came from that source. Then came a drop following upon the improving economic conditions, with a sudden increase for 1936-37 to 57 per cent. This increase during a boom period is no doubt due to the increased prosperity of the community. A somewhat similar trend is noticeable in the case of commercial vehicles, excepting for the increase in vehicles from Great Britain in 1936-37. In this case the imports from the United States of America and Canada out-numbered commercial-vehicle imports from Great Britain by over 2to 1. It should be noted that the figures from " other countries " has been omitted from the percentage table ; this is because practically all of the figures under that heading refer to trailers, 2,003 of the 2,053 vehicles under that heading for 1936-37 being for trailers. In the motor-cycle field the British entry shows an increasing predominance since the depression years, and the slight swing-over to American machines has not been maintained. Foreign motorcycles do not appear to be able to establish any hold on the New Zealand motor-cycle market.

7

p , United States of n ,, _ T , „, Year ended 31st March, I Br [ tain Countries. Registrations. Motor-cars. 1927 .. ..13 83 4 100 1928 .... 17 81 2 100 1929 .... 15 84 1 100 1930 .... 17 82 1 100 1931 .... 26 73 1 100 1932 .... 42 57 1 100 1933 .... 60 39 1 100 1934 .. ..56 43 1 100 1935 .... 47 52 1 100 1936 .. .. 48 52 .. 100 1937 .... 57 43 .. 100 Totals .. 36 63 1 100 Commercial Vehicles. 1927 .. .. j 14 86 .. 100 1928 .. .. 1 16 84 .. 100 1929 .. .. 14 86 100 1930 .. .. 9 91 .. 100 1931 .. .. 11 89 .. 100 1932 .... 22 78 .. 100 1933 .. ..37 63 .. 100 1934 .. .. 39 61 .. 100 1935 .. .. 31 69 .. 100 1936 .. .. 29 71 .. 100 1937 .... 28 72 .. 100 Totals .. 23 77 .. 100 Motor-cycles. 1927 .. .. 70 30 .. ' 100 1928 .. .. 76 24 .. 100 1929 .. .. 80 20 .. 100 1930 .. .. 81 19 .. 100 1931 .. .. 82 ! 18 .. 100 1932 .. .. 76 24 .. 100 1933 .... 73 26 1 100 1934 .... 73 26 1 100 1935 .... 75 24 1 100 1936 .... 78 20 2 100 1937 .. .. 86 14 .. 100 Totals 77 22 1 100

H. 40

(c) Motor-vehicles licensed as at 31st March, 1937. The appended figures show the number of motor-vehicles licensed for the year 1936-37 as at 31st March, 1937 (the licensing year expires on 31st May each year) :—

Table No. 1 of the Appendix shows the number of motor-vehicles registered as at 31st December, 1936, grouped according to highway districts. The number of motor-vehicles licensed as at 31st March, 1937, classified according to postal districts, are set out in Table 2. Table No. 3 of the Appendix sets out the number of motor-vehicles licensed each year since 1925. Since the system of registration was instituted there have been several changes, both in definition and in method of classification. An additional complication has been introduced by the fact that whereas since 1932 the number of vehicles " licensed " has been recorded, previously the number of vehicles " registered " was recorded. It is necessary to appreciate the distinction between these terms. When a new vehicle arrives it is registered by the owner and simultaneously is licensed for one year or lesser period. If the license is not renewed the next year the vehicle is classified as a " dormant registration." After a registration has been dormant for two years it is cancelled. If the vehicle is subsequently relicensed it is registered afresh as a new vehicle. Prior to 1932 the number of vehicles licensed was obtained by subtracting from the total registrations the number of dormant registrations. This method was not sound, however, because the date upon which the dormant registrations were totalled did not coincide with that on which the total registrations were ascertained. It has been found necessary to endeavour to arrive at a common basis whereby the growth of the motor-vehicle in New Zealand might be measured from year to year. Table No. 3 shows the result of this effort, but attention is directed to the fact that, owing to the differences of definition and classification, the figures other than the yearly totals cannot be taken as strictly comparable. This table shows the figures as at 31st December each year. The figures for trailers have been excluded from the totals. The chief feature of the table is the steady growth in the numbers of mot or-vehicles in this country, interrupted temporarily during the depression years. The number of " dorman; " registrations—i.e., vehicles which although registered had not been licensed for the current year—as at 31st March, 1937, were as under :—

8

Type of Vehicle. North Island. South Island, j Ne " r^ land Cars .. .. .. .. .. .. 111,869 58,135 170,004 Light tracks (2 tons and under laden) .. .. 17,386 8,903 26,289 Heavy tracks (over 2 tons laden) .. .. .. 12,927 6,333 19,260 Passenger trucks .. .. .. .. .. 790 344 1,134 Omnibuses .. .. .. .. .. 445 174 619 Taxis .. .. .. .. .. .. 1,133 564 1,697 Service cars .. .. .. .. .. 419 284 703 Rental and private-hire cars . . . . .. 346 224 570 Dealers' cars .. .. .. .. .. 1,103 482 1,585 Local-authority road vehicles .. .. .. 1,156 921 2,077 Government vehicles .. .. .. .. 1,450 569 2,019 Trailers .. .. .. .. .. .. 2,807 2,637 5,444 Dealers' motor-cycles .. .. .. .. 96 50 146 Motor-cycles .. .. .. .. .. 15,082 9,119 24,201 Totals .. .. .. .. .. 167,009 88,739 255,748

J gg» I Ag, | Cars .. .. .. .. .. .. 3,067 4,808 7,875 Light trucks (2 tons and under laden) .. .. 2,077 3,054 5,131 Heavy trucks (over 2 tons laden) .. .. .. 880 1,332 2,212 Service cars .. .. .. .. .. 23 37 60 Taxis . . .. . . . . . . ., 31 41 72 Rental and private-hire cars .. .. .. 12 25 37 Contract vehicles and passenger trucks .... 27 49 76 Omnibuses .. .. .. .. .. 15 17 32 Traction-engines .. .. .. 41 74 115 Trailers .. .. .. .. .. .. 508 795 1,303 Tractors .. .. .. .. .. 73 216 289 Motor-cycles .. .. .. .. .. 2,771 4,075 6,846 Other motor-vehicles .. .. .. . . 15 47 62 Totals .. .. .. .. 9,540 14,570 24,110

H.—4o,

Section 10 of the Motor-vehicles Amendment Act, 1927, provides that after a registration has remained " dormant " for two complete } 7 ears it is to be cancelled. The following sets out the 1933-34 registrations cancelled on Ist June, 1936, in accordance with this section

(d) Motor-vehicle Registration Plates. The following classes of number-plates were assigned during the licensing year 1936-37 : — (1) For private cars, plates without initial letter from 1001 onwards, the highest number manufactured being 185,000. (2) For " private-hire " and " rental " cars, plates without letter 1-999, inclusive. (3) Special plates for issuance to cycles. (4) Plates with initial letter " D " (both car and cycle) for dealers' vehicles. (5) Plates with initial letter " E " for vehicles exempted from payment of annual license fees. (6) Plates with the prefix " Govt." for vehicles owned by Government Departments. (7) Plates with initial letter " H " for heavy trucks. (8) Plates with initial letter " L " for light trucks. (9) Plates with initial letter " P " for omnibuses. (10) Plates with initial letter " R " for trailers. (11) Plates with initial letter " S " for service cars. (12) Plates with initial letter " T " for taxis. (13) Plates with initial letter " V " for passenger trucks and " contract " motor-vehicles. (e) Vehicles actually on the Road. The number of vehicles licensed on the register kept in accord with the provisions of the Motorvehicles Act, 1924, may be taken as a reasonable indication of the number of vehicles actually on the road. The number of vehicles licensed have been estimated from month to month, and the averages for the years ending on the 31st March, 1934, to the 31st March, 1937, are given hereunder : -

2—lt. 40,

9

Type of Vehicle. Number. Cars .. .. . • • • • • • ■ 2,808 Light trucks .. .. • • • • • • 1 > 700 Heavy trucks .. .. .. • • • • 715 Service cars .. .. • • • • • • 42 Taxis .. .. .. • • • • • • 21 Passenger trucks Rental and private-hire cars .. .. .. 1 Motor-buses .. . • • • • • • • 15 Traction-engines .. .. . • • • • • 33 Trailers .. .. . • , • • • • • • 472 Tractors .. .. .. • • • • • • HO Motor-cycles .. .. • • • • • • 2,523 Other vehicles .. .. . • • • • • 26 Total 8,466

Averages. Class of Vehicle. ~ ; 1934. 1935. 1936. 1937. Number. Number. Number. Number. Cars .. .. •• •• •• 117,867 124,204 135,220 152,819 Trucks, light, up to 2 tons laden .. .. 17,643 19,840 21,281 23,499 Trucks, heavy, over 2 tons laden .. .. 13,708 14,394 15,539 17,310 Omnibus .. .. • • • • • • 518 511 531 575 Taxis .. .. •• •• •• 1,493 1,518 1,627 1,659 Rental cars .. • • • • • • 131 215 333 474 Service cars .. .. • • • • 965 735 670 656 Dealers'cars .. •• 853 1,003 1,221 1,475 Local-body road vehicles .. .. .. 1,147 1,198- 1,430 1,762 Government vehicles .. .. •• 1,378 1,444 1,546 1,806 Dealers' motor-cycles .. .. • • 127 123 128 133 Motor-cycles 21,113 21,063 20,602 20,631 Trailers 2,400 2,107 2,894 3,796 Passenger trucks .. .. . ■ ■ • * 628 795 977 Totals .. •• •• 179,343 188,983 203,817 227,572 ■ 1 I * Included under other headings for 1933-34.

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There has been an increase in the number of all classes of motor-vehicles on the road excepting motor-cycles and service cars, which have remained practically stationary. Motor-cars on the road show a 13-per-cent. increase on 1935-36, while trucks have increased by 11 per cent. It is interesting to note that the total number of vehicles in use has increased by 27 per cent, since 1933-34. (/) Petrol Consumption. The following table shows a classification of the manner in which petrol was consumed in the Dominion during the last nine calendar years : —

The total gallons are calculated from the quantity of motor-spirits on which petrol-tax was paid. A tremendous increase in motor-vehicle petrol-consumption took place in 1936 as compared with 1935, and the previous peak year 1930. The figures show a 9,300,000-gallon increase on the previous year. 4. MOTOR-SPIRITS TAXATION ACT, 1927. The following data show the yield from and distribution of petrol-tax plus surtax on foreign petrol imports since the inception of the tax in 1928.

(a) Yield.

10

Consumption of Petrol. Calendar Year. B Motor-vehicles Other-i.e Engines, (i.e., Petrol on which Aeroplanes &c. (Petrol all Duty was paid). onwh lc h Refunds of r JJuty were made). Gallons. Gallons. Gallons. 1928 .. .. .. .. 41,457,150 2,057,940* 43,515,090* 1929 .. .. .. .. 56,575,840 3,650,040 60,225,880 1930 .. .. .. .. 62,821,479 3,907,900 66,729,379 1931 .. .. .. .. 55,202,983 5,286,000 60,488,983 1932 .. .. .. .. 49,861,976 5,495,479 55,357,455 1933 .. .. .. .. 51,293,572 5,400,000t 56,693,572 1934 .. .. .. .. 55,991,831 6,100,000f 62,091,831 1935 .. .. .. .. 62,807,535 6,483,6001 69,291,135 1936 .. .. .. .. 72,107,051 6,685,600f 78,792,651 * Excludes an unknown amount of petrol on which duty was not paid. f Estimated.

Expenses of Year ended 31st March, Gross Yield. Refunds. Net Yield. Collection -r, and Refund. ' Glance. £ £ £ £ £ 1928 148,202 ' 32 148,170 1,710 146,460* 1929 .. .. .. 867,794 49,105 818,689 8,303 810,386 1930 .. .. .. 1,063,811 67,296 996,515 12.633 983,882 1931 1,480,517 100,978 1,379,539 16,335 l,363,204f 1932 1,817,893 137,585 1,680,308 20,360 1,659,948} 1933 .. .. .. 2,018,449 132,421 1,886,028 20,266 1,865,762§ 1934 2,520,825 148,984 2,371,841 20,283 2,351,558 1935 .. .. .. 2,773,372 159,978 2,613,394 20,180 2,593,214 1936 .. .. .. 3,082,862 165,389 2,917,473 21,271 2,896,202 1937 .. .. .. 3,557,070 166,426 3,390,644 20,596 3,370,048 Total up to 31st March, 19,330,795 1,128,194 18,202,60] 161,937 18,040,664 1937 * Part year only. f increase from 4d. to 6d. per gallon as from 22nd July, 1930. J Increase from 6d. to 8d. per gallon as from 7th October, 1931. § Increase from 8d. to lOd. per gallon as from 9th February, 1933.

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(b) Distribution.

N.B. —The distribution of petrol-tax amongst boroughs in accordance with section 9 (1) (b) of the Motor-spirits Taxation Act, 1927, for the year ended 31st March, 1937, together with cumulative figures showing the total distribution from the inception of the petrol-tax up to the 31st March, 1937, is given in Table No, 4 in the Appendix. (c) Refunds of Petrol-tax. Refunding of Duty on Motor-spirits. In last year's report attention was drawn to the fact that the number of claims for refunds of duty on motor-spirits had a rising tendency each year. The position was reversed during the year 1936 as 3,105 less claims were authorized for payment. Notwithstanding this decrease the value of the refunds made increased by £12,506. The increase in the amount refunded is attributed to the large claims for refunds made by owners of aircraft and to the increased use of tractors on. farms. The decline in the number of claims is due to a considerable number of farmers installing electric power to operate their milking-machinery plants and to the increased use of high-compression engines using oil fuel. The numbers of claims handled and the total amount refunded during the period 1928-36 are set out hereunder :—

The particulars of the claims paid during each of the quarterly periods in 1936 are as follows

Daring the calendar year 1936, 2,938 claims were made during the second month following the close of the respective quarterly periods, and they were subject to a reduction of 10 per cent, in accordance with the provisions of section 7 of the Finance Act, 1933 (No. 2). Refunds are made at the rate of 6d. per gallon on all motor-spirits consumed for purposes other than as fuel for motor-vehicles in respect of which annual license fees are payable. Section 13 of the Customs Acts Amendment Act, 1934, authorizes an additional refund of 2d. per gallon to be made on motor-spirits consumed in aircraft and in vessels used exclusively in the fishing industry for commercial purposes.

11

Year ended 31st March, JConsolidated Fund. Ma Authorities. Total. £ £ £ £ 1928 .. 4,654 130,461 11,345 146,460 1929 .. 16,458 730,414 63,514 810,386 1930 . . .. 34,567 873,370 75,945 983,882 1931 .. 63,154 1,219,209 80,841 1,363,204 1932 .. .. 321,685 1,231,202 107,061 1,659,948 1933 1,122,147 644,126 99,489 1,865,762 1934 .. .. .. 1,579,962 669,868 101,728 2,351,558 1935 .. .. 1,510,338 970,506 112,370 2,593,214 1936 .. .. .. 1,321,066 1,449,125 126,011 2,896,202 1937 .. .. .. 1,524,459 1,697,942 147,647 3,370,048 Total 7,498,490 9,616,223 925,951 18,040,664

Year. Number of Claims. Amount refunded. £ 1928 11,101 34,299 1929 .. •• •• 19,814 60,834 1930 .. •• •• 25,797 83,741 1931 37,116 132,150 1932 45,986 137,387 1933 .. .. .. 49,265 138,194 1934 .. .. .. 52,718 155,714 1935 .. .... .. 55,447 163,884 1936 .. 52,342 176,390

Quarter. I Number of Claims. Amount refunded. £ s. d. March .. .. 14,481 47,083 9 11 June 13,974 50,201 4 2 September .. .. •• •• 11,618 40,086 14 0 December.. .. .. •• •• 12,269 39,018 12 6

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The motor-spirit concerned in the foregoing refunds was consumed as under :—

5. SPECIAL MILEAGE-TAXATION. Mileage-tax is payable by owners of most vehicles which are not propelled exclusively by means of motor-spirits. The tax is also payable by owners of self-propelled well-boring, aircompressor, saw-bench, and crane plants, the owners of which are, in effect, exempted by the provisions of the Motor-vehicles (Special Types) Regulations, 1935, from the payment of all other forms of motor-vehicle taxation. The owners of the last-mentioned vehicles are entitled to claim refunds of duty on all of the motor-spirits consumed in operating their contrivances. As the result of the amending legislation the number of vehicles subject to the tax has increased from 142 to 198. The figures for the last four years are as follows : —•

6. ROAD FINANCE. (a) Dominion's Road Bill, 1934-36. The Department has investigated the numerous statistical data available from official sources and has analysed and classified them in order to show approximately what the roads, streets, and bridges are costing under the headings of construction, maintenance, and loan charges. The figures which have been analysed relate to the three years ended 31st March, 1936. The classification of the roads into main highways, urban roads and streets, and other roads has been carried out, as each class of road or street has differing problems attached to it. This classification has involved a certain amount of estimation, as also have certain aspects of the figures for the whole road bill. Any estimations have been made on a conservative basis, and the figures are sufficiently close to actual fact to form a basis for reliable broad conclusions. Attention is directed to the fact that certain adjustments have been made to the figures published in previous reports.

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How consumed. Gallons. Percentage of Total. Motor-vehicle (farm tractor, mule, &c.) .. .. 2,052,600 »30-7 Milking-machinery .. .. .. .. 1,520,000 22-7 Fishing and other vessels .. .. .. 850,000 12-7 Miscellaneous stationary machinery .. .. 825,000 12-3 Local-authority and other road vehicles .. 638,000 9-5 Lighting and heating plants .. .. .. 220,000 3-3 Manufacturing, cleaning, scientific, &c. .. 190,000 2-8 Shearing-machinery .. .. .. .. 130,000 2-0 Aircraft .. .. .. .. .. 260,000 4-0 Total .. .. .. 6,685,600 100-0

Year ended 31st March, | Revenue. £ 1934 .. .. .. .. 269 1,597 1935 .. .. .. .. 96 1,629 1936 .. .. .. .. 142 1,813 1937 .. .. .. 198 4,159 Total .. .. .. 9,198

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The following table shows the expenditure under the various headings for the three years ended 31st March, 1936 : —

The principal points emerging from the figures for the years ended 31st March, 1935, have been commented upon in previous annual reports. The figures for 1935-36, as compared with those of the previous year, are commented on below (1) Maintenance. (a) Main Highways. —Expenditure on this item during 1935-36 increased by £130,000. The moneys expended by the Main Highways Board on maintenance increased by £90,000, while county expenditure on main highways maintenance out of revenue increased by £40,000. (b) Other Roads. —Expenditure under this head increased by £142,000 due to County Councils increasing their expenditure out of revenue by £106,000 and to the Public Works increasing their expenditure out of the Consolidated Fund. (2) Construction. (a) Main Highways.—This item has increased by £197,000, of which the increase in Main Highways Board expenditure accounts for £146,000 and the increase in County Council payments for the balance, £30,000 being loan-moneys and £15,000 being unemployment-relief expenditure. (b) Urban Roads and Streets—This item has decreased by £40,000, mainly due to a decrease in borough payments on construction out of loan. (c) Other Roads—A decrease of £70,000 is shown under this heading, due largely to a decrease in Public Works Department expenditure by £65,000. Public Works expenditure from the unemployment funds decreased by £137,000, but expenditure from the Public Works Fund increased by £72,000. (3) Loan Charges. The increases under this head have been due to an increase in interest and sinking-fund charges to the rates ruling in 1933-34. (4) Total Road Bill. The following table, showing the percentages of the total expenditure on maintenance, construction, and interest and loan charges, is of interest: —

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I I I _ 1933-34. 1934-35. ' 1935-36. ) Maintenance — £ £ 5 Main highways .. .. •• 954,656 1,501,539 1,632,453 Urban roads and streets .. .. 397,371 392,032 406,775 Other roads .. .. 718,943 955,994 1,098,366 Total .. .. •• 2,070,970 2,849,565 3,137,594 Construction —• Main highways .. .. •• 286,709 428,072 624,943 Urban roads and streets .. .. 1,104,047 944,235 903,918 Other roads .. .. •• 1,240,920 1,172,529 1,102,730 Total .. .. •• 2,631,676 2,544,836 2,631,591 Interest and sinking fund charges — Main highways .. .. •• 632,846 612,129 605,403 Urban roads and streets .. .. 585,900 554,400 580,979 Other roads 1,136,070 1,136,515 1,122,408 Total .. .. •• 2,354,816 2,303,044 2,308,790 Total annual road bill — Main highways .. .. •• 1,874,211 2,541,740 2,862,799 Urban roads and streets .. .. 2,087,318 1,890,667 1,891,672 Other roads 3,095,933 3,265,038 3,323,504 Total .. .. .. 7,057,462 7,697,445 8,077,975

I ! Interest and Loan ' Maintenance. Construction. Charges. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. 1933-34 .. .. .. ■■ 29-3 37-3 33-4 1934-35 37-0 33-1 29-9 1935-36 .. .. •• 3 8 " 8 32 ' 6 28 ' 6

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(b) Sources of Money expended on Road Bill, 1933-34 to 1935-36. The Department has also analysed the expenditure on roads during the three years ended 31st March, 1936, in order to ascertain the sources from which the money expended has been derived. The following table shows, under five main headings, the sources of revenue expended on (a) main highways, (6) urban roads, (c) other roads, and (d) all types of roads : —

The principal points emerging from the 1935-36 figures as compared with those of previous years are as follows :— (1) Loan-money. This item shows an increase of £305,000 over the previous year's figures and no w represents 14 per cent, of the total money expended. This is still in marked contrast to the year 1930-31, when this item represented almost 30 per cent, of the total. (2) Local Rates. This item has remained practically stationary and is still the chief source of money for expenditure on roads, this year's figure comprising 30-3 per cent, of the total. (3) Unemployment Taxation. The amount expended this year shows a sharp decline, approximately £460,000, and this item now accounts for only 12-5 per cent, of the total. (4) General Taxation. This item has remained almost constant. This year's figure represents 14-5 per cent, of the total, compared with 16 per cent, in 1933-34. (5) Motor-taxation. Motor-taxation again shows a substantial increase, this year's figure being £385,000 above that for the previous year. This item comprises 28-7 per cent, of the road bill and is gradually approaching the amount provided by local rates. Whereas the amount expended from local rates in 1930-31 exceeded that from motor-taxation by some £1,200,000, the excess is now only £125,000. Details of the increase in motor-taxation generally are shown in the Appendix of this report.

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— - ™T | 1933-34. ! 1934-35. 1935-36. Main highways— £ £ £ Loan .. .. .. ... 237,469 360,118 549,546 Local rates .. .. .. 431,262 471,851 502,408 Unemployment-taxation .. .. 89,612 280,751 45,638 General taxation .. .. .. 157,257 151,229 157,403 Motor-taxation .. .. .. 958,611 1,277,791 1,607,804 Total .. .. .. 1,874,211 2,541,740 2,862,799 Urban roads— Loan .. .. .. .. 70,291 71,307 118,745 Local rates • .. .. 1,153,032 1,072,108 1,080,048 Unemployment-taxation .. .. 616,278 475,306 384,050 General taxation Motor-taxation .. .. .. 247,717 271,946 308,829 Total .. .. .. 2,087,318 1,890,667 1,891,672 Other roads — Loan .. .. .. .. 381,090 398,371 466,152 Local rates- .. .. .. 734,844 781,010 863,458 Unemployment-taxation .. .. 797,086 714,887 580,000 General taxation .. .. . . 971,955 985,081 1,010,496 Motor-taxation .. .. .. 210,958 385,689 403,398 Total .. .. .. 3,095,933 3,265,038 3,323,504 All roads — Loan .. .. .. .. 688,850 829,796 1,134,443 Local rates .. .. .. 2,319,138 2,324,969 2,445,914 Unemployment-taxation .. .. 1,502,976 1,470,944 1,009,688 General taxation .. .. .. 1,129,212 1,136,310 1,167,899 Motor-taxation .. .. .. 1,417,286 1,935,426 2,320,031 Total .. .. .. 7,057,462 7,697,445 8,077,975

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(6) General. The following table indicates the approximate percentages of the various sources of revenue comprised in the total expenditure on roads during the three years ended 31st March, 1936 : —

(c) Annual Charges per Mile on Roads, Streets, etc., 1934-36. The following table shows the annual expenditure for the three years ended 31st March, 1936, on the various classes of roads, &c., computed per mile of road and/or street: —

Tables Nos. 5 and 6 of the Appendix show the lengths of various classes of roads, streets, and bridges during the years from 1922 to 1936 inclusive. (d) MOTOR - TAXATION. Table No. 7 shows an analysis of the revenue received from the various taxes and fees levied in connection with motor-vehicles, together with comparative figures for the previous eleven years. The total amount for 1936-37 was £5,348,019, the highest figure yet recorded. There has been an increase in every class of revenue, and the increase of £895,568 over the previous year is made up as follows : Customs duties on motor-vehicles and parts, £263,415 ; motor-spirits tax, £473,846 ; tire-tax, £52,585 ; fees and fines under the Motor-vehicles Act, £61,730 ; and other fees and taxes, £43,992. 7. HEAVY MOTOR-VEHICLE REGULATIONS, 1932. (a) Speeds of Heavy Motoe-vehio'les. During the year a conference was called by the Department inviting representatives of roadcontrolling authorities and users of heavy motor-vehicles to discuss proposals for increases in maximum allowable speeds for the various classes of passenger and goods vehicles. It was felt that due to recent improvements in vehicle design, particularly the trend towards general use of low-pressure tyres, roads generally would sustain no greater damage at somewhat higher speeds than was the case when the regulations were formulated in 1932. The higher speeds would also permit of more economic vehicle operation as the speed-limits in existence were in each case much lower than the average speeds for which the modern vehicles are designed.

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Item. 1933-34. 1934-35. 1935-36. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Loan 9-8 10-8 14-0 Local rates .. .. 32-9 30-2 30-3 Unemployment taxation .. 21-3 19-1 12-5 General taxation .. .. 16-0 14-8 14-5 Motor-taxation .. .. 20-0 25-1 28-7 Total .. .. 100-0 100-0 100-0

Annual Charges per Mile of Road. ,,, . , Year ended Length of ; Class of Road. 31st March, Formed Roads. > , , , , Maintenance, i TotaL Miles. £ £ £ Main highways .. .. 1934 10,975 87 58 145 1935 11,176 134 55 189 1936 11,649 140 52 192 Urban roads and streets .. 1934 4,086 97 143 240 1935 4,035 97 137 234 1936 4,059 100 ' 143 243 Other roads .. .. 1934 36,010 20 32 52 1935 36,947 26 31 57 1936 36,350 30 31 61 Total, all roads .. 1934 51,071 41 46 87 1935 52,158 55 44 99 1936 52,058 60 44 104

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Following the Department's investigations and the discussions at this conference an amendment to the regulations was effected altering the maximum permissible speeds as follows : —

(i) Passenger-vehicles.

(ii) Goods-vehicles.

These maximum speeds relate only to heavy motor-vehicles which are sprung and equipped with pneumatic tires on all wheels. The speeds permitted solid rubber-tired and metal-tired vehicles and also unsprung vehicles remain unchanged. (6) Limitation of Loads on Roads. A further number of local authorities have now effected the classification of roads under their control, with the result that now there are 54 per cent, of all rural roads classified and 95 per cent, of the main-highway system throughout the rural areas. The mileages are as follows : —

(i) Classification of Rural Roads.

(ii) Classification of Main Highways.

Local authorities generally have adopted Class 111 as the maximum except where the roads are of a high type dustless surface or adjacent to large industrial centres. In many cases the main highways and any other important key roads have been classified in this class and the minor roads left unclassified, except where a light type of construction necessitates a lower weight-limitation than Class 111 provides. For all practical purposes the classification of the main routes traversing an area effectively limits the loading throughout the whole roading system of that area. In addition to road classification which has been newly effected, there has been a review of the position in connection with certain vital links in the roading system where a classification in Class IV or Class V has obtained for a number of years. In some of these cases the roads were found to have been improved and strengthened to an extent warranting an increase in the allowable load-limits, and the classification was accordingly raised to Class 111 or to Class IV. Under the programme of reconstruction on State highways now being actively pursued by the Main Highways Board it

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Maximum Gross Weight. Former Speed-limit. Amended Speed-limit. 2 tons to 4f tons .. .. .. .. 35 m.p.h. 35 m.p.h. 4J tons to 6| tons . . . . .. .. 25 m.p.h. 35 m.p.h. 6| tons to 10 tons .. . . . . .. 20 m.p.h. 30 m.p.h. 10 tons to 15 tons .. . . .. . . 20 m.p.h. 25 m.p.h.

Maximum Gross Weight. Former Speed-limit. Amended Speed-limit. 2 tons to 4| tons .. .. .. .. 25 m.p.h. 30 m.p.h. 4| tons to 6| tons .. .. .. . . 20 m.p.h. 30 m.p.h. 6| tons to 10 tons . . .. .. . . 15 m.p.h. 25 m.p.h. 10 tons to 15 tons . . .. .. . . 15 m.p.h. 20 m.p.h.

R°o^ds d Class IL Class IIL Class IV " Class V " T °fioition SS1 " Miles. Miles. Miles. ! Miles. Miles. Miles. North Island .. .. .. 26,045 182 4,946 8,788 2,730 16,646 South Island .. .. .. 21,805 578 6,257 2,237 275 9,347 Totals .. .. 47,850 760 11,203 11,025 3,005 25,993 i

„.^ ain , Class īr. Class III. Class IV. Class V. Total 9 lassi " Highways. j neation. Miles. Miles. Miles. Miles. Miles. Miles. North Island .. .. .. 6,467 98 2,908 3,154 95 6,255 South Island .. .. .. 5,217 450 4,250 138 32 4,870 Totals 11,684 548 7,158 3,292 127 11,125

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seems probable that a Class 111 standard of construction on the arterial routes throughout the Dominion is not far distant. The existing position at present is set out hereunder

(iii) Classification of State Highways (Rural Sections).

It is notable that in areas where road surfaces are comparatively weak, such as North Auckland and the central portion of the North Island, the ruling classification is Class IV, whereas the South» Island, and particularly southwards of Geraldine, a uniform Class 111 now prevails throughout practically the whole main-highways system. It is considered that Class 111 generally provides an economic loading in rural areas, and this is particularly so in the case of multi-axled vehicles which are permitted a gross laden weight of 10 tons. When roads are newly classified it is the usual practice to grant permits enabling vehicles which do not comply with the gross-weight limits to continue in operation for the balance of their useful life. In this way undue hardship, which would otherwise be incurred by the operators, is avoided. On replacement of these vehicles, however, it is most desirable that the new vehicle should comply with the load-restrictions, and in this way complete conformity to the classification would eventually be achieved. The indiscriminate issue of permits or slack enforcement of the classification tends to defeat this whole object, which is the preservation of the road surfaces from the damaging effect of unnecessarily heavy wheel-loads. Strict adherence to the classified limits is now being required, and unless an operator has a permit enabling him to carry excess loads, he is required to observe the prescribed limits as to gross weight. 8. MOTOR-VEHICLES AMENDMENT ACT, 1936. Speed-limits in Built-up Abeas. The Act provides that there should be a uniform speed limit of 30 m.p.h. (i) in all boroughs and town districts except where the Minister excludes any particular streets or roads, and (ii) in any other area approved by the Minister as a closely populated locality for this purpose. It has been found in numerous cases of boroughs and town districts that the legal boundaries do not constitute the limits of population. In order that the speed-restriction may not be unnecessarily or unreasonably applied in such instances, inspections have been carried out with a view to recommending adjustments to the commencing-points of the speed-limits, where necessary, and in a number of instances the outlying sections of the more important roads entering the towns have been excluded from the provision as to speed. There is still a great deal of work to be done in this connection in various parts of the Dominion, and this is being carried out as expeditiously as possible. It is desired that the 30 m.p.h. limit should be scrupulously observed, and the first step towards ensuring this is obviously the application of the restriction only where its observance should be reasonably expected. Numerous requests have been made by rural local authorities for the application of a speed-restriction of 30 m.p.h. through various townships and settlements in their districts. In some instances these localities have been restricted accordingly, but in the case of a considerable proportion of the applications it has been deemed more effective to rely instead upon general safe driving requirements and to draw attention to any possible hazard due to local pedestrian or other traffic by the erection of suitably placed and appropriately worded cautionary signs. 9. TRAFFIC CENSUS. Following the first comprehensive traffic census taken in 1934-35, arrangements have been made by the Main Highways Board for a similar census to be conducted during 1937-38. As previously, this census will be confined to the rural main-highway system, and will enable both the general increase in traffic volume to be ascertained, and also the trend of traffic in respect of particular routes. As has already been shown by the first census, the results of these traffic surveys prove invaluable in the design of roads for future traffic requirements, the allocation of funds, and in connection with investigations regarding road safety. Actually, however, the main-highway system, to which the census relates, constitutes less than quarter of the total mileage of formed roads in New Zealand, although they carry a great deal more than that proportion of the total vehicular traffic. No similar data is available concerning other rural roads nor the urban roads and streets.

3—H. 40.

17

— Highways. Class IL Class ĪIL j ClassIV " j Cla8S V " Miles. Miles. Miles. Miles. Miles. Miles. North Island .. .. •• 2,112 27 1,115 | 950 .. 2,092 South Island 1,629 89 1,485 j .. .. 1,574 Totals 3,741 116 2,600 j 950 .. 3,666

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10. ROAD SAFETY. During the past year road safety has been the most important feature of the Department's activities. Regulations have been passed controlling driving-hours in the road-transport industry both under the Transport Licensing Act and the Motor-vehicles Act, and safety measures have been incorporated in the Motor-vehicles Amendment Act, 1936. The Traffic Regulations have been revised and their scope widened, whilst a Council to act in an advisory capacity in all aspects of road safety has been set up. " In the following sections the various measures taken in the campaign are set out. A.—ROAD-ACCIDENT STATISTICS. Against the year ended 31st March, 1937, are recorded 213 deaths resulting from motor accidents. Statistics relating to these, compiled from the reports of Coroners' proceedings, are set out in Table No. 14 of the Appendix, and are compared in this table with the figures for the preceding years since 1930. 6 J

Annual Fatalities & Relative Traffic Volume. 1930-1937 Index Nos. Base Year 1980-100.

comparison of the fatality rate year by year is perhaps more forcibly illustrated by the graph below. This graph compares the annual fatalities with the volume of motor traffic on the roads during this period of eight years. In each case the year ended 31st- March, 1930, is taken as the base year. The estimated traffic volume is based upon petrol consumption figures. In order to attempt to gauge the effect so far of the intensive road-safety campaign, which commenced m September, 1936, a further graph is presented showing the actual number of fatalities month by month from September, 1935, to March, 1937. On comparison of similar periods before and after September of last year it is seen that the average number of deaths per month has dropped from 18-9 to 14-7, a reduction of 22 per cent.

18

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Monthly Fatalit ies September 1935-March 1937

19

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The main features which appear.from a study of the statistics given in Table 14 are :— (i) The total number of accidents show an increase of twelve over the previous year, this increase being made up largely of collisions between motor-vehicles. A slight decrease has occurred in respect of accidents involving pedestrians and bicyclists. (ii) Over half the accidents occurred at night or during dusk, indicating that lack of adequate seeing ability is a vital factor, as during this period of the twenty-four hours there is only about one-fifth of the volume of traffic which is carried during daylight hours. (iii) There were eleven railway-crossing smashes where some one was killed, "the highest annual total yet recorded. (iv) 59 per cent, of the fatal accidents occurred on country roads and 41 per cent, in the urban areas. (v) Although the actual number of pedestrians killed has not increased, they still represent over one-quarter of the fatalities caused through motor-vehicle accidents. (vi) Motor-cycles, although representing only 9f per cent, of the vehicles on the road, constituted 19f per cent, of the vehicles involved in fatal accidents. (vii) The most common breaches of the law leading to fatal accidents were— (a) Driver's intoxication, either mild or severe ; (b) On incorrect side of road ; (c) Failure to comply with the offside rule ; (d) Excessive speed under the circumstances ; (e) Various vehicular defects such as glaring or ineffective lights and faulty brakes. (viii) Pedestrians were at fault in a considerable number of instances. As a result of the recommendations made by the New Zealand Road Safety Council, arrangements were finalized towards the end of the year under review whereby far more comprehensive data is now obtained regarding road accidents. Formerly all particulars obtained have been in respect of fatal accidents only, but by arrangement with the Police Department a report is now received concerning each accident where there is "injury to person. All such accidents are required by law to be reported by the motorist at the nearest police-station. A police officer investigates the circum stances and in the course of these duties prepares a report on a standard form designed for these statistical purposes. From these reports, covering at present some three hundred accidents each month, the Department compiles a number of very useful analyses which are being utilized as the prime basis for determining the preventive measures to be taken, and gauging the efficacy of these various measures. While the statistics do not cover the whole field of motor accidents, they relate to a definite class of accident and may thus be used as a basis for comparison. Some of the main immediate purposes to which these statistics are put are : — (i) A basis for publicity, in conjunction with periodical statements regarding the toll of the road and the remedial measures being taken. (ii) The main breaches of the law which commonly lead to accidents are revealed and the Government traffic staff and local traffic authorities are advised accordingly. (iii) Accident spot maps are prepared showing localities where accidents are frequent. (iv) Instances are investigated where it seems evident or possible that some faulty road condition contributed to the accident, and where considered necessary the condition is brought to the notice of the road-controlling authority. B.—NEW ZEALAND ROAD SAFETY COUNCIL. During August, 1936, the Government's concern at the rising toll of the road led the Minister of Transport to call a conference of all interested sections of the public. The two major results of the conference were the endorsement of a proposal for traffic control to be taken over by the Government for all districts save in boroughs of over 6,000 population, and the recommendation that a Road Safety Council be set up to advise the Minister of Transport on matters relating to road-safety measures. The conference suggested that the Minister of Transport select the personnel of the Road Safety Council. After consultation with the interested bodies, the Council was appointed by the Minister as follows :— Hon. R. Semple, Minister of Transport (Chairman). Mr. G. L. Laurenson, Commissioner of Transport (Deputy Chairman). Dr. G. F. V. Anson, British Medical Association. Mr. G. R. Ashbridge, New Zealand Educational Institute. Mr. J. F. Cousins, New Zealand Motor Traders' Federation. Mr. D. J. Cummings, Commissioner of Police. Mr. J. S. Hawke, South Island Motor Union. Mr. J. H. Jerram, State Fire and Accident Office. Mr. M. F. Luckie, Municipalities. Dr. J. W. Mcllraith, Education Department. Mr. W. A. O'Callaghan, North Island Motor Union. Mr. F. C. Spratt, New Zealand Alliance. Mr. C. J. Talbot, Counties Association. Mr. J. Wood, Main Highways Board.

20

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The Council early decided that the problems to be dealt with could be divided into different sections as follows :— (i) Traffic laws including enforcement thereof. (ii) Education and propaganda. (iii) Vehicle-inspection. (iv) Vehicle and highway lighting. (v) Road conditions. (vi) Alcohol and the driver. (vii) Statistics of road accidents. The first meeting of the Council, held on the 23rd September, 1936, was devoted principally to setting up sub-committees for the purpose of dealing with those of the above subjects requiring detailed attention. At the next meeting, held on the 12th and 13th of November, 1936, the reports of the subcommittees were considered by the Council. These reports form a very valuable review of measures to be taken for road safety and are published in the Appendix to this report. The members expended much time and care in the formulating of these reports, and the public spirit shown is worthy of highest praise. The reports were in general adopted by the Council and recommendations accordingly were made to the Minister. Concerning the report on publicity, it was agreed that the question of finance should be held over. This matter is referred to in the following section of this report. At the third meeting, held on the 21st July, 1937, reports were received from the Department setting forth the action taken (as detailed in appropriate sections of this report) to further the recommendations of the Council and generally to increase safety on the roads. Of the miscellaneous recommendations received from the Council, one was that advertising agencies be approached with a view to discouraging the use of yellow and black advertisements liable to be confused with the standard traffic signs. This recommendation was carried out and has resulted in a gratifying response from the agencies. In addition to the value of the Council as an expert advisory body to the Minister of Transport on road-safety problems, its proceedings, which are featured by the press, form a very valuable means of bringing before the public from time to time the seriousness of the road-accident problem. G.—PREVENTIVE MEASURES. (i) Publicity and Education. From November, 1936, when the Road Safety Council first met to consider the reports of its various committees, action has been taken in various ways to bring home to all users of the road the seriousness of the road-accident problem and the necessity for greater care by all. During the Christmas period and the early part of the present year picture-theatres co-operated in the campaign by displaying a road-safety slide. Addresses and pronouncements have been made over the air, and the press has devoted considerable space to the problem. Each holder of a driver's license has been supplied with an indexed copy of the revised Traffic Regulations issued in December, 1936, and a copy of the Road Code ; the latter includes a summary of the regulations. A copy of the Road Code has been sent to each of the 355,000 householders served by the Postal Department. Leaflets addressed to parents and containing a list of the principal rules for child pedestrians and child cyclists were distributed to all State and private schools in the early part of the present year, the leaflets being sufficient to provide one for each pupil. Information for use by teachers in giving instruction in the schools has been published from time to time in the Education Gazette. Supplies of Road Codes have been sent to teachers' training colleges for study by students and for the preparation of lessons to children. Reference is now made to proposed future activities. Following the report and recommendations of the sub-committee on adult education and propaganda, involving considerable expenditure, the Council decided to set up a sub-committee to consider the question of finance. It had been suggested, when the matter was before the Council, that, in addition to what the Government itself might provide, funds might be obtained from interested organizations. The sub-committee came to the conclusion, however, that it was undesirable to seek funds in that manner, but favoured an arrangement by which there would be effective co-operation between the automobile associations and the Government. Other members of the Council concurred generally with these conclusions, and consequently on sth February last, the Hon. Minister of Transport wrote to the motor unions on the subject of co-operation in the carrying-out of the campaign. Portion of this letter is quoted : — " The excellent work done by associations to date is recognized and appreciated, and I am sure they will all wish to take an active part, and in the most effective way possible, in an endeavour to promote road safety throughout the Dominion. " In view of the active part now being taken by the Government, and in view of the complexity and gravity of the problem, I feel that there should be close consultation and co-operation between the associations and the Government with the object of bringing about some form of co-ordinated effort. The aim of such effort should be, I suggest, to obviate overlapping of work and expenditure and to ensure that due attention is given to both the general treatment of the problem and to special phases of it, including the needs of individual areas and the extraordinary conditions prevailing at certain times of the year." *

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The proposal had not been finally considered by the associations comprising the unions by the 31st March, and the general question was further considered by the Road Safety Council at a later meeting, when a number of resolutions, summarized briefly hereunder, were passed :■ " All the main means of publicity should be availed of to an adequate extent and expert assistance should be utilized. " There should be co-ordination of propaganda activities. " There should be definition of responsibility as between the Government, local authorities, and automobile associations, and assistance given in the form of Government subsidy in respect of approved educational and propaganda measures of the automobile associations." Action upon these recommendations has not been completed, but a number of proposals for Government publicity of an educational nature are being put into operation early in the coming summer. These include radio and press publicity, the display of posters, and notices for tram-cars and buses. Action in other directions is also contemplated to the extent permitted by the funds provided on the estimates for the current year. Approval has been given for the appointment of a publicity officer to the staff of the Department. (ii) Traffic Control. During the year under review several important changes in traffic supervision have been inaugurated and as far as possible the Government's policy of unified control has been put into operation. Owing to the pressure of other important legislation last session, Parliament did not have an opportunity of considering legislation relating to traffic-control. However, with the assistance and co-operation of the Main Highways Board, it was found possible to institute a temporary arrangement to give immediate effect to the Government's policy. The Board at that time employed fifteen full-time Traffic Inspectors throughout the Dominion and subsidized the salaries and expenses of a further thirteen Inspectors employed by groups of local authorities. Twelve of these group Inspectors were added to the Board's staff, and fourteen additional new appointments were made, bringing the personnel up to forty-one. Owing to the introduction of the State highways, with a consequent increase in the scope of the Board's activities, the Board suggested early this year that it would facilitate matters if the Transport Department assumed full control of the traffic-enforcement machinery, and offered to arrange the necessary finance until other arrangements could be made. The Department therefore took over control as from the Ist April, 1937. Since that date the personnel has been increased to forty-eight, by the appointment of five new Inspectors and by taking over one more county Inspector. (a) Transport Licensing Act, 1931, and Amendments.—Now that it has its own staff of Inspectors the Department has been able to arrange a much closer supervision of transport generally. A good deal of attention has been paid to the question of working-hours of transport drivers and operators are now observing the regulations in a reasonable manner. The suppression of unlicensed services and the efficient control of the licensed operators has effected an all-round improvement in transport matters generally. (b) Motor-vehicles Act, 1924, and Amendments.—The introduction of the six-monthly check on the mechanical fitness of motor-vehicles, combined with the more efficient enforcement of the Act and regulations generally, has brought about a noticeable improvement in road safety. Much remains to be done in this direction before the position can be regarded as being satisfactory, but every endeavour is being made to reduce to a minimum accidents due to faulty vehicles and dangerous driving. The Department's Inspectors are co-operating with racing clubs, sports bodies, and local authorities throughout the Dominion, and the efficient control of traffic at large public functions has been the subject of much favourable comment both from the press and the public. The adoption of a uniform speed-limit of thirty miles per hour in all built-up areas and the abolition of all unsatisfactory local restrictions has made the task of enforcement easier, and the majority of drivers of motor-vehicles are expressing their appreciation of these changes by a better compliance with the legislation. (c) Traffic Regulations.—The Traffic Regulations empower Inspectors to control all classes of roadusers, and special attention is being given to cyclists and pedestrians, particularly in the larger towns. It is essential that all road-users should recognize their joint responsibilities in reducing accidents, and a system which limits its control to one class only cannot fully succeed. (d) Probation Scheme for Traffic Offenders.—During the year Mr. Ē. D. Mosley, S.M., Wellington, instituted the practice of placing persons convicted of certain traffic offences on probation ; a condition of the probation being that they attend a series of lessons arranged by the proper traffic authorities. The instruction comprises road safety and courtesy, traffic regulations, and other matters likely to improve their standard of driving. (e) Traffic Offences. Although it has been the Department's policy to educate and assist roadusers as far as possible without resorting to prosecutions, a large number of breaches of the various Acts and regulations relating to traffic-control are still being detected. Prosecutions are undertaken in all cases where the offences show a disregard for public safety or where deliberate evasions of the legislation are apparent. *

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The following table includes police and local-body prosecutions and shows the principal offences for which convictions were recorded during the last five years :—

The sharp upward trend during the last two years in the figures lor the more serious offences of dangerous and negligent driving, drunk in charge, and excessive speed are not reassuring. (iii) Road Conditions. Following the recommendations made by the committee set up by the Safety Council, all local authorities have been circularized drawing attention to the main-road hazards which should receive attention. The question of faulty road conditions has been taken up also with the Main Highways Board, who have set aside an annual sum of £25,000 for special safety measures as distinct from ordinary maintenance. Individual cases of possible hazards have also been brought to the notice of the appropriate authorities with a view to securing improved conditions of safety at particular localities. In addition, certain action has been taken in the direction of securing a uniform style of signposting in order to apprise road-users of the nature of possible hazards ahead. (iv) Improved Visibility at Night. The sub-committee which the Safety Council set up in this connection dealt first with the question of vehicle-lighting, and later brought down recommendations regarding the lighting of the more important highways. The main features of the report regarding vehicle-lighting were adopted and embodied in the Traffic Regulations, the major provisions being for a depressed headlight beam with the offside light permanently deflected to the left. The recommendation of the Safety Council that a modern type of lighting be provided on all highways where the motor traffic reaches an average volume of 2,500 vehicles per day is considered essential for the promotion of safety of night, and an earnest endeavour is consequently being made to introduce suitable schemes in such instances. (v) Inspection of Motoe-vehicles. Recent legislation now requires that all motor-vehicles must undergo periodical mechanical inspection. This work may be classified into three divisions, depending upon the nature of the certificate issued. All vehicles which carry passengers for hire or reward are required to carry a certificate of fitness. All goods-service vehicles must obtain a goods-service-inspection certificate. All other vehicles, with the exception of those licensed for hire by a competent authority, are required to carry a Warrant of Fitness. (a) Certificate of Fitness. —All omnibuses, service-cars, contract vehicles, school buses, &c., are examined by Vehicle Inspectors attached to this Department, and all matters which might prejudice the safety, health, and comfort of the passengers receive careful consideration. By Order in Council gazetted on the 10th December, 1936, the previous exemption of school buses from carrying a Certificate of Fitness was revoked, and all vehicles carrying children for hire or reward will now be subjected to the same periodical inspection by the Vehicle Inspectors as that given to all other passenger-service vehicles. Although the requirements for school vehicles are in general the same as those for other passenger-vehicles, it is those matters which are likely to prejudice the health and safety of the children that receive the principal consideration. »

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Calendar Year. Class of Offence. - * — T — 1932. 1933. 1934. 1935. 1936. Registration, &c., of vehicles .. .. 4,521 4,337 4,460 4,240 4,317 Lighting of vehicles .. , . .. 3,406 3,661 3,234 3,440 3,335 Negligent or dangerous driving . . .. 2,693 2,314 2,429 2,890 3,553 Excessive speed .. .. 2,052 1,428 1,269 1,352 1,697 Parking regulations .. .. .. 949 694 1,326 1,495 1,334 Drunk in charge of vehicles .. .. 326 302 265 335 492 Other .. .. .. .. 1,657 1,400 1,447 1,551 1,965 Totals .. .. .. 15,604 14,136 14,430 15,303 16,693

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Tabulated below are the number of passenger-service vehicles in operation in each district as at the Ist March, 1937 : —

During tie year seventy-two vehicles were condemned and ninety voluntarily withdrawn. (6) Goods-service-inspection Certificates. —After 31st December, 1936, every goods-service vehicle shall carry an inspection certificate issued by a Vehicle Inspector. This entails a bi-annual examination of borne five thousand vehicles, and it is the essential matters of safety that receive the principal consideration. The distribution of these vehicles between the four districts in New Zealand is as follows :— District. Number. No. 1 (Auckland) .. .. .. .. .. 2,000 No. 2 (Wellington) .. .. .. .. ~ 1,500 No. 3 (Canterbury) .. . . . . . . . . 900 No. 4 (Otago) .. .. .. .. . . 700 (c) Warrants of Fitness.—After the 31st March, 1937, all vehicles of this class are subjected to a bi-annual examination by a city authority, an officer of the Crown, or motor-garages approved for the purpose by the Minister of Transport. To date, however, the statistical returns indicate that the work at present is being executed mainly by the approved garages. At the present juncture over twelve hundred garages have been approved for this purpose and the issue of Warrants of Fitness has taken place smoothly during the past few months. The inspection of a motor-vehicle for a Warrant of Fitness involves a check of brakes, lights, steering, wheel-alignment, wind-screen wiper, rear-vision mirror, warning- device, and door-fastenings. Every garage which issues warrants is required to furnish a monthly report showing the condition of the vehicles when first submitted for examination. The statistical returns furnished by garages, &c., show that after the first month of inspection work 113,383 Warrants of Fitness had been issued. Of these vehicles, 83,328, or 80 per cent., required adjustments in some form or other in order to bring them up to the necessary standard of fitness. The percentage of the defective features which were revealed by this examination are given in the following table : — Items examined. Percentage of Defects. Brakes — Foot .. .. .. . . .. 28 Hand . . . . . . . . .. 26 Lights — Head .. . . .. .. .. . . 71 Tail . . . . . . .. . . .. 17 Wheel-alignment and steering .. . . . . 15 Wind-screen wiper .. .. .. .. 15 Rear mirror .. . . . . .. .. 4 Warning-device . . . . . . 3 Door-fastenings . . . . . . .. 3 From the above figures it will be noted that there was a relatively large proportion of headlights which required adjustment, but this was, no doubt, due to the change in the requirements of the regulation rather than actual defects in the lights themselves. The brakes are probably one of the most important items in the proper control of a vehicle, and, although the standard of brakeefficiency may be regarded as a very reasonable one, the figures shown above indicate that there was a high percentage of vehicles with inefficient brakes. 11. TRANSPORT LICENSING ACT, 1931. A. PASSENGER SERVICES, 1936-37. During the year under review the four Licensing Authorities considered applications for renewals of licenses which had expired, as well as a number relating to new services and also a large number of temporary licenses for services running to race meetings, shows, &c. Most of the South Island passenger licenses expiring on the 31st August, 1935, were renewed for a three-year period and do not expire until the 31st August, 1938. The North Island licenses expired on the 29th February, 1936, and the large majority have been renewed for a similar period and will not expire until the 28th February, 1939.

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District No. Omnibuses. Service Cars. Service lassengei- Total. Coaches. trucks. 1 .. .. 252 210 52 111 625 2 . . . . 193 179 8 47 427 3 .. .. 89 130 12 11 242 4 .. .. 89 104 17 6 216 Totals .. 623 623 89 175 1,510

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(a) Continuous Passenger-service Licenses. Table No. 8 of the Appendix indicates that of the 507 applications heard, 470 were granted, 9 were refused, 13 were withdrawn, and 15 were deferred. The corresponding figures for the previous year were 738, 669, 28, 28, and 13, respectively. The decrease in the number of applications heard was due to the circumstances outlined above. (b) Seasonal Passenger-service Licenses. Only 7 applications were received for seasonal licenses, all of which were granted, against the 28 applications considered during the previous year. (c) Temporary Passenger-service Licenses. The number of applications made for temporary licenses again shows a substantial increase, notwithstanding that arrangements were again made for operators running services on a more or less regular basis to race meetings, &c., to obtain continuous or seasonal licenses in lieu of numerous temporary licenses. Table No. 8 shows that 4,745 applications for temporary licenses were made during 1936-37, of which 4,675 were granted, 69 were refused, and 1 withdrawn. The figures for the previous year were 3,200 applications, of which 3,128 were granted, 64 refused, and 8 withdrawn. (d) Finances and Traffic Statistics. Tables Nos. 9, 10, and 11 set out respectively the following statements, in so far as they are available, for the five years ended 31st March, 1937 : — (1) Traffic and financial operating statistics. (2) Average operating expenses and revenue per vehicle-mile. (3) Assets and liabilities, and depreciation written off vehicles. (i) Traffic and Operating Statistics. Once again there has been an increase in the rate of profit for the services generally. The estimated loss for 1931-32 immediately prior to the Act coming into operation was about £40,000. During the five years the Transport Licensing Act has been in operation there has been a steady increase in the net return to operators, and for the year under review the returns show a net profit of £109,000, representing an advance of nearly 12 per cent, on the total profits for the previous year and equivalent to a return of 12 per cent, on the total capital invested. In the following table, which shows the improved passenger loading per trip and profit per mile as compared with previous years, it will be noted that there has been an increase of nearly 10 per cent, in the operating expenses per mile which has been offset by an increase of 9 per cent, in the revenue per vehicle-mile.

(ii) Assets and Liabilities. Table No. 11 of the Appendix sets out the assets and liabilities of the industry, as far as they are available, for the five years ended 31st March, 1937. The figures under review show a substantial increase on those for the previous year. The increase may be discounted to a large degree owing to the difficulty in eliminating assets extraneous to the business of transport from year to year on a uniform basis. The general indication given by a perusal of the returns is, however, that the capital investment has increased. The value of passenger vehicles has increased due to the replacement of old vehicles by new, approximately ninety new vehicles being put on the road during the year. The item " Other assets " shows an increase of £80,000, largely due to the inclusion of goodwill in the

4—H. 40. *

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. 1937. j 1936. 1935. 1934. 1933. Passengers per journey— North Island .. .. •• 13-5 10-9 9-4 8-9 9-2 South Island .. •• •• 10-2 8-9 8-3 8-2 7-9 New Zealand .. •• •• 12-9 10-5 9-2 8-8 8-9 TCevenue per vehicle-mile — d. d. d. d. d. North Island .. .. •• 11-06 9-95 9-58 9-14 9-26 South Island .. .. •• 11-35 10-52 10-03 9-65 9-31 New Zealand .. ■■ •• 11-14 10-13 9-72 9-29 9-27 Operating-expenses per vehicle-mile — North Island .. .. 9-94 9-04 8-99 8-85 9-21 South Island .. .. 10-13 9-10 8-98 8-93 9-24 New Zealand .. . ■ • • 10-00 9-06 8-99 8-87 9-22 Profit per vehicle-mile — North Island .. .. •• M2 0-91 0-59 0-29 0-05 South Island .. .. •• 1-22 1-42 1-05 0-72 0-07 New Zealand .. •• •• 1-14 1-07 0-73 0-42 0-05

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figures taken. The following table sets out the relative proportions of capital plus reserves and " Outside " liabilities to the total assets employed : —

(iii). Fare Schedules. The licensing law requires the Licensing Authorities to consider, inter alia, the fares charged by operators. The fares are reviewed each year, and it is open to interested parties to make representations in this connection. During the year qualified officers of the Department examined the accounts and records of licensees to ensure that their requirements as to keeping proper accounts and records were being complied with. By this means the authorities are able to ensure that an equitable portion of the benefits of the licensing system are passed on to the users of the services in the form of reduced fares. B. GOODS SERVICES, 1936-37. Tables Nos. 12 and 13 of the Appendix set out the principal statistics of the licensed goods services. Under the 1936 Amendment Act the exemption that applied to cream-carriers was removed. The exemptions applying to carriers operating on rural roads and within five miles of borough boundaries were modified, and the exemption now applies only to those carriers operating within an area lying within a six-mile radius from the chief post-office of the following cities and boroughs:— Whangarei. Hastings. Nelson. Hamilton. New Plymouth. Greymouth. Rotorua. Wanganui. Timaru. Gisborne. Palmerston North. Oamaru. Napier. Masterton. Invercargill. The special exempted areas around the four main centres still stand. (a) Applications dealt with. Table No. 12 sets out the numbers of applications dealt with, but owing to the appointment of new Licensing Authorities and the widening of the areas controlled by each authority quite a large number of applications were not dealt with until after the end of March, and the table, therefore, gives no guide as to the actual number of services operating. The following table summarizes the figures during the past four years

The temporary-license figures again show a substantial increase as compared with the previous year. T

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I I 1937. 1936. 1935. 1934. 1933. I Capital and reserves — Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. North. Island .. .. .. 71-4 65-6 67-6 67-2 68-5 South Island .. .. .. 71-9 64-0 66-5 73-3 65-6 £ New Zealand .. .. .. 71-6 65-0 67-2 69-3 67-6 " Outside " liabilities— North Island .. .. .. 28-6 34-4 32-4 32-8 31-5 South Island .. .. .. 28-1 36-0 33-5 26-7 34-4 New Zealand .. .. .. 28-4 35-0 32-8 30-7 32-4

I deal^with 18 Granted. Refused. Withdrawn, j Deferred. Continuous— 1933-34 .. .. 2,146 1,898 118 43 87 1934-35 .. .. 2,146 2,016 91 25 14 1935-36 .. .. 2,080 1,999 56 14 11 1936-37 .. .. 2,139 1,750 79 47 149 Seasonal— 1933-34 .. .. 99 88 3 8 1934-35 .. .. 108 89 9 7 3 1935-36 .. .. 104 93 4 6 1 1936-37 .... 52 25 1 16 3 Temporary— 1933-34 .. .. 3,800 3,793 7 .. .. 1934-35 .. .. 7,399 7,390 9 1935-36 .. .. 8,489 8,458 31 1936-37 .. .. 11,181 11,141 40

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(b) Finances and Statistics. The figures in Table No. 13, which set out the principal operating statistics for the goodstransport industry, have been estimated on the basis of the proportion of vehicle authorities for which reasonably reliable financial and statistical returns were received. The figures shown, though not strictly comparable, afford a reasonably accurate statement of the position. The chief features shown by the table are — (i) A substantial increase in the profits earned by the industry from £176,000 for 1933-34 to £371,000 for 1936-37. Viewing these figures on a profit-per-vehicle-mile basis the net return per mile has increased from l-14d. to l-57d, (ii) An increase in operating expenditure by 11-6 per cent., from 8-76 d. per mile to 9-78 d. These figures do not reflect the full effects of the transport legislation covering drivinghours and the observance of award rates of pay, as these measures did not come into force until October, 1936. (iii) Revenue has increased by 13 per cent., from 10-04 d. per mile to 11-35 d. (c) Assets and Liabilities. The balance-sheet of the industry for the Dominion shows a healthy position. Of the total assets employed (£2,532,000), £1,771,000, or 70 per cent., represents operators' capital and £761,000 other liabilities. There has been an increase in the total value of assets employed m each business, the average figure increasing from £960 to £1,199. (d) Co-ordination. Investigations carried out during the year showed that there is room for a considerable measure of co-ordination between the long-distance road-and-rail freight services. Owing, however, to the difficulties of securing co-ordination while the road services are operated in small units, a policy of single ownership whereby certain road services would be taken over by the State and operated by the Railways Department was adopted. .... To bring this policy into effect two purchase officers, with an investigating accountant and three officers experienced in the operation of motor-vehicles to assist them, have been appointed to negotiate with the road operators for the taking over of their services. These officers will report the results of their negotiations to a special tribunal appointed under section 11 of the Transport Licensing Amendment Act, 1936. _ In cases where agreement has been reached between the purchasing omcers and the operators the tribunal will consider their report and submit its recommendations to Cabinet through the Minister of Transport. In cases where agreement is not reached the tribunal will hear both parties at public sittings and report its findings to the Minister. # 2 Negotiations are at present in train with fifty-four operators—nine m the No. 1 District, twentynine in the No. 2, seven in the No. 3, and nine in the No. 4 District. Nearly all these carriers are operating over routes in excess of fifty miles in direct competition with the railways and hold between them 197 vehicle authorities. C. APPEALS. The present Licensing Authorities took office on the 21st July, 1936. At that time there were on hand twenty undetermined appeals against decisions given by former Licensing Authorities. These have been disposed of, and in respect of appeals lodged up to and including 31st March, 1937, against decisions of the present authorities, the following details are given

(a) Goods Services.

i I I 1 — (b) Passenger Services. Two appeals were lodged in respect of a service in the No. 1 Transport Licensing District, the authority's decision being upheld. 12. COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT. Since April, 1936, when the Minister of Transport became the Licensing Authority for commercial air services, there have been granted one commercial aircraft route license, one air taxi license, and one temporary license. The licenses in force at the 31st March, 1937, were Five commercial route licenses. Bight air taxi licenses. Eleven aero club licenses.

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Number of . īf 0e^ S1 ? S Decision i Decision Under District. Appeals ! Authoritys De- modified. ! reversed. Action. 1 eision upheld. No. 1 8 ] 1 2 No 2 ■ • • • ® 2 | No'. 3 :: .. .. 11 ; ; •• No. 4 .. • • ■ • 19 2 2 - 15 Totals .... 44 9 11 1 j 23

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The five commercial services operate over the following routes : East Coast Airways : Gisborne-Napier-Hastings. Air Travel (N.Z.), Ltd. : Inchbonnie-Hokitika or Greymoutli to Franz Joseph and Fox Glaciers and Haast-Okuru. Look Strait Airways, Ltd. : Wellington-Blenheim-Nelson, with the right to run to Hokitika as required. Union Airways of New Zealand, Ltd. : Palmerston North - Blenheim-Christchurch-Dunedin and Auckland - New Plymouth - Palmerston North - Wellington. .(he statistics for the year ended 31st December, 1936, shown hereunder, cover the first four services mentioned, the last service, Auckland-Wellington, not commencing until the new year Number of licensees operating regular services .. .. .. 4 Number of machines in use .. . . , . ~ jq Number of miles flown .. .. .. .. ~ _ _ 897 |Qg Number of passengers carried .. .. .. ~ _, 25' 672 Weight of goods and excess baggage carried (lb.) .. .. 49|397 Weight of mails carried (lb.) .. .. .. . _ 99,'713 13. CHANGES IN TRANSPORT LAW IN NEW ZEALAND. The past year has been one of great activity so far as changes in the transport law are concerned. Amendments have been made to the Motor-vehicles Act, 1924, the Transport Licensing Act, 1931 and the Transport Licensing (Commercial Aircraft Services) Act, 1934. In addition, the numerous Orders in Council issued under the Transport Licensing Act have been consolidated into three enactments, and various miscellaneous Orders in Council and Warrants have been issued. These activities have resulted chiefly from the implementing of the Government's road safety campaign, and also include provisions for change in the system for controlling commercial road transport. A summary of the various major provisions is as follows :— (a) Road Traffic. (i) Motor-vehicles Amendment Act, 1936. (a) Uniformity in Laws. A fixed speed-limit of 30 m.p.h. for town areas, the new offence of careless or inconsiderate driving, and provision for disallowance of local by-laws have enabled the traffic laws to be simplified and made more uniform. (b) " Hit-and-run " Driver.—The maximum penalty for this offence has been increased from £20 to £500 or five years' imprisonment. (ii) Traffic Regulations and Road Code. These regulations, and the Road Code supplementary thereto, replace the former Motor-vehicle Regulations and provide for rules to control and guide the activities of all classes of road users, including cyclists and pedestrians. These regulations were submitted to the local authorities, the New Zealand Road Safety Council, and other interested bodies before being issued, and many useful suggestions were made, and as a result were incorporated in the provisions. The regulations have now had a fair trial, and although certain provisions, particularly those relating to cycles and pedestrians, have not yet been fully enforced, it is considered that the regulations are resulting in the better control of road traffic. Steps were taken so that, with the co-operation of local authorities, copies of the regulations and code were issued to all motor-drivers when they applied for a license at the last relicensing period. (b) Commercial Road and Air Transport. (i) Transport Licensing Amendment Act, 1936. The main provisions have the following effect:— (a) Reduction of the number of Licensing Authorities from ten to four, and reduction of personnel of each authority from three men to one man. (b) Abolition of Transport Co-ordination Board as from Ist April, 1936, and vesting of its powers in the Minister of Transport. This means that the Minister becomes appeal authority fox. road..services, .and licensing authority for air services. (c) Simplification of licensing procedure by providing that in the case of applications for renewals, amendments, and transfer of licenses when no objections are received as a result of advertisement, the Licensing Authorities be empowered to deal with the application without the applicant being present. (d) Provisions for review of licenses by Licensing Authority when complaint is made of " cutthroat competition, or when other circumstances warrant such review. (ii) Provisions of Regulations. The regulations under the Act were reissued and fresh provisions made for the following purposes : (a) Abolition of the " five-mile " main-highway exemption, and of the exemption for milk and cream lorries in the licensing of goods services. (b) Application of standard maximum periods of driving-hours to all passenger and goods vehicles licensed under the Transport Act. t

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(c) Provision for securing the payment of award wages to all drivers employed by licensed services, and control of earnings of " owner-drivers." (d) Protection of the Government Railways by providing that when goods are to be transported and there is a convenient route by which it is possible to carry them over at least thirty miles of railway, then that route is to be used inclusive of the railway. (e) Provision that all goods services licensed under the Transport Act shall carry all goods reasonably offering without discrimination. (/) Regular inspection to ensure fitness of public goods-vehicles as well as passenger-vehicles. (iii) Air Services. The amendments to the Transport Licensing (Commercial Aircraft Services) Act are principally consequential on the abolition of the Transport Co-ordination Board, and the amendments provide that the Minister of Transport is to be the Licensing Authority for aircraft services instead of the Board. (c) Proposals in Hand. (i) Taxi and Town Carrier (using Motor-vehicles) Services. As a result of widespread representations received from all over the Dominion, the Hon. the Minister of Transport, in accordance with the provisions of section 11 of the Transport Law Amendment Act, 1936, appointed a special committee of inquiry, consisting of Messrs. P. M. Butler (Chairman), James Walker, and H. B. Smith to investigate and report on the whole question of the licensing, control, &c., of the taxi and town carrying businesses. The committee recommended that these services should be brought under the provisions of the Transport Licensing Act, and amending legislation giving effect to this is being prepared for consideration by Parliament. (ii) Traffic-control. The whole question of the machinery for the control of road traffic in the Dominion has been fully investigated, and legislative proposals aimed at increasing the efficiency of the present system are being prepared for submission to Parliament. The principal points covered in the new proposals are : — (a) Boroughs of 6,000 population and over will control the traffic in their own areas, while the smaller boroughs and rural areas will come under a national system. (b) Motor-drivers' licenses will be issued through post-offices, and the revenue from the fees divided between the larger boroughs and the Consolidated Fund. (c) Power whereby local bodies in and around the main centres whose separate areas may, for traffic purposes, be regarded as being one large single area, may be declared Traffic Districts, with the control of traffic in the hands of one local authority. The above proposals have been circulated to local authorities and other interested persons and bodies in order that their views may be available to the Government before the legislation is proceeded with. 14. OVERSEAS TRANSPORT LEGISLATION. Great Britain. The Trunk Roads Act, 1936, makes the Minister of Transport the controlling authority for approximately 4,500 miles of British main highways (being 17 per cent, of all roads). The purpose of the Act is stated as being to secure a proper standard of design and greater uniformity in widths, surfaces, and lay-outs of these trunk roads. An amendment this year to the Road Traffic Act permits hire of a taxi on a share-the-fare basis, and also provides for variation in the periods of carriers' licenses. Canada. The Department of Transport Act, 1936, amalgamates with that Department the activities previously controlled by the Departments for Marine and Fisheries, Civil Aviation, and Railways and Canals. South Australia. The Road Traffic Amendment Act, 1936, provides for a half-yearly system for registration of motorvehicles, and the provision of third-party insurance. It also makes various important laws for the purpose of aiding road safety. An interesting provision is that the speed of a solo motor-cycle having a pillion-rider is limited to 25 m.p.h. United States of America. Federal control of motor-vehicle inter-State traffic became fully operative during the year under the Motor Carriers' Act, which brings inter-State carriers under the control of the Inter-State Commerce Commission.

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14. APPENDICES.

APPENDIX A.—STATISTICAL RETURNS. TABLE No. 1.—MOTOR-VEHICLE REGISTRATIONS, BY HIGHWAY DISTRICTS. Table showing the Number of each Type of Motor-vehicle licensed in each Highway District, at 31st December, 1936.

TABLE No. 2.—MOTOR-VEHICLES LICENSED AS AT 31st MARCH, 1937. Table showing by Postal Districts the Number of Motor-vehicles licensed under the Motor-vehicles Act, 1924, as at the 31st March, 1937.

30

m— 40. 30 • 14. APPENDICES. APPENDIX A.—STATISTICAL RETURNS. TABLE No. 1.—MOTOR-VEHICLE REGISTRATIONS, BY HIGHWAY DISTRICTS. Table showing the Number or each Type op Motor-vehicle licensed in each Highway District, at 31st December, 1936. 5 Motor 3 ā * .* a i I i 1 i II P * 3« Highway District, j **? , , ft | o go | Tota] . North Island. Auckland North .. 1 5,7821 37 1 90 55 13 154 972 838 149 69 71 945 3 9,179 Auckland South .. 2 38,753j 348188 442 96207 153 6,114 4,422 796 345 393 5,438 38 57,733 Tauranga .. .. 3 4,538 54 21 61 53 14 65 929 613 118 65 104 551 4 7,190 Gisborne .. ..4 3,384 27 1 49 28 16 23 384 396 90 44 48 447 2 4,939 Hawke's Bay .. 5 9,763 104 7 70 42 41 99 1,845 1,101 24.1 136 72 964 9 14,494 King-country .. 6 2,107 12 .. 22 10 3 32 360 349 51 15 52 333 1 3,347 Taranaki .. .. 7 8,684 104 24 44 25 8 51 1.382 1,053 95 103 48 1,279 14 12,914 Wanganui .. .. 8 6,557 56 16 51 30 5 39 1,031 741 135 75 37 845 7 9,625 Wellington West .. 9 21,594 273 61 256 30121 64 2,707 2,258 51.0 184 561 2,687 12 31,318 Wellington East .. 1.0 5,1.03 45 12 21 33 8 30 926 528 168 92 7 434 2 7,409 Totals, North Inland .. 106,265 1,060331 1,106 402436 710 16,650 12,2992,353 1,128 1,393 13,923 92 158,148 South Island. Nelson .. ..11 5,186 44 221 48 66 12 32 1,022 5901 136 57 55 851 7 8,128 West Coast.. .. 12 2,467 17 30! 42 28 9 41 418 47ō! 65 52 61 459 .. 4,164 Canterbury North .. 13 1,086 3 9 7 17 . . 16 182 146 50 26 6 164 1 1,713 Canterbury Central .. 14 19,888 188 64 160 32 52 65 2,536 1,850 907 282 203 3,338 21 29,586 Canterbury South .. 15 6,1.81 39 10 35 24 21 27 1,067 469 370 109 30 789 2 9,173 Otago Central .. 16 3,905 25 20 35 36 11 23 618 358 130 52 28 489 I 5,731 Ota<?o South .. 17 9,086 88 32 158 44 36 68 1,225 1,005 326 70 86 1,431 9 13,664 Southland .. .. 18 7,772 79 36 70 24 27 46 1,340 904 243 89 69 903 6 11,608 1 • Totals, South Island .. 55,571 483 223 555 271168 318 8,408 5,797 2,227 737 538 8,424 47 83,767 Grand totals .. .. 161,8361,5435541,6616736041,028 25,05818,0964,5801,8651,93122,347 139241,915 TABLE No. 2.—MOTOR-VEHICLES LICENSED AS AT 31st MARCH, 1937. Table showing by Postal Districts the Number oe Motor-vehicles licensed under the Motor-vehicles Act, 1924, as at the 31st March, 1937. —————— I Is! * r t iS" a .'"'■' I I . ~~ . ~"~ ■go „ p s s a « | .. I «3 So i H «1 §S 3 I .i o 1 p %* t-S *$ & Postal District. Cars. 3? S Ē g~ fi-S | & g £ ? E ■-> §>• -„f ■ f Total. ffi j <* W fi » North Island. Auckland.. .. •• 32,498 158 4,662 3,827 230 189 440 115 728 ' 278 262 334 33 5,074 48,828 Thames ..- ■■ 6,269 1 1,217 720 60 10 56 34 152 70 97 43 4 776 9,509 Hamilton .. •• 14,553 52 2,626 1,980 130 45 130 76 423 119 136 266 9 2,003 22,548 Gisborne •• •■ 4,169 1 540 475 45 17 5b 28 118 36 51 52 2 568 6,158 Napier .. ■• 8,542 10 1,647 987 100 39 64 39 253 97 123 70 8 845 12,824 New Plymouth .. .. 9,201 24 1,459 1,093 52 8 44 26 120 106 106 49 14 1,375 13,677 Wanganui .. •• 6,548 1.5 1,073 747 45 5 48 28 158 56 76 43 7 882 9,731 Palmerston North .. .. 10,671 16 1,610 955 47 26 60 18 318 85 108 90 10 1,119 15,133 Wellington .. •• 19,418 69 2,552 2,143 81 106 235 55 537 256 197 503 9 2,440 28,601 Totals, North Island .. 111,869 346 17,386 12,927 790 445 1,133 419 2,807 1,103 1,156 1,450 96 15,082 167,009 South Island. Nelson .. .. •• 1,834 4 427 185 11 1 19 11 89 16 31 9 4 334 2,975 Blenheim .. •■ 3,493 18 675 456 21 10 34 57 71 26 27 48 3 569 5,508 Westport .. .. ' ■■ 642 1 136 129 17 .. 9 11 23 5 15 21 . . 121 1,130 Grevmouth .. ■• 1,977 28 302 369 34 12 33 18 50 13 37 41 . . 387 3,301 Christchurch .. .. 22,746 72 3,034 2,292 90 53 171 53 1,227 193 498 232 23 3,861 34,545 Timaru .. •■ 5,634 9 992 470 28 21 33 24 341 39 99 30 2 785 8,507 Oamaru .. •• 2,233 10 334 221 9 9 14 15 1.19 18 27 12 2 263 3,286 Bunedin .. ■• 11,092 45 1,565 1,219 83 38 1.77 53 417 95 95 105 9 1,791 16,784 Invercargill ■• 8,484 37 1,438 992 51 30 74 42 300 77 92 71 7 1,008 12,703 Totals, Sotith Island .. 58,135 224 8,903 6,333 344 174 564 284 2,637 482 921 569 50 9,119 88,739 Grand totals .. 170,004 570 26,289 19,260 1134619 1,697 703 5,444 1,585 2,077 2,019 146 24,201 255,748 - "'" "" \

m— 40. 30 • 14. APPENDICES. APPENDIX A.—STATISTICAL RETURNS. TABLE No. 1.—MOTOR-VEHICLE REGISTRATIONS, BY HIGHWAY DISTRICTS. Table showing the Number or each Type op Motor-vehicle licensed in each Highway District, at 31st December, 1936. 5 Motor 3 ā * .* a i I i 1 i II P * 3« Highway District, j **? , , ft | o go | Tota] . North Island. Auckland North .. 1 5,7821 37 1 90 55 13 154 972 838 149 69 71 945 3 9,179 Auckland South .. 2 38,753j 348188 442 96207 153 6,114 4,422 796 345 393 5,438 38 57,733 Tauranga .. .. 3 4,538 54 21 61 53 14 65 929 613 118 65 104 551 4 7,190 Gisborne .. ..4 3,384 27 1 49 28 16 23 384 396 90 44 48 447 2 4,939 Hawke's Bay .. 5 9,763 104 7 70 42 41 99 1,845 1,101 24.1 136 72 964 9 14,494 King-country .. 6 2,107 12 .. 22 10 3 32 360 349 51 15 52 333 1 3,347 Taranaki .. .. 7 8,684 104 24 44 25 8 51 1.382 1,053 95 103 48 1,279 14 12,914 Wanganui .. .. 8 6,557 56 16 51 30 5 39 1,031 741 135 75 37 845 7 9,625 Wellington West .. 9 21,594 273 61 256 30121 64 2,707 2,258 51.0 184 561 2,687 12 31,318 Wellington East .. 1.0 5,1.03 45 12 21 33 8 30 926 528 168 92 7 434 2 7,409 Totals, North Inland .. 106,265 1,060331 1,106 402436 710 16,650 12,2992,353 1,128 1,393 13,923 92 158,148 South Island. Nelson .. ..11 5,186 44 221 48 66 12 32 1,022 5901 136 57 55 851 7 8,128 West Coast.. .. 12 2,467 17 30! 42 28 9 41 418 47ō! 65 52 61 459 .. 4,164 Canterbury North .. 13 1,086 3 9 7 17 . . 16 182 146 50 26 6 164 1 1,713 Canterbury Central .. 14 19,888 188 64 160 32 52 65 2,536 1,850 907 282 203 3,338 21 29,586 Canterbury South .. 15 6,1.81 39 10 35 24 21 27 1,067 469 370 109 30 789 2 9,173 Otago Central .. 16 3,905 25 20 35 36 11 23 618 358 130 52 28 489 I 5,731 Ota<?o South .. 17 9,086 88 32 158 44 36 68 1,225 1,005 326 70 86 1,431 9 13,664 Southland .. .. 18 7,772 79 36 70 24 27 46 1,340 904 243 89 69 903 6 11,608 1 • Totals, South Island .. 55,571 483 223 555 271168 318 8,408 5,797 2,227 737 538 8,424 47 83,767 Grand totals .. .. 161,8361,5435541,6616736041,028 25,05818,0964,5801,8651,93122,347 139241,915 TABLE No. 2.—MOTOR-VEHICLES LICENSED AS AT 31st MARCH, 1937. Table showing by Postal Districts the Number oe Motor-vehicles licensed under the Motor-vehicles Act, 1924, as at the 31st March, 1937. —————— I Is! * r t iS" a .'"'■' I I . ~~ . ~"~ ■go „ p s s a « | .. I «3 So i H «1 §S 3 I .i o 1 p %* t-S *$ & Postal District. Cars. 3? S Ē g~ fi-S | & g £ ? E ■-> §>• -„f ■ f Total. ffi j <* W fi » North Island. Auckland.. .. •• 32,498 158 4,662 3,827 230 189 440 115 728 ' 278 262 334 33 5,074 48,828 Thames ..- ■■ 6,269 1 1,217 720 60 10 56 34 152 70 97 43 4 776 9,509 Hamilton .. •• 14,553 52 2,626 1,980 130 45 130 76 423 119 136 266 9 2,003 22,548 Gisborne •• •■ 4,169 1 540 475 45 17 5b 28 118 36 51 52 2 568 6,158 Napier .. ■• 8,542 10 1,647 987 100 39 64 39 253 97 123 70 8 845 12,824 New Plymouth .. .. 9,201 24 1,459 1,093 52 8 44 26 120 106 106 49 14 1,375 13,677 Wanganui .. •• 6,548 1.5 1,073 747 45 5 48 28 158 56 76 43 7 882 9,731 Palmerston North .. .. 10,671 16 1,610 955 47 26 60 18 318 85 108 90 10 1,119 15,133 Wellington .. •• 19,418 69 2,552 2,143 81 106 235 55 537 256 197 503 9 2,440 28,601 Totals, North Island .. 111,869 346 17,386 12,927 790 445 1,133 419 2,807 1,103 1,156 1,450 96 15,082 167,009 South Island. Nelson .. .. •• 1,834 4 427 185 11 1 19 11 89 16 31 9 4 334 2,975 Blenheim .. •■ 3,493 18 675 456 21 10 34 57 71 26 27 48 3 569 5,508 Westport .. .. ' ■■ 642 1 136 129 17 .. 9 11 23 5 15 21 . . 121 1,130 Grevmouth .. ■• 1,977 28 302 369 34 12 33 18 50 13 37 41 . . 387 3,301 Christchurch .. .. 22,746 72 3,034 2,292 90 53 171 53 1,227 193 498 232 23 3,861 34,545 Timaru .. •■ 5,634 9 992 470 28 21 33 24 341 39 99 30 2 785 8,507 Oamaru .. •• 2,233 10 334 221 9 9 14 15 1.19 18 27 12 2 263 3,286 Bunedin .. ■• 11,092 45 1,565 1,219 83 38 1.77 53 417 95 95 105 9 1,791 16,784 Invercargill ■• 8,484 37 1,438 992 51 30 74 42 300 77 92 71 7 1,008 12,703 Totals, Sotith Island .. 58,135 224 8,903 6,333 344 174 564 284 2,637 482 921 569 50 9,119 88,739 Grand totals .. 170,004 570 26,289 19,260 1134619 1,697 703 5,444 1,585 2,077 2,019 146 24,201 255,748 - "'" "" \

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TABLE No. 3.—MOTOR-VEHICLES ACT, 1924. Comparative Table showing Number of Motor-vehicles licensed as at 31st December, 1925 to 1936, inclusive.

For further information concerning this table, see page 7 of this report.

TABLE No. 4. —ALLOCATION OF PETROL-TAX. Table showing the Distribution of 8 per Cent. of the Petrol-tax to Boroughs with a Population of 6,000 and over in accordance with Section 9 (1) (b) of the Motor-spirits Taxation Act, 1927.

31

31 H.—40. TABLE No. 3.—MOTOR-VEHICLES ACT, 1924. Comparative Table showing Number op Motor-vehicles licensed as at 31st December, 1925 to 1936, inclusive. $ i 4 »• i! « e a s I ," • • :S 1 ■» * s { | I II I J ; 11 si >* i ! 1 i !i i I "J s > s a is s °° 1 •si *•§ s-3 j§ | 1 gj g s gs I | | J I gi I 3 P f §i> o> ji& | § ■ £ f g? I I |B . . . . 1925 .. 81,662 9,671 4,002 25,3391,285 579 489 76 102 59 .. .. 132122,907 1926 .. 97,52612,300 4,862 28,2841,488 663 • 550 119 115: 65 .. .. 146145,568 1927 .. 105,46414,501 5,69327,792 978 574 629 408155 410 1928 .. 118,01715,604 6,398 28,9521,043 562 690 .. 426171002 1929 .. 132,59016,429 8,466 27,8231,076 483 j 801 .. .. . 456187 323 1930 .. 140,16616,463 9,786 26,8441,096 490 I 1,133 .. .. 470195 315 1931 .. 135,90919,249 9,832 25,7741,062 721 j 1,576 417192 964 1932.. 123,637 20,21713,697 23,500 .. .. 5281,568 1,1231,005.1,1341,406 137 f 187,952 1933 .. 123,623 21,52114,245 23,020 .. .. 5241,497*1,002 850:1,1651,390 128 t 147 .. ..189,112 1934.. 131,176 20,80414,943 22,913 .. .. 5221,573 *7101,0841,2331,485 1262,911 261 656 ..197,486 1935 .. J143,48822,68116,138 22,935 .. .. 5591,672 *6921,2931,5461,595 1373,500 372 840 ..213,948 1936 .. 161,836 25,05818,096 22,347 .. .. 6041,661 *6731,5431,8651,931 1394,580 5541,028 ..237,335 * Service cars only. f Not available. For further information concerning this table, see page 7 of this report. TABLE No. 4.—ALLOCATION OF PETROL-TAX. Table showing the Distribution op 8 per Cent, op the Petrol-tax to Boroughs with a Population op 6,000 and over in accordance with Section 9 (1) (b) op the Motor-spirits Taxation Act, 1927. Year ended 31st March, 1937. Total since Inception of Boroughs. Amount of Tax, Quarter ended Petrol-tax up to | 31st March, 1937. June 30th. September 30th. December 31st. March 31st. Total. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. Wellington City .. 5,540 17 0 5,563 10 10 6,849 11 1 6,726 16 7 24,680 15 6 151,416 1 11 Auckland Citv .. 4,887 13 1 4,907 13 5 6,042 1 7 5,947 4 0 21,784 12 1 142,299 18 9 Christchurch Citv 4,414 0 0 4,432 1 6 5,456 11 0 5,359 13 3 19,662 5 9 122,679 16 9 DunedinCity ' .. 3,098 16 10 3,111 10 8 3,830 15 4 3,761 19 7 13,803 2 5 92,147 1 11 Wanganui City .. 1,109 17 1 1,114 8 0 1,37119 11 1,347 10 4 4,943 15 4 33,374 8 11 Palmerston Nth. Citv 1,063 4 5 J,067 11 6 1,314 6 11 1,290 15 5 4,735 18 3 28,758 3 0 Invercargill City . .* 1,029 11 3 1,033 15 7 1,272 14 9 1,250 3 11 4,588 5 6 28,078 7 3 Mount Albert .. 943 11 6 947 8 10 1,166 8 10 1,146 10 8 4,203 19 10 27,730 6 11 Mount Eden .. 885 8 1 889 0 7 1.094 10 7 1,076 8 5 3,945 7 8 26,816 19 7 Timaru .. .. . 832 18 7 836 6 10 1,029 13 3 1,011 8 5 3,710 7 1 23,089 0 3 New Plymouth .. 797 6 2 800 11 6 985 12 6 968 3 4 3,551 13 6 21,797 18 1 Hamilton .. 773 6 6 776 9 10 955 19 6 977 7 1 3,483 2 11 21,082 11 6 Lower Hutt .. 764 2 7 767 5 2 944 12 3 927 17 7 3,403 17 7 18,982 3 5 Nanier .. .. 732 12 6 735 12 6 905 13 4 889 12 6 3,263 10 10 21,812 3 5 Gisborne .. 650 10 4 653 3 7 804 3 3 789 18 4 2,897 15 6 19,128 5 11 Hastings .. 610 8 10 612 18 10 754 12 6 741 5 I 2,719 5 3 16,147 17 8 NebonCity .. 536 18 0 539 2 0 663 14 3 651 19 2 2,391 13 5 14,838 18 7 Onehunga .. 530 14 6 532 18 0 656 1 7 644 5 8 2,363 19 9 15,160 17 7 Petone .. .. 523 13 9 525 16 8 647 7 7 635 12 5 2,332 10 5 14,832 17 0 Devonport .. 467 15 4 469 13 8 578 5 0 568 I 3 2,083 15 3 13,930 14 10 Masterton .. 435 9 0 437 4 8 538 5 11 528 16 5 1,939 16 0 11,840 8 6 One Tree Hill .. 383 14 10 385 6 3 474 7 6 466 13 5 1,710 2 0 9,055 9 11 Greymouth .. 388 10 7 390 2 5 480 5 11 471 15 9 1,730 14 8 8,491 6 0 St. Kilda .. 371 3 0 372 13 4 458 16 3 450 12 6 1,653 5 1 11,086 6 11 Oamaru .. 358 9 3 359 18 7 443 2 6 435 5 7 1,596 15 11 10,257 13 9 Whangarei .. 342 8 5 343 16 6 423 6 0 415 16 0 1,525 6 11 10,181 II 3 Takapuna .. 348 1 5 349 9 11 430 5 8 422 13 3 1,550 10 3 9,541 14 8 Rotorua .. 312 13 10 313 19 5 386 10 11 379 14 0 1,392 18 2 1,392 18 2 Totals .. 33,133 16 8 33,269 10 7 40,959 15 8 40,283 19 11 147,647 2 10 925,952 2 5

31 H.—40. TABLE No. 3.—MOTOR-VEHICLES ACT, 1924. Comparative Table showing Number op Motor-vehicles licensed as at 31st December, 1925 to 1936, inclusive. $ i 4 »• i! « e a s I ," • • :S 1 ■» * s { | I II I J ; 11 si >* i ! 1 i !i i I "J s > s a is s °° 1 •si *•§ s-3 j§ | 1 gj g s gs I | | J I gi I 3 P f §i> o> ji& | § ■ £ f g? I I |B . . . . 1925 .. 81,662 9,671 4,002 25,3391,285 579 489 76 102 59 .. .. 132122,907 1926 .. 97,52612,300 4,862 28,2841,488 663 • 550 119 115: 65 .. .. 146145,568 1927 .. 105,46414,501 5,69327,792 978 574 629 408155 410 1928 .. 118,01715,604 6,398 28,9521,043 562 690 .. 426171002 1929 .. 132,59016,429 8,466 27,8231,076 483 j 801 .. .. . 456187 323 1930 .. 140,16616,463 9,786 26,8441,096 490 I 1,133 .. .. 470195 315 1931 .. 135,90919,249 9,832 25,7741,062 721 j 1,576 417192 964 1932.. 123,637 20,21713,697 23,500 .. .. 5281,568 1,1231,005.1,1341,406 137 f 187,952 1933 .. 123,623 21,52114,245 23,020 .. .. 5241,497*1,002 850:1,1651,390 128 t 147 .. ..189,112 1934.. 131,176 20,80414,943 22,913 .. .. 5221,573 *7101,0841,2331,485 1262,911 261 656 ..197,486 1935 .. J143,48822,68116,138 22,935 .. .. 5591,672 *6921,2931,5461,595 1373,500 372 840 ..213,948 1936 .. 161,836 25,05818,096 22,347 .. .. 6041,661 *6731,5431,8651,931 1394,580 5541,028 ..237,335 * Service cars only. f Not available. For further information concerning this table, see page 7 of this report. TABLE No. 4.—ALLOCATION OF PETROL-TAX. Table showing the Distribution op 8 per Cent, op the Petrol-tax to Boroughs with a Population op 6,000 and over in accordance with Section 9 (1) (b) op the Motor-spirits Taxation Act, 1927. Year ended 31st March, 1937. Total since Inception of Boroughs. Amount of Tax, Quarter ended Petrol-tax up to | 31st March, 1937. June 30th. September 30th. December 31st. March 31st. Total. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. Wellington City .. 5,540 17 0 5,563 10 10 6,849 11 1 6,726 16 7 24,680 15 6 151,416 1 11 Auckland Citv .. 4,887 13 1 4,907 13 5 6,042 1 7 5,947 4 0 21,784 12 1 142,299 18 9 Christchurch Citv 4,414 0 0 4,432 1 6 5,456 11 0 5,359 13 3 19,662 5 9 122,679 16 9 DunedinCity ' .. 3,098 16 10 3,111 10 8 3,830 15 4 3,761 19 7 13,803 2 5 92,147 1 11 Wanganui City .. 1,109 17 1 1,114 8 0 1,37119 11 1,347 10 4 4,943 15 4 33,374 8 11 Palmerston Nth. Citv 1,063 4 5 J,067 11 6 1,314 6 11 1,290 15 5 4,735 18 3 28,758 3 0 Invercargill City . .* 1,029 11 3 1,033 15 7 1,272 14 9 1,250 3 11 4,588 5 6 28,078 7 3 Mount Albert .. 943 11 6 947 8 10 1,166 8 10 1,146 10 8 4,203 19 10 27,730 6 11 Mount Eden .. 885 8 1 889 0 7 1.094 10 7 1,076 8 5 3,945 7 8 26,816 19 7 Timaru .. .. . 832 18 7 836 6 10 1,029 13 3 1,011 8 5 3,710 7 1 23,089 0 3 New Plymouth .. 797 6 2 800 11 6 985 12 6 968 3 4 3,551 13 6 21,797 18 1 Hamilton .. 773 6 6 776 9 10 955 19 6 977 7 1 3,483 2 11 21,082 11 6 Lower Hutt .. 764 2 7 767 5 2 944 12 3 927 17 7 3,403 17 7 18,982 3 5 Nanier .. .. 732 12 6 735 12 6 905 13 4 889 12 6 3,263 10 10 21,812 3 5 Gisborne .. 650 10 4 653 3 7 804 3 3 789 18 4 2,897 15 6 19,128 5 11 Hastings .. 610 8 10 612 18 10 754 12 6 741 5 I 2,719 5 3 16,147 17 8 NebonCity .. 536 18 0 539 2 0 663 14 3 651 19 2 2,391 13 5 14,838 18 7 Onehunga .. 530 14 6 532 18 0 656 1 7 644 5 8 2,363 19 9 15,160 17 7 Petone .. .. 523 13 9 525 16 8 647 7 7 635 12 5 2,332 10 5 14,832 17 0 Devonport .. 467 15 4 469 13 8 578 5 0 568 I 3 2,083 15 3 13,930 14 10 Masterton .. 435 9 0 437 4 8 538 5 11 528 16 5 1,939 16 0 11,840 8 6 One Tree Hill .. 383 14 10 385 6 3 474 7 6 466 13 5 1,710 2 0 9,055 9 11 Greymouth .. 388 10 7 390 2 5 480 5 11 471 15 9 1,730 14 8 8,491 6 0 St. Kilda .. 371 3 0 372 13 4 458 16 3 450 12 6 1,653 5 1 11,086 6 11 Oamaru .. 358 9 3 359 18 7 443 2 6 435 5 7 1,596 15 11 10,257 13 9 Whangarei .. 342 8 5 343 16 6 423 6 0 415 16 0 1,525 6 11 10,181 II 3 Takapuna .. 348 1 5 349 9 11 430 5 8 422 13 3 1,550 10 3 9,541 14 8 Rotorua .. 312 13 10 313 19 5 386 10 11 379 14 0 1,392 18 2 1,392 18 2 Totals .. 33,133 16 8 33,269 10 7 40,959 15 8 40,283 19 11 147,647 2 10 925,952 2 5

H,— 4o,

TABLE No. 5.—LENGTH OF ROADS, STREETS, AND BRIDGES. Table showing the Lengths of the various Classes of Roads, Streets, and Bridges in the Dominion at 31st March in the Years 1922 to 1936.

TABLE No. 6.—LENGTH OF BRIDGES. Table showing the Lengths of the various Classes of Bridges in New Zealand as at 31st March, 1923 to 1936, inclusive.

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03 CQ •> SH Roads and Streets formed to not less than Jj +3 ° Dray-width, and paved or surfaced <d with— -S 3 . a — — — —. - x " >< — Total Unformed Total Year. o S Formed . ", e ' Legal of all Bitu- Other g fl o Roads. ' ' c is ~ Roads. Roads, minous or .Bitumen Metal or i and Un- ® g o Cement or Tar. : Gravel. specified -a 3 a 43 =3 Concrete. j Material, o g P3 Miles. Miles. Miles. Miles. Miles. Miles. Miles. Miles. Miles. y . 1922 .. 26,787f* 17,4561 44,244 5,095! 13,631! 62,971 1923 .. 27,815i* 17,79l| 45,607 5,377! 13,613" 64,5971 1924 .. 28,553J* 17,222f 4-5,776 5,2181 13,630! 64,624f L A 7\ 1925 .. 58| 639 28,243| 4581 16,748 46,147f 5,181! 15,676f 67,006 1926 .. 97f 836 28,981! 340J 16,521f 46,7771 5,009f 15,792! 67,579! 1927 .. 133 1,012 29,726-J- 3731 47,3521 5,093 15,795 68,2401 1928 .. 217 1,262J 30,669f 1291 15,3811 47,659f 5,040! 15,6691 68,369! 1929 .. 254 1,472 31,334 125f 15,1351 48,321 5,399f 15.197! 68,9181 1930 .. 306 1,724f 32,352! 83 14,6001 49,066! 5,375 16,5061 70,947f 1931 .. 339| 1,892f 32,8551 116 14,374! 49,5781 M 42 ! 16,9231 72,144 1932 .. 336f 2,118! 33,536! 88! 14,195| 50,276 5,808 16,418" 72,502 1933 .. 344 2,320 34,848 80! 13,300! 50,893 5,8761 17,474 74,2431 1934 .. 368 2,544! 35,9521 79! 12,698! 51,642f 5,878f 17,708| 75,2301 1935 .. 3791 2,819 36,721ii 781 12,160! 52,158! 5,871 16,999 75,028! 1936 .. 395 3,2461 36,056 j 75! 12,285f 52,058! 5,812 16,982! 74,853" * Note. —Figures for earlier years, particularly in regard to unformed legal roads, are not claimed to be entirely accurate.

Bridges, 25 ft. and over in Length constructed with —• v „. Ail Concrete or Steel and Steel, Concrete, Steel and Australian or v.ti™ Totai Bridges 31st March Stone ' Concrete. and Timber. Timber. other Hardwood. Native limDers. 25ft. and over. \- 0 Total -XT Total y Total Total y Total Total v n | Total • Length. " Length. ' Length. Length. Length. Length. j Length. Ft. j Ft. Ft. Ft. Ft. Ft. Ft. 1923 _* ******* * * * * 2,955f 328,766f 1924 _******** * * * * 3,297-f 362,034f t j 1925 .. 408 36,840 .. .. 205 28,916 .. .. 1,466 180,529 2,035 167,557 4,114 413,842 1926 .. 431 39,127 .. .. 258 34,883 .. .. 1,665 197,735 2,029 161,084 4,383 432,829 1927 .. 489 42,804 .. .. 349 40,185 .. .. 1,850 217,600 1,959 148,427 4,647 449,016 1928 .. 545 47.833 .. .. 282 37,623 .. .. 2,013 229,208 1,994 153,078 4,834 467,742 1929 .. 608 52,761 .. .. 324 38,679 .. .. 2,137 242,474 2,181 165,525 5,250 499,439 1930 .. 671 57,739 .. .. 270 37,777 .. .. 2,285 245,867 2,164 168,120 5,390 509,503 1931 .. 751 66,292 .. .. 295 38,995 | .. .. 2,396 253,057 2,164 164,940 5,606 523,284 r A \ 1932 .. 552 43,878 330 41,272 186 20,952 i 182 il7,433 2,277 240,622 2,277 163,453 5,804 527,610 1933 .. 574 46,774 356 39,237 209 25,726 i 300 127,417 2,233 230,380 2,316 164,999 5.988 534,533 1934 .. 590 48,957 380 39,662 235 29,387 354 30,834 2,191 227,035 2,365 167.129 6,115 543,004 1935 .. 623 52,146 429 42,865 269 31,864 499 40,776 1,932 210,176 2,475 172,783 6,227 550,610 1936 .. 669 57,862 456 46,132 303 34,593 457 40,638 2,077 215,742 2,381 167,404 6,343 562,371 * Detailed figures not available. f 30 ft. and over in length.

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TABLE No. 7.—TAXATION OF MOTOR-VEHICLES, 1926-1937. Table showing the Annual Yield for the Years ended 31st March, 1926 to 1937, in respect of (a) Customs Duties on Motor-vehicles and Parts; (b) Tire-tax; (c) Motorspirits Tax; (d) Fees, etc., under the Motor-vehicles Act, 1924; (e) Heavy-traffic Fees; (f) Drivers' Licenses; and (g) Mileage Tax.

5—H. 40.

33

iCustoms Duties : Motor- j Fees, &c., ,, Year ended i in respect of rr - , spirits Tax. under Motor- Drivers' Mileage- ™ , , 31st March, | Motor-vehicles lire - tax - ! Net jvehicles Act, ® amo Licenses. tax. J - otal - and Parts.* j Balance. | 1924. I I ; I ; 1926 .. 996,311 210,042 .. 86,681f 114,009 33,162 .. 1,470,205 1927 .. 1,064,752 199,875 .. 395,797 220,616 50,650 .. 1,931,690 ]928 .. 845,836 238,171 146,460 345,510 157,651 52,495 .. 1,786,123 1929 .. 1,034,835 207,547 810,386 244,598 190,789 36,830 .. 2,524,985 1930 .. 1,415,012 173,122 983,882 391,368 183,486 56,578 .. 3,203,448 1931 .. 807,642 150,4241,363,204 393,798 194,557 59,462 .. 2,969,087 1932 .. 253,769 103,8731,659,948 370,126 179,105 58,860 .. 2,625,681 1933 134,659 73,6531,865,762 352,561 178,183 57,132 .. 2,661,950 1934 .. 120,790 67,779 2,351,558 346,249 171,503 60,358 1,597 3,119,834 1935 .. 531,051 100,5932,593,214 391,661 204,767 61,385 1,629 3,884,300 1936 .. 721,877 102,3092,896,202 431,896 232,094 66,260 1,813 4,452,451 1937 .. 985,292 154,8943,370,048 493,626 268,000$ 72,000J 4,159 5,348,019 Totals for 12 8,911,826 1,812,28218,040,6644,243,871 2,294,760 665,172 9,198 35,977,773 years to 31st March, 1937 * Calendar year ending on 31st December previous. Includes primage and surtax on vehicles and parts, also tire-tax on tires attached to vehicles or parts. f Alteration in licensing period. {Estimated.

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TABLE No. 8.— TRANSPORT LICENSING ACT, 1931. Table showing Details regarding Applications for Passenger-service Licenses during Year ended 31st March, 1937.

34

Number of Applications Number of Decisions given. Number of Applica- j Number of Decisions dealt with. tions withdrawn, j deferred. Granted. Refused. Licensing Authority. i . £ I 1 . b i . Ê? I . f? 3 . fc 3 S £ eS 2 pj S ! § ""eg S S ' °3 « -£ S 9 ■£ flcsa-jfdcsS-^flcgS-je O 4) <D O O © © O O©<»OO§OOO0<1»O O CQ H HQ m EH H OCQHHOOQHH O ui H H Auckland Metropolitan Licensing Authority .. .. 7 ..1,678 1,685 7 .. 1,660 1,667 .. .. 17 17 .. .. 1 1 Wellington Metropolitan Licensing Authority .. .. 2 .. .. 2 2 .. .. 2 Christchurch Metropolitan Licensing Authority .. .. 7 1 4 12 7 1 4 12 Dunedin Metropolitan Licensing Authority .. ..23 1 3 27 23 1 3 27 No. 1 Transport Licensing Authority ".. .. ..239 4 1,174 1,417 217 4 1,153 1,374 6 .. 21 27 8 .. .. 8 8 .. .. 8 No. 2 Transport Licensing Authority .. .. .. 190 .. 982 1,172 184 .. 976 1,160 2 .. 6 8 1 .. .. 1 3 .. .. 3 No. 3 Transport Licensing Authority .. .. .. 26 1 466 493 24 1 441 466 .... 25 25 2 .. .. 2 No. 4 Transport Licensing Authority .. .. 13 438 451 6 .. 438. 444 1 .. .. 1 2.. .. 2 4.. .. 4 Totals —1936-37 .. .. .. .. 507 7 4,745 5,259 470 7 4,675 5,152 9 .. 69 78 13 .. 1 14 15 .... 15 1935-36 .. .. .. .. 738 28 3,200 3,966 669 26 3,128 3,823 28 2 64 94 28 2 8 38 13 .. ..13 1934-35 .. .. .. .. 771 33 2,548 3,352 720 27 2,515 3,262 16 .. 32 48 30 2 .. 32 5 4 1 10 1933-34 .. .. .. .. 759 33 1,783 2,575 664 25 1,755 2,444 51 2 27 80 26 3 1 30 18 3 .. 21

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TABLE No. 9.-TRANSPORT LICENSING ACT, 1931. Traffic and Financial Statistics of Licensed Passenger-services for Years ended 31st March, 1933 to 1937, inclusive (exclusive of Services licensed by the Four Metropolitan Licensing Authorities).

35

South Island Totals for Tear ended 31st March, North Island Totals for Year ended 31st March, New Zealand Totals for Year ended 31st March, Item ' 1937 . 1936. 1935. 1 1934. 1937. 1936. j 1935. 1934. 1937. 1936. 1935. 1934. 1933. Trafficstatistics— 1,354,625 1,382,839 1,556,087 1,669,714 1,704,192 1,736,521 1,878,746 1,802,878 «i&Kr.:: :: :: ..2; .5: k Mm iugg «.«yg «.™ :S pZengeT 3,346 ',279 3,122',355 2,92i;S47 2,647;Ī46 18,160; 2 97 !4,826 13,053,489 13,901,571 21,506,576 17,949,351 15,975,336 16,548,717 16,065,672 (peM lubri- 136?138 305*387 461*863 43 9 fl05 480 J27 cants, tires, repairs, maintenance, TjaSffiSySlHlligr 101,115 86.298 W» 1M» »MB »."• '» 8 -» 58 20 »'« 9 »M" "M" "»•"» "»•" "»- M » wages, drawings in lieu of wages, «.« ».«»» ».*» »•'» ».» «•« «••«» ».«• isi - 9M "• 693 «• n » •»•*» mM meat and office expenses, interest, advertising, &c.) " Total __ 272,728 258,179 248,383 239,870 676,050 573,813 558,356 570,425 948,778 831,992 806,739 810,295 874,115 Revenue 664,955 557,420 521,588 519,372 907,601 807,517 753,425 736,530 769,086 Passenger 242,646 250,097 231,837 .17,15» 664, »00 q m 31>n2 3j . >m 31>173 Mail-contract 15,739 10,974 11,38- 13,596 21,478 18,671 16,949 13,234 11,799 Newspaper 7,202 5,377 5,000 3, SOU 73,311 59,503 57,457 44,892 43,864 Goods and parcels _ .. 36,039 27,911 26,408 18,994 lo ; 90 2 17,453 11,672 13,189 18,664 23,388 Total _ .. 305,616 298,322 277,414 259,009 752,172 631,158 594,718 589,488 1,057,788 929,480 872,132 848,497 879,310 „ 04 <>04 40 828 32 585 23 744 80,291 59,627 41,819 28,693 114,495 100,455 74,404 52,437 £ r 0^ s s ;; ;; ;; ;; 3 ifA ess I'Ml I'M 4,™ 5,457 9,630 5,4 85 2,967 9,011 14,235 .. Net profit .. .. •• 32,888 40,143 29,031 19,139 76,122 57,345 36,362 19,063 109,010 97,488 65,393 38,202 5,195

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TABLE No. 10.— TRANSPORT LICENSING ACT, 1931. Average Operating Expenses and Revenue per Vehicle-mile of licensed Passenger-services for Years ended 31st March, 1933 to 1937, inclusive (exclusive of the Services licensed by the Four Metropolitan Licensing Authorities).

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South Island Averages for Year ended 31st March, North Island Averages for Year ended 31st March, New Zealand Averages for Year ended 31st March, Item. ; 1937. 1936. 1935. 1934. 1937. 1936. 1935. 1934. 1937. 1936. 1935. 1934. 1933. 0]»ratmg expenses- d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d. d d d d Vehicle-running costs (petrol, lubricants, tires, 4-80 4-89 4-92 4-98 4-89 4-86 4-81 4-74 4-87 4-87 4-84 4-81 f?.07 repairs, maintenance, and depreciation) ' Vehicle standing charges (license fees, wages, 3-78 3-04 2-86 2-81 3-72 3-18 3-20 3-19 3-74 3-14 3-10 q-07 i.m drawings in lieu of wages, insurance, garage fees) General overhead charges (management and 1-55 1-17 1-20 1-14 1-33 1-00 0-98 0-92 1-39 1-05 1-05 0-99 1-14 omce expenses, interest, advertising, &c.) Total operating expenses .. 10-13 9-10 8-98 8-93 9-94 9-04 8-99 10-00 SK)6 9-22 Revenue — ~ Passenger .. .. .. .. 9-01 8-82 8-38 8-09 9-78 8-79 8-40 8-05 9-56 8-80 8-39 8-06 8-11 Mail-contract .. .. .. .. o-58 0-39 0-41 0-51 0-33 0-33 0-32 0-33 0-40 0-35 0-35 0-39 0-33 Newspaper .. .. .. 0-27 0-19 0-20 0-14 0-21 0-21 0-18 0-15 0-23 0-20 0-19 0-14 0-12 Goods and parcels 1-34 0-98 0-96 0-71 0-55 0-50 0-50 0-40 0 -77 0-65 0-64 0-49 0-46 0ther •• '• •• 0' 15 0-14 0-08 0-20 0-19 0-12 0-18 0-21 0-18 0-13 0-15 0-21 0-25 Total revenue .. .. .. 11-35 10-52 10-03 9-65 11-06 9-95 9-58 9-14 11-14 10-13 9-72 9-29 9-27 Net profits 1-22 1-42 1-05 0-72 1-12 (TŌĪ (K59 (h29 Ī-M V07 (K73 <M)5~ Net losses

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TABLE No. 11.—TRANSPORT LICENSING ACT, 1931. Statement of Assets and Liabilities of Licensed Passenger-services as at 31st March, 1933 to 1937, inclusive (excluding the Services licensed by the Four Metropolitan Licensing Authorities).

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South Island Totals. North Island Totals. New Zealand Totals. 1937. 1936. 1935. 1934. 1937. 1936. 1935. 1934. 1937. 1936. 1935. 1934. 1933. (a) Liabilities. £ £ £ * £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ Capital and reserves .. .. .. 174,093 166,985 202,154 243.076 433,948 312,374 383,193 436,031 608,041 479,359 585,347 679,107 915,694 Other liabilities .. .. .. .. 68,049 93,877 101,833 88,546 173,668 163,814 183,403 212,751 241,717 257,691 285,236 301,297 438,461 Total .. .. .. .. 242,142 260,862 303,987 331,622 607,616 476,188 566,596 648,782 849,758 737,050 870,583 980,404 1,354,155 (b) Assets. Passenger-service vehicles .. .. .. 113,012 129,199 121,461 129,566 257,287 225,078 238,164 267,140 370,299 354,277 359,625 396,706 493,683 Other vehicles .. .. .. .. 19,092 14,117 27,408 24,263 18,964 12,747 23,752 23,779 38,056 26,864 51,160 48,042 62,978 Stocks on hand .. .. .. .. 11.060 12,537 15,120 14,185 24,334 18,824 23,490 29,098 35,394 31,361 38,610 43,283 52,393 Plant and machinery .. .. .. 6,683 9,015 12,886 10,889 19,422 18,049 18,636 22,277 26,105 27,064 31,522 33,166 46,287 Land and buildings .. .. .. .. 35,221 61,510 61,709 61,078 108,195 96,262 112,487 131,638 143,416 157,772 174,196 192,716 262,538 Sundry debtors .. .. .. .. 18,970 16,210 29,629 30,970 29,620 31,137 37,850 54,543 48,590 47,347 67,479 85,513 93,269 Cash on hand and at bank .. .. .. 19,926 11,607 19,842 28,376 53,175 46.136 74,393 44,421 73,101 57,743 94,235 72,797 109,075 Other assets .. .. .. .. 18,178 6,667 15,932 32,295 96,619 27,955 37,824 75,886 114,797 34,622 53,756 108,181 233,932 Total .. .. .. .. 242,142 I 260,862 303,987 331,622 607,616 476,188 566,596 648,782 849,758 737,050 870,583 980,404 1,354,155 Per Cent. I Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Percentage of depreciation on reducing value .. 16-67 j 20-73 19-7 18-7 15-95 22-5 21-1 18-9 16-40 21-85 20-7 18-8 18-4

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TABLE No. 12.—TRANSPORT LICENSING ACT, 1931. Table showing the Position with respect to Applications for Goods-service Licenses for Year ended 31st March, 1937.

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Number of Decisions given. AT , , , T Number of Applications Number of Number ot dealt with. ' Applications Decisions Granted. Refused. withdrawn. deferred. Licensing Authority. ~ ~ § . b s b S b S b S b flio ll'l gg'g § «' g gig I I I ■s I I I ■s |i|-a|la^|§|d 111 | § I ! I lllllllllll! & & H H OcoH Eh OCOHHOOJHHOOOHH No. 1 Licensing Authority .. 601 25 327 953 549 5 287 841 13 1 40 54 17 11 .. 28 29 1 .. 30 No. 2 Licensing Authority .. 694 . . .. 694 614 .. .. 614 43 .... 43 15 .... 15 22 .... 22 No. 3 Licensing Authority .. 388 25 .. 413 332 20 .. 352 22 .... 22 6 5 .. 11 6 ... . 6 No. 4 Licensing Authority .. 446 2 .. 448 255 .. .. 255 1 .. .. 1 9 . . .. 9 92 2 94 Totals—1936-37 .. 2,129 52 327 2,508 1,750 25 287 2,062 79 1 40 120 47 16 .. 63 149 3 .. 152 1935-36 .. 2,080 104 8,489 10,673 1,999 93 8,458 10,550 56 4 31 91 14 6 . . 20 11 1 .. 12 1934-35 .. 2,146 108 7,399 9,653 2,016 89 7,390 9,495 91 9 9 109 25 7 . . 32 14 3 .. 17 1933-34 .. 2,146 99 3,800 6,045 1,898 88 3,793 5,779 118 3 7 128 43 8 . . 51 87 .. .. 87

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TABLE No. 13.—TRANSPORT LICENSING ACT, 1931. Traffic, Revenue, Expenditure, and Capital Statistics of Licensed Goods-services for Years ended 31st March, 1934, 1935, 1936, and 1937.

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". j Jforth Island Totals, Year ended 31st March, South Island Totals, Year ended 31st March, New Zealand Totals, Year ended 31st March, -— —— — : — u 1937. 1936. I 1935. 1937. 1936. 1935. 1937. 1936. 1935. 1934. j I t Traffic statistics — ! ; Totai number of operators .. ..Number 1,445 1,390 1,405 666 614 609 2,111 2,004 2,024 1,904 Number of vehicle authorities issued.. Number 2,613 2,378 2,351 1,140 990 1,004 3,753 3,368 3,355 2,^06 Average mileage per vehicle .. Miles 15,725 15,159 : 14,211 ! 13,632 13,552 12,531 15,089 14,687 13,744 12,69o Total vehicle-miles run .. .. Number 41,089,000 36,049,000 33,410,000 15,540,000 13,416,000 12,581,000 56,629,000 49,465,000 45,991,000 36,886,000 Revenue and expenditure statistics — £ £ j £ j ' £ £ £ £ £ £ Total operating costs .. .. .. 1,662,000 1,308,000 1,313,000 646,000 497,000 509,000 2,308,000 1,805,000 1,822,000 1,463,000 Total revenue .. .. - ■ .. 1,930,000 1,490,000 1,456,000: 749,000 580,000 581,000 2,679,000 2,070,000 2,037,000 1,639,000 Total profits .. .. .. •• 268,000 182,000 143,000 103,000 83,000 72,000 371,000 265,000 215,000 176,000 d. d. d. | d. d. d. d. d. d. d. Average operating costs per vehicle-mile .. 9-71 8-71 9 • 43 9-97 8-89 9-71 9-78 8-76 9'51 9-52 Average revenue per vehicle-mile .. .. 11-08 9-92 10'46 ! 11-57 10-37 11-08 11-35 10-04 10-63 Average profit per vehicle-mile . . .. 1 • 37 1 - 21 1 • 03 ! 1-60 1-48 1-37 1-57 1-28 1-12 1-14 Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Percentage of profit to operators' capital .. 21*35 20-71 13-58 19-16 20-24 15-93 20-94 20-o6 14-28 10 95 Percentage of profit to total capital invested .. 14-54 13-48 9-05 14-20 14-46 10-96 14-65 13-77 9-61 7-25 Capital investment statistics — £ £ £ £•£ £ £ £ £ Total operators' capital .. .. . - 1,194,000 879,000 1,053,000 577,000 410,000 452,000 1,771,000 1,289,000 1,505,000 1,607,000 Total " outside" liabilities 559,000 471,000 527,000 202,000 164,000 205,000 761,000 635,000 732,000 820,000 Total capital invested 1,753,000 1,350,000 1,580,000 779,000 574,000 657,000 2,532,000 1,924,000 2,237,000 2,427,000 Average capital per operator .. .. 826 632 | 749 866 668 742 839 j 643 744 844 Average " outside" liabilities per operator . . 387 339 ; 375 303 267 337 360 | 317 361 431 Average total capital invested per operator .. 1,213 971 1,124 1,169 935 1,079 1,199 ; 960 1,105 1,275

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TABLE No. 14.—FATAL MOTOR ACCIDENTS. Table showing Analyses of various Data relating to Fatal Motor Accidents in the Dominion during the Years ended 31st March, 1930 to 1937.

40

H.—40. 40 TABLE No. 14.—FATAL MOTOR ACCIDENTS. Table showing Analyses op various Data relating to Fatal Motor Accidents in the Dominion during the Years ended 31st March, 1930 to 1937. Year ending 31st March, Year ended 31st March, 1. Number of Accidents. 2. Number of Persons killed in Motob Accidents. (a) Classified according to Main (a) Classified according to Age of I I Types. the Person killed. Collisions— 0-4 years .. .. .. 10 7 4 S 9 7 8 6 Motor-vehicle with pedestrian .. 52 55 30 45 26 46 56 54 5-9 years .. .. .. 8981X41111 5 Motor-vehicle with motor-vehicle 40 75 29 39 21 36 45 56 10-14 years .. .. 255448 10 6 Motor-vehicle with train .. 7 11 8 3 9 10 4 11 15-19 years .. .. .. 17 24 18 17 13 27 18 18 Motor-vehicle with tram .. 1 1 1 1 .. 2 2 2 20-24 years . . .. .. 30 45 15 15 18 15 34 22 Motor-vehicle with bicycle .. 12 7 11 16 15 23 27 25 25-54 years .. .. .. 83100 81 60 56 88 67 88 Motor-vehicle with horse-vehicle 4116431 .. 55 years and over .. .. 36 57 26 31 31 26 48 47 or horse under control Unspecified .... 7 21 Motor vehicle with fixed object .. 6 8 15 5 6 7 9 11 1_L_L1 Motor-vehicle with straying stock 11.. 12 2 3 .. Total deaths .. 186 247157143135182 203 213 No collisions — Went over bank .. .. 27 29 22 9 18 22 18 9 (b) Classified according to the Location Otherwise .. .. .. 22 33 31 15 24 23 26 35 of the Person killed. Pedestrians .. .. .. 53 55 28 45 26 45 55 55 Total accidents .. .. 172 221148140125174191 203 On motor-cycles .. .. 51 58 47 39 27 48 50 53 On other motor-vehicles .. .. 68119 72 38 64 66 70 78 On other vehicles or horses .. 14 15 10 21 18 23 28 27 (b) Classified according to Hour of Accident. Total deaths .. .. 186 247157143 135182 203 213 Midnight to 1 a.m. .. .. ..442444 7 | 1 | 1 to 6 a.m. .. .. .. 78355811 10 3. Types of Vehicle involved. 6 to 7 a.m. .. .. .. 11.. 2.. 34 1 Motor-cycle .. .. .. 59 64 51 48 27 55 54 56 7 to 8 a.m. .. .. .. 1754335 2 Private motor-car .. .. 105132 75 73 67 97109 119 8 to 9 a.m. .. .. .. 6512385 5 Taxi-cab .. .. .. 2 4 11 5 5 5 9 12 9 to 10 a.m. .. .. .. 4442697 5 Service-car .. .. .. 5513211 2 10 to 11 a.m. .. .. .. 5 10 6 11 8 3 3 6 Motor-omnibus .. .. .. 354.. 121 2 11 to noon .. .. 11 15 8 9 10 5 8 8 Motor lorry or van .. .. 39 46 29 44 38 45 62 55 12 to 1 p.m. .. .. .. 4 5 9 7 5 11 3 11 Bicycle .. .. .. 12 7 11 20 17 22 25 25 1 to 2 p.m. .. .. .. 10 498456 9 Tram .. .. .. ..2111 26 2 2 to 3 p.m. .. .. .. 8 13 8 4 6 14 8 8 Horse-drawn .. .. .. 4... 5421 3 to 4 p.m. .. .. . . 2 16 8 9 8 8 15 9 Train .. .. .. .. 7 9 7 3 9 10 11 4 to 5 p.m. .. .. .. 24 18 14 12 10 14 16 14 Other vehicles .. .. .. 1 .. 1 1 2 5 to 6 p.m. .. .. .. 23 20-17 15 17 22 23 20 6 to 7 p.m. .. .. .. 23 24 18 16 8 20 18 21 Total vehicles .. .. 239 273191202170 242 268 286 7 to 8 p.m. .. .. .. 11 16 9 15 14 10 20 24 . 8 to 9 p.m. .. .. 12 20 4 8 4 8 6 14 4. Breaches of Law, and other Causes of Fatal Motor 9 to 10 p.m. .. .. .. 579327 13 9 Accidents 10 to 11 p.m. .. .. .. 8 14 64459 8 Breaches of law— I 11 to 12 midnight .. .. 71062474 8 Excessive speed in circumstancesUnspecified .. .. 3 4 (a) But not exceeding 20 miles 33 656155 4 per hour Total accidents .. 172 221148140125174191 203 (b) Exceeding 20 but not exceed- 35 25 19 16 15 21 20 4 ing 35 miles per hour (c) Classified according to Day of (c) Exceeding 35 miles per hour 18 32 13 9 8 20 18 12 Week. On wrong side of road .. 24 38 19 22 13 16 22 26 Sunday .. .. .. 26 33 24 22 17 24 34 28 Did not comply with" offside" rule 7 7 7 11 8 14 12 19 Monday .. .. .. 23 28 21 13 23 27 31 30 Passing standing tram .. 3 Tuesday .. .. . . 17 24 14 17 11 22 15 13 Other passing breaches . . 9 4 2 14 4 4 Wednesday .. .. . . 28 25 10 17 10 17 21 12 Failure of driver to signalThursday .. .. .. 21 23 13 20 15 21 23 36 Motor-vehicles .. .. 3 .. 2 3 Friday .. .. .. 22 33 27 19 13 26 24 29 Other vehicles .. .. 2 .... 1 .... 2 3 Saturday .. .. .. 35 55 39 32 36 37 43 55 Breaches of law relating to railway- 711738 10 4 7 intersections Total accidents .. 172 221148140125174191 203 Vehicle without rear reflector or 2 2 1 .. 1 3 .. 1with inefficient one (d) Classified according to Condition Faulty brakes .. .. 8967264 6 of Light. No lights or inefficient lights (in- 22 17 9 14 15 11 15 8 Daylight .. .. .. 86 89 93 80 72 91 93 100 eluding horse vehicles and bicycles) Dusk .. .. .. .. 19 34 13 4 12 23 23 23 Glaring headlights .. .. 4 10 2 4 2 10 11 5 Artificial lighting .. .. 22 20 12 3 12 14 11 27 Faulty steering-gear .. .. 3432242 2 Darkness or moonlight . . .. 45 78 30 53 29 46 64 53 Faulty tires or wheels .. .. 484 1.. 24.. Driver's mild intoxication a factor 12 26 7 6 2 12 1 23 Total accidents .. .. 172 221148 140 125 174 191 203 in accident Driver's severe intoxication a factor 3744265 8 (e) Classified according to Nature of in accident Thoroughfare. Driver unlicensed or inexperienced 5 2 7 2 3 6 1 1 Intersection .. .. .. 19 18 17 20 19 28 19 30 Straying stock .. .. 1111222.. Railway-crossing .. ... 7 9 7 3 9 10 4 11 Other breaches of law .. .. 5 2 1 12 3 8 5 26 Nature or condition of road (bad 48 51 27 12 18 32 55 19 Other causes— surface or bend, &c, contributed Bad weather conditions .. 19 4 3 1 9 11 6 15 to accident) Vehicle being reversed .. 3 2 .. 5 6 5 2 1 Road conditions not a factor .. 98143 97105 79104113 143 Obstruction to view by parked 4 5.. 1 .. .. 7 3 motor-vehicle Total accidents .. .. 172 221148140125174191 203 Sun-dazzle .. .. .. 2 1 Driver's physical defect a direct 4 .. 1 2 1 2 1 (f) Classified according to Geographical cause Location. Motorist and pedestrian— (a) North Island — Motorist at fault .. 17 9 1 13 5 7 13 15 Auckland City and environs 29 25 28 33 19 27 34 20 Pedestrian (not intoxicated) cross- 17 30 12 19 9 17 25 18 Wellington City and environs 16 19 15 8 13 14 20 7 ing or on road without care or Other towns .. .. 20 31 14 7 10 19 41 29 becoming confused Country . . .. ... 57 88 48 40 44 48 39 72 Pedestrian intoxicated .. 5532645 10 (6) South Island — Children on streets .. .. 27762 10 6 2 Christchurch City and environs 13 14 9 16 10 15 21 8 Infant (under six) not under proper 9 115 3 3 7 1 Dunedin City and environs .« 48426712 6 control Other towns .. .. 8 11 11 14 7 9 11 14 Other causes of pedestrian accidents 6 1 4 .. 1 5 .. 8 Country .. .. .. 25 25 19 20 16 35 13 47 Causes not included under the above 4 22 34 17 13 16 30 28 headings Total accidents .. .. 172 221 148 140 125 174|l91 203 Total causes .. .. 302 297 185193 146 243 240 252

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APPENDIX B.—REPORTS OF SUB-COMMITTEES OF THE NEW ZEALAND ROAD SAFETY COUNCIL AS ADOPTED BY THE COUNCIL.

ADULT EDUCATION AND PROPAGANDA. Introductory. Your Committee has held three meetings and, in addition, members have consulted individually with persons from whom valuable information was received. The Committee has considered ways and means of — Awakening the conscience of the people to the consequences of road accidents, and of securing the full and willing co-operation of the public in an effort to reduce, and if possible eliminate, such accidents ; Educating the individual road-user regarding the requirements laid down by the law and by a reasonable standard of conduct in his relations to other road-users ; and Inculcating in the mind of the individual a consciousness in which observance of the law and habits of caution and consideration will become second nature. Approach to the Problem. We considered that we should not set out to suggest how a given amount of money should be expended, but that we should formulate a scheme which, if applied in full, will achieve the maximum results possible through education and propaganda, leaving it to the Council to determine the extent to which the scheme can be applied having regard to the funds that can be provided. Extravagant expenditure is not suggested by your committee, but the Council may feel that somewhat heavy expenditure will be desirable and perhaps unavoidable. An attempt to conduct an educational campaign in anything but a thorough manner may be said to indicate an inadequate appreciation of the humanitarian and other social aspects of the problem, and of the substantial savings which can be made in hospital expenditure, pensions, insurance-costs, policing, and road expenditure. The alternative to a thorough educational and propaganda campaign is that expenditure, heavier than need be under the several heads mentioned, must be maintained, and that the Courts must continue to punish. Remedial action through the Courts, even if it be preventive in character, is undesirable if it is avoidable, and we think this is a matter which should engage the thoughts of members of the Council. Many of those so punished will be persons whose offences are due to ignorance, apathy, thoughtlessness, or carelessness. It will not be a satisfactory condition if people are caused to feel that through fear of punishment they must observe restrictions which to them may seem unnecessary and which serve to irritate and antagonize them. We do not regard the repressive action of the law as a proper means of dealing with a question which affects the entire population. It is necessary as a background for the coercion of the recalcitrant, but the majority of people are decent people who will come voluntarily into line if approached reasonably. The good will of the public is necessary, and it is most unlikely that effective co-operation can be brought about by the infliction of penalties, or while they remain one of the major forms of treatment. Moreover, the issue will tend to be, more so than in the past, one as between motorist and pedestrian or, what is perhaps worse, an issue as between the public and those responsible for the enforcement of the law, with the tendency on the part of motorists in particular to distrust and outwit police and traffic officers as the representatives of laws which restrict the freedom of the individual. We are of the opinion that every effort should be made to obviate such sectional distinctions and other undesirable psychological reactions. As to the type of propaganda, we are agreed that appeals to the emotions by the use of gruesome propaganda are generally undesirable. The engendering of fear, with the reaction of daring or contempt of danger as a psychological reaction against fear, is likely to follow the use of gruesome propaganda. The keynote should be instruction and persuasion. In the light of these general remarks we offer the suggestion that parsimony in expenditure upon education and propaganda may not be true economy, and that spasmodic efforts or a short-term programme cannot be expected to produce lasting results. We consider that the Council should visualize a long-range plan and, in order that it may be seen how effective educational and propaganda methods can be, that a systematic plan of operations for at least one year should be pursued, at the end of which time the desirability or otherwise of continuing action on similar lines can be ascertained in the light of the results achieved. As time goes on, provided suitable educational methods are introduced in the schools, the necessity for adult instruction will become less. Although matters relating to education and propaganda for school-children are outside our province, we express the opinion that when looking at the future the Council should resolve to commence with the child. Co-operation between Advertising Agencies and Council. We have discussed publicity measures with representatives of the principal advertising agencies, and we take this opportunity of referring to their readiness to act as one body and to co-operate in the formulation and the carrying-out of a comprehensive scheme. The agencies are desirous of contributing something to the campaign and are prepared to place their

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experience, skill, and knowledge at the disposal of the Council. No payment is expected for any service they can render in that way, but they have reasonably assumed that they would be reimbursed for out-of-pocket expenses, such as the cost of drawings, production of blocks, and printing, and that they would be free to receive commission in respect of newspaper advertising. The Committee has considered whether or not the newspapers should be asked to give some reduction in their advertising rates. We think it preferable that the Council should request that equivalent assistance be given by having favoured positions allotted for the Council's advertising matter; also, in the news columns prominence might be given to questions with which the Council is concerned. We think that there will be a good psychological effect if publicity matter is issued over the name of the Road Safety Council rather than that it be under the auspices of a Department of State. This would be helped by a consideration of the fact that the Council was constituted as the outcome of a gathering representative of all classes of road users. The widest possible co-operation is of course desirable. If the Council can see its way to approve our suggestion that the advertising agencies' offer of co-operation be accepted, then the most valuable assistance at no extra cost would be at the disposal of the Council and would make possible the continuous supervision of the publicity by the sub-committee should the Council desire the Committee so to act. Means available fob the Dissemination op Educational and Propaganda Matter. (a) Handbooks and leaflets ; (b) Newspapers ; (e) Radio ; (d) Picture theatres ; (e) Posters ; and (/) General. We think that all should be utilized in order that the greatest coverage may be secured. Some people will not be reached at all by any one of these means a.nd some will be more responsive to one method than to another, each form of advertisement having its own appeal. Also, by the employment of the several methods the subject will be kept more constantly before the public, while the variety so provided will in itself be of value. (a) Handbooks and Leaflets. —The issue of a Highway Code is desirable. This, however, does not carry the matter far enough, as there are many into whose possession a handbook cannot be placed and many who will not study its contents. Also, there are definite limits to the quantity of matter which can be included in a handbook of a size likely to be read by any one other than the person who is the least likely to offend, and as the information it contains will not be constantly under notice it is not likely to have a deep and lasting effect. Nevertheless we consider that the issue of handbooks is desirable, mainly because people should at least have the opportunity of acquainting themselves, from an authoritative source, with what is required of them in matters affecting the safety of themselves and other road-users. We presume that if a handbook is prepared it will contain rules for the guidance of all road-users. As to distribution, the alternative means are :— (1) Distribution at the time drivers' licenses are renewed or otherwise issued, in which case cyclists and pedestrians would not be specifically provided for. (2) Postal distribution, which we favour because of its completeness—one can be put into every household —and because it permits of distribution earlier than would be possible under the alternative method, The cost of postal distribution in the ordinary way would be in the vicinity of £750, but in view of the Government's interest in the matter it should be possible to come to some special arrangement with the Postal Department. In addition to a general handbook, we think that some special provision should be made by way of leaflets for pedal cyclists. Effective means of distribution are lacking, but a considerable number could be reached by having supplies of leaflets placed in the shops of cycle-dealers with a request to proprietors that they have them handed to their customers. (b) Newspapers.—We regard the newspapers as a most important medium for the dissemination of information. A newspaper is read daily by almost every adult, and by younger people also, and its written or pictorial message reaches the reader when he is in a reflective state of mind. The news columns and editorial columns can feature questions with which the Council is concerned, and it appears to us that considerable service has been rendered in this way in recent months. No doubt newspapers will continue to help in this manner, but it would be rather too much to expect that all newspapers necessarily conducted as businesses should over a very long period give special publicity in their columns by backpaging other news likely to be of more interest to their readers. Because of its general utility value we think that a good deal of the propaganda effort should be made through the newspapers. (c) Radio. —We regard the radio as a valuable complement to the newspapers and not as an adequate substitute for them. It conveys the spoken word, which is more fleeting than the written message. There are radio sets in upwards of 60 per cent, of the homes and, provided the occupiers of those homes were constantly listening-in, it should be taken that any message would come to their ears and be received by them when in a state of relaxation. Many peopie are adverse to being lectured, and where the personality of a speaker enters into the question—as it does in all cases —there is some danger of antagonism and the message fails to " get home." *

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We t.tiink the radio should be used for the following purposes :— Short addresses, weekly or fortnightly, by the Chairman of the Council and other selected speakers ; Progress bulletins, fortnightly or monthly ; Radio plays, once monthly ; Short recordings for driving home safety maxims. Listeners may be caused to become more interested by bringing them into participation in the scheme, and incidentally instructing them, by inviting them to send in their verdict on Court trials concerning various types of accidents, or by arranging safety-slogan competitions. Members of the Committee have visited the recording studios which have facilities for the recording of plays, &c. The firm has quoted for one play a month, £15 ; and for one a fortnight, £12 10s., these prices including the cost of the script, remuneration of players, and the supplying of four recordings of each play. For gramophone records, each having six one-minute maxims, a quote of 10s. each has been made for quantities of 100 or more of each record. A quotation was given for this number, as the records would be suitable both for broadcasting and for use in picture-theatres in conjunction with the screening of slides. n (d) Picture-theatres.—Through this medium, advice-slogans portrayed on slides or on gramophone records can be brought before a large proportion of the public. Slides and. recordings may be used in conjunction. We think that some use should be made of these facilities. The use of long films does not commend itself greatly to the Committee for the reason that those produced overseas and screened recently in Wellington did not appear to us to be particularly suitable, while the production of films suitable for New Zealand conditions would be both difficult and costly. Films plotted in miniature present less technical difficulty and eliminate the necessity for actors. Each of the more common causes of accidents can thus be portrayed on the screen in a few minutes, the necessary explanation being given by the filmed voice of the commentator. The facilities of the Government Publicity Department could be utilized in this connection. (e) Posters— We think that posters should be used for the most important of the safety messages chiefly of the warning type. For location out-of-doors the message must be, of course, There should be no great difficulty in arranging for posters of reduced size to be displayed periodically in trams, buses, trains, shop-windows, lifts, &c. (f) General: — Safety-first Slogans— The Post and Telegraph Department is prepared to run slogans, tree of charge—other than the small cost of making the stamps—in post-marking machines in the four main centres. Government Publications. —Arrangements could perhaps be made for the inclusion of a certain amount of educational and propaganda matter in the Railway Magazine, Radio Record, and the Education Gazette. Progress Bulletins. —The preparation of regular bulletins of casualties, with comparisons with previous periods, for publication in the press and over the air, would assist by keeping the result-factor before the public. Motor Gymkhanas and Agricultural and Pastoral Shows. —On these occasions practical safetyfirst demonstrations may be given. Co-operation by Traders.—There should be some response to an invitation to firms to co-operate. Directions in which they may assist are by the displaying of posters in the official opening week of the campaign; by the permanent display of posters by firms dealing in motor-vehicles, cycles, and accessories ; and the larger of those firms may be prepared to incorporate the safety idea in some of their advertising ; also the covers of school exercise-books and writing-pads could be utilized by publishers for the reproduction of drawings illustrating traffic rules. Special Treatment fob each Class op Road-user. Much of the general propaganda will be educational and of concern to road-users as a whole, but we think that some special attention should be given to the various groups : ■ Motorists. —We have discussed the question of raising the standard of drivers, and though this may at first sight appear to be somewhat outside our province we think it is one of the fundamentals of education with which the Council should concern itself. We propose, therefore, that— (1) A standard, uniform throughout the Dominion and higher than that now observed by many licensing authorities outside the larger centres, should be set up for the testing of applicants for drivers' licenses, and the licensing authorities be required to ensure that the standard is observed. _ _ (2) No official should be permitted to examine applicants unless the Minister is satisfied that he possesses the necessary qualifications. _ (3) A booklet be prepared and issued setting out a syllabus for the examination of applicants for licenses. We suggest that a small committee be set up to prepare data for the booklet proposed, and that the Chief Traffic Officer of the Wellington City Council and the secretary of the Wellington Automobile Association be invited to act on this committee. Our proposal is supported by the view that a Highway Code by itself is not sufficient for the beginner, and, further, it may not be unreasonable to require present holders of licenses who are found to be prone to accidents to be tested again with a view to their satisfying the requirements of the revised standard before their licenses are renewed, *

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Motor-cyclists. Motor-cycles are involved in so many accidents that a special approach to this section of motoring appears necessary. We think that, in addition to special publicity, the matter should be treated in the manner suggested for applicants for motor-car drivers' licenses. Pedal Cyclists.—These, as a group, will probably be the hardest to persuade, and in the absence of provision for registration we can .only suggest that special publicity be directed to the pedal cyclist. Ma,ny of them are school-children and can be directly reached in the schools. Pedestrians. Upon the coming into operation of new regulations affecting pedestrians, special publicity will be necessary to encourage and, if possible, ensure observance of the regulations. In this connection we mention a small booklet entitled " Road Safety for Pedestrians " issued by the General Accident, Fire, and Life Assurance Corporation, with a foreword by the British Minister of Transport. Traffic Officers. We also refer to the desirability of giving advice and instruction to Traffic Officers so that they may be better able to contribute to the movement for the instruction and co-operation of road users. Summary. As we are not aware what funds will be available for the Council's purposes it is not possible for us to make positive and detailed recommendations as to the extent to which the various means should be employed, but we submit herewith the outline of a comprehensive scheme for the consideration of the Council from the standpoints of desirability and practicability. This scheme has been prepared by the advertising agencies at our request and after full consultation between the representatives of the agencies and the Committee. The principal matters referred to in this report are summarized as under :— (1) Comprehensive educational and propaganda scheme, continuously applied, and designed to enlist full co-operation of the public and to achieve maximum results, including reduction in expenditure in other directions and lessening necessity for action in the Courts. (2) Provision for the future by introduction of safety-first education into the schools. (3) Advertising agencies' offer of co-operation. (4) Publicity under the auspices of the Council. (5) Highway Code : Issue and method of distribution. (6) Newspapers : General advertising, letterpress, editorials. (7) Radio : Short addresses at regular intervals ; progress reports ; radio plays ; short _ recordings—safety maxims ; competitions to interest and educate listeners. (8) Picture-theatres : Advice slogans on slides and records ; short films portraying traffic rules in preference to long films. ■ (9) Posters : Out-of-doors and in trams, buses, trains, shops, and lifts. (10) Safety-first Slogans : Post Office stamp-cancelling machines. (11) Utilization of Government publications. (12) Regular bulletins of casualties : Press and radio. • (13) Practical demonstrations at motor gymkhanas and agricultural and pastoral shows. (14) Co-operation of traders. (15) Uniform, standard of qualifications for drivers' licenses. (16) Special treatment for each class of road-user. F. C. Spratt, Chairman. [This report and the Addendum following were adopted by the Council subject to the question of finance being held over and the Minister's responsibility for policy being kept in view.] ADDENDUM. Since writing our report we have examined in detail, and have adopted, the attached report of the Advertising Agencies (not published herein). Although the amount involved (£50,000 for the first year) may appear to be considerable, the committee is fully seized of the importance of the Council's objectives, and we feel that the question is one which should first of all be looked at in that light. We mention the saving of life, the prevention of injury and incapacity, and the saving of property—with consequential savings and benefits to the community as a whole, to Hospital Boards, and to insurance companies, and to the State itself in the form of a reduction' in the costs of pensions', prosecutions, prisons, &c. If the results of road-safety education went no further than the saving of twenty-five useful lives a year, and adopting the figure of £2,000 as the economic value of each, there would be a recoupment of the full amount, but there are, in. addition, various other savings, both direct and indirect.

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CHILD EDUCATION AND PROPAGANDA. General. 1. Measures taken to promote road safety for all classes of road-users will make for safer road conditions for children, and special measures for children will be complementary to and largely dependent upon the action taken with regard to road-users in general. It is clearly desirable that some special attention should be paid to the education and training of children, not only because their own immediate welfare is concerned, but also because they will later have to assume the responsibilities which devolve upon the adult road-user. 2. In the very early years of the child's life the responsibility for the training of the child must necessarily rest with the parent. In order that all parents may realize their obligations, we suggest the issue and distribution of a " Road Safety Code for Parents" somewhat on the lines of the code (Appendix A) recommended by the Inter-departmental Committee (England and Wales) on Road Safety among School-children. 3. In the Highway Code, and in the course of any general publicity, it should be impressed upon motor-vehicle drivers that children cannot be expected to show the judgment and caution possessed by adults. Drivers of motor-vehicles should be discouraged' from parking their vehicles immediately near school-exits. Instruction in Schools. 4. Road-safety instruction should form part of the training given at Teachers' Training Colleges. 5. Each teacher should be supplied with a copy of the Highway Code and with other material, in the form of literature, drawings, or posters, for use when giving talks to pupils. 6. As a step in the direction of introducing road-safety training into schools, the Education Department arranged for the inclusion of an article in the September issue of the Education Gazette (Appendix B), and portion of it is quoted here "... All teachers, whether head teachers or assistants, are enjoined to co-operate in this humanitarian work and to regard this aspect of education as of paramount importance. Time spent in all other forms of education is practically useless if the pupil is subsequently killed or crippled. " The Department hopes from time to time to issue more particular advice, but meantime feels that teachers will day by day or week by week mention certain aspects of the problem to their classes. The following are some points that may be noted : — 'It is proposed to issue a highway code shortly, and when this is done further attention will be drawn to the matter." 7. In addition to special talks by teachers, there are various ways by which road-safety education and training can be introduced into the school. 8. Essays on road-safety topic. These should not be of the competitive type, but should involve, in the ease of senior pupils, some measure of independent research. 9. Drawing and handwork, by means of which a knowledge of traffic signs can be imparted. 10. Playground games and demonstrations. 11. Gramophone recordings and special talks may be included in the educational programmes which are broadcast weekly from the main national stations. (Some eight hundred schools are equipped with radio sets.) 12. Upon the dismissal of the school at midday and in the afternoon, teachers could with advantage make some short reference to those rules of the road with which children are especially concerned, and the need for observance of them. 13. When children are taken to sports-grounds or swimming-baths, or upon educational visits, the opportunity should be taken by teachers to give training under actual traffic conditions. 14. The efforts of teachers would be furthered if arrangements could be made for addresses to be given by uniformed Traffic Inspectors. 15. Publishers of school stationery would doubtless be prepared to have suitable designs, accompanied by appropriate slogans, on the covers of school' exercise-books. Suitable drawings or blocks, together with descriptive matter, could perhaps be supplied to firms prepared to co-operate in this manner. 16. The Boy Scouts' Association has offered to assist in any way possible. We suggest that the organization be invited to include the Highway Code and allied subjects in the training of Boy Scouts. Bicycles, etc. • 17. Cyclists : If a code of rules for cyclists is prepared, as we think should be done, a copy should be placed in the possession of every cyclist, and children should be instructed to bring the code to the notice of their parents. A printed set of rules and hints for pupils, with a section for parents, on the lines shown in Appendix C, is suggested. 18. (a) The carrying of large parcels on bicycles should be prohibited. (b) The use of scooters or skates on the footpath or highway should be discouraged or prohibited. The use of trollies for any purpose other than carrying goods should be forbidden. t

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Schools and Playgrounds. 19. When proposals for the erection of new schools are under attention, steps should be taken to see that the entrances are on to side streets or roads. 20. In some cases of existing schools it may be desirable and practicable to move the entrance from the main road to a side road. Education Boards should be instructed to make a survey with a view to ascertaining the cases where action in this direction would be desirable. 21. Barriers, erected at the edge of the footpath opposite the school gates, should be provided where necessary. These might be given an added value by having a Safety First sign displayed thereon. 22. Tram and bus stops should not be placed immediately near school exits. 23. In fixing the position for pedestrian crossings due regard should be given to the needs of children attending schools in the vicinity. 24. The desirability of providing play-areas, including small playing-spaces for young children, should be considered in connection with housing schemes. Boroughs and City Councils should make a census of all areas suitable for children's playing-grounds. The possibility of employing supervisors of such areas should be considered. 25. Municipal authorities could be asked to investigate these matters. The co-operation of the Ministry of Housing would be valuable both with respect of the Government's housing schemes and those undertaken by local bodies. Supplementary. 26. The Committee has considered the question of school patrols. There seems some reason to believe that children acting as patrols, or their parents, could be held legally liable in the event of accidents occurring to children in the charge of patrols. Apart from this, it is very doubtful whether the responsibilities involved should be placed upon school-children. Adult control is preferable and, at busy spots, indispensable. The question is one which, we think, should be examined by Education Boards and local safety committees before action is taken to encourage the establishment of school patrols. 27. Local interest would be created and co-operation brought about by the establishment of local Children's Safety Committees on which local bodies, teachers, and School Committees could be represented. They should be advisory bodies, and their recommendations as to the particular needs of localities would come forward to a central body and by that body be forwarded to the Departments of Education and Transport. 28. (a) During or at the conclusion of each matinee a slide should be shown on the screen to remind the audience to observe the traffic rules. A similar slide should be shown in every theatre at the conclusion of every performance. The slide should enjoin safety on both motorists and pedestrians. (b) Films depicting road-safety precautions should be prepared or procured and shown at special, matinee, or ordinary performances. 29. Talks on road safety have already been given during the schools educational session. This service should be continued. If statistics of accidents to children were available these should be broadcasted during adult sessions. These statistics should be published regularly in the Education Gazette. 30. Ihe question whether pedestrians should walk to the left or to the right on the highway should be definitely determined. 31. Post-primary schools should consider the possibility of forming classes for training youthful motorists who are pupils of the schools. J. W. Mcllraith, Chairman. [Adopted by the Council with amendments as incorporated and subject to the attention of the children being drawn to the provisions of the Highway Code concerning keeping to the footpath and keeping to the right on roadways.] VEHICLE AND HIGHWAY LIGHTING. 1 have to report that this Committee, in view of the urgency of finalizing the proposed Traffic Regulations, has so far devoted its attention wholly to the question of vehicle-lighting, leaving the matter of highway-lighting for future consideration. Lighting Eegulations. The Committee has made a thorough examination of all the clauses of Regulation 7 of the proposed Traffic Regulations and recommends a number of amendments for the consideration of the Council. Regulation 7, amended according to these recommendations, would read as follows (substitutions or additions being in italics) :— Clause (1) : To read as formerly : — Save as provided by clauses (9) and (10) hereof, no person shall operate a motor-vehicle during lighting-up time unless it is equipped as provided in this regulation and unless the lights required to be equipped are operated so as to comply with the requirements of this regulation." *

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Clause (2) : To read as formerly, subject, however, to possible revision by the Council in connection with the provision of " pass lights," referred to at the end of this report: — " Every motor-vehicle other than a motor-cycle shall be equipped with two, and not more than two, driving-lights attached thereto, which shall be — " (a) Of approximately equal candle-power : " (b) Placed one towards each side of the vehicle, and in such a manner that they may direct a beam of light ahead of the vehicle : " (c) Of sufficient power to enable substantial objects and the nature of the road surface to be clearly visible under normal driving and atmospheric conditions by a driver of normal vision at a distance of at least 150 ft. directly in front of the vehicle.'' Clause (3) : Amended to read as follows : — " Every driving-light attached to a motor-vehicle shall be so focussed and adjusted that under all operating conditions when the vehicle is standing on a horizontal surface the main beam of light, will be projected downwards so that its centre will meet the road surface at a distance of not more than 200 ft. qhead of the vehicle." The Committee is convinced that a descending beam setting is desirable in order that the glare factor may be reduced. This is particularly so in the case of the light type of English car where, with a beam set horizontally, under certain conditions of loading the main rays may be directed at an upward angle, thus causing disconcerting glare to other traffic. Experiments were carried out with different settings and various types of cars, and it was found that a headlight beam whose centre strikes the road surface at a distance of 150 ft. ahead of the vehicle reduces the glare factor under all loading conditions to a minimum, consistent with adequate driving visibility. However, it is impracticable to require a setting of the lamps to ensure the centre of the beam striking the roadway at an exact distance such as 150 ft. for the following reasons : — (i) Even with an exact setting, the distance is variable with many types of car according to the loading conditions : (ii) Owing to the varying height of the lamps from the ground in different types and models of vehicles, with a consequent variable setting-angle, it would not be a very simple matter for motorists generally to have their lights set precisely as required ; and (iii) Such a regulation would be difficult to enforce. It is thought that the condition demanding that the beam must be descending under all operating conditions will meet all requirements and ensure that the present glare problem will be greatly reduced. In conjunction with this vertical setting of the beam, tests were made with various lateral settings. It was considered that the best driving conditions, with a minimum of glare, were obtained with the left-hand or " on " driving-light directed straight ahead of the vehicle, but with the right-hand or " off " light deflected towards the left so that the centre of its main beam met that of the left-hand light at a distance of 150 ft. in front of the vehicle. These conditions of vertical and lateral settings of the beams are illustrated by the diagrams submitted herewith. While much impressed with the results obtained from this lateral setting, the Committee feels that any recommendation as to deflecting the " off" beam in this manner should be left to the discretion of the Council. Clause (4): Amended to read as follows : — " Every motor-vehicle, including any trailer, shall be equipped with a tail-light which shows a red light visible at least 300 ft. to the rearward and which is attached at the rear of the vehicle not farther to the left than its centre-line." The present regulations require the tail-lamp to be placed not farther to the left than the extreme centre-line of the vehicle. The word " extreme " appears unnecessary and is difficult to interpret, and is therefore omitted. The tail-lamp is also required to be placed as near as practicable to the level of the chassis-frame. On many vehicles it is not practicable to place the lamp at this level, nor does there appear to be any vital reason for fixing it there. This is, moreover, often rather a vulnerable position, especially in the case of a lorry backing into a dock. Consequently the Committee recommends the deletion of this provision. Clause (5) : Amended to read as follows : — " The registration plate carried on the rear of every motor-vehicle shall be so illuminated as to render the figures and letters thereon clearly visible at a distance of 60ft. by a white light the beams of which are not visible from the rearward." Two technical officers of the Committee made a series of tests regarding the illumination of numberplates, and their conclusions, which were endorsed by the Committee are as follows : — " The standard of illumination of number-plates is very low due to the following factors : — " (a) Insufficient candle-power. " (&) Badly placed light with respect to the number-plate. " (c) Angle or spread of the beam of light insufficient to give full illumination of the numberplate. " Under reasonably good conditions the better colour combinations are legible at distances approximately 120 ft., although from observations made only a relatively small percentage of cars have their number-plates legible at distance of 30 ft., due to the reasons set out above.

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To specify candle-power would also require that all controlling factors affecting the resultant legibility should also be defined, and it is considered that the regulations should require simply that the number-plate be clearly legible at a distance of 60 ft." Clause (6): Amended to read as follows :—• " Any motor-vehicle may be equipped with not more than one spotlight having a movable beam. A spotlight may be used only for purposes or occasions for which the driving-lights are not suitable, and must then be used in a reasonable manner so as not to interfere with the vision of other users of the road." It is considered that the present permissive provision for two spotlights is unnecessary. The Committee is further of the opinion that a definition of a spotlight should be embodied in the regulations, such a definition to convey the meaning of a searchlight—i.e., a light projector so designed as to throw an intense narrow beam. Clause (7): To read as formerly :— " A fire-engine may be fitted near its longitudinal centre-line and at a height of not less than 3 ft. 6 in. from ground with a lamp capable of displaying a red light to the front of not less than 6 in. in diameter. The said light shall be displayed only while the vehicle is responding to an alarm of fire." Clause (8) : Amended to read as follows : — " Any lights attached to a motor-vehicle other than those described by the preceding clauses of this regulation or authorized by the Minister in terms of Regulation 10, clause (5) hereof, shall be covered with frosted glass, a diffusing lens, or other material which has the effect of diffusing the light, and except when otherwise herein provided the light displayed by any lamp attached to a motor-vehicle shall be substantially white in character." Clause (9): Amended to read as follows :— " When the lighting from some other artificial source than the headlights is sufficient to render clearly visible a pedestrian or similar substantial object at a distance of 300 ft. or when the vehicle is stationary, the driver of any motor-vehicle shall use sidelights in substitution for headlights or shall dim or dip the headlights thereof. The effect of this amendment is to increase the visibility distance of 150 ft. as now required, to a distance of 300 ft., and also makes compulsory provision for either sidelights or some form of dimming or dipping devices. The amendment also provides for driving lights to be dimmed or dipped or sidelights to be substituted when the vehicle is stationery, whether or not there is artificial lighting. All that is necessary in the case of a stationary vehicle is that its position and outline should be visible to other users of the road, and this may best be accomplished by the use of sidelights or dimmed or dipped headlights. Clause (10): To read as formerly : — " The lights or any of the lights prescribed by this regulation need not be displayed while the motor-vehicle is stationary on the roadway, provided that the vehicle is lighted from some artificial source so that its position on the roadway is clearly visible at a distance of 150 ft." Clause (11) : To read as formerly : — " In the case of a motor-vehicle of any of the kinds referred to in Regulation 6 hereof, it shall be sufficient compliance with the requirements of this regulation if such vehicle is provided with at least three lights visible for 300 ft. under normal atmospheric conditions, one at each side of the vehicle, placed so as to display a white light to the front and sides thereof, and one at the rear of the vehicle placed so as to display a red light to the rear thereof and not to be visible from the front thereof, and such lights need not be attached to the vehicle." References to " Lights " in the Regulations. The Committee would draw attention to the somewhat loose manner in which the present regulations refer to vehicle-lights. The word " light "is used indiscriminately to denote either the lamp itself or the light emitted from the lamp. It is suggested that where the lamp equipment is referred to, the word " lamp " should be substituted. Furthermore, it is considered that only one of the terms " driving lights " or " headlights " should be used throughout the regulations. Colours of Registration-plates. Tests were made for the purpose of determining the best contrasting colour combinations in order to secure the maximum degree of legibility of registration numbers in this respect. After six colour combinations had been selected as giving good legibility, the manufacturers of the registrationplates were consulted as to which of these combinations caused minimum production difficulties. As a result the Committee recommends that a cycle of four different colour combinations be established, thus covering a period of four years. The colours recommended are as follows : — Green figures on a white ground. Black figures on a yellow ground. Blue figures on a white ground. Black figures on a white ground. i

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Illumination of Number-plates. The Committee has examined several designs for an improved form of number-plate for visibility at night. _ The best one of these consisted of a special plate in which the shape of the figures is cut out, enabling them to stand out as luminous numbers by means of a light-source placed behind the actual plate. Certain of the designs gave excellent visibility under both daylight and dark conditions. The designs, however, all require a special fitting to replace the present white light illuminating the rear number-plate, the cost of the fitting, installed on the vehicle, being estimated at 15s. 6d. In addition, the manufacturers of the present registration plates estimate that the new form of plate would cost Is. 6d. more per plate than the existing plates. The Committee will therefore make no recommendation in respect of these. Independent Tail-light. A device was demonstrated to the Committee by means of which it is impossible to switch out the light illuminating the rear number-plate without stopping and going to the rear of the vehicle to do so. This is claimed to be an advantage in the case of the " hit-and-run " driver who may switch off his lights to avoid identification. The Committee, while approving the actual device, is of the opinion that in view of the cost to the motorist particulars regarding the efficacy of its use should first be obtained before the question is considered of making such compulsory. The Transport Department is making the necessary inquiries from Great Britain in this connection. " Pass Lights." The British regulations require that headlamps shall be— (i) Permanently pointed downwards ; or (ii) Capable of being deflected downwards ; or (iii) Capable of being deflected both downwards and to the left; or (iv) Of the double-filament type in which the main driving filament goes out, and another, pointing downwards, comes on ; or (v) Of the dip and switch type, by which one lamp goes out, and the beam of the other is deflected downwards, or both downwards and to the left. A demonstration was recently given in Wellington illustrating the eflect of the application of these methods m passing other vehicles. In addition, a vehicle equipped with a centrally placed lamp set low m the front of the vehicle was demonstrated. When passing another vehicle the headlights were switched off and replaced by sidelights and the centrally placed " pass light." The efEect° of these methods in eliminating glare was good, and the Committee recommends that the Council might consider, in conjunction with the question of deflection of the off light to the left, a provision in clause (2), Regulation 7, of the Traffic Regulations permitting driving with sidelights only when an approved central " pass light " or " pass lights " are operative. , , , „ G. L. Laurenson, Chairman. [Adopted by the Council.] LIGHTING OP HIGHWAYS. I have to report as follows regarding the question of the artificial lighting of highways at night. . . ® Committee is agreed that adequate lighting of the heavily trafficked routes outside municipalities is eminently desirable for purposes of safety. The annual report of the Transport Department presents figures regarding fatal accidents which show that during the past seven years 567 accidents, or 48-5 per cent, of the total of 1,171, occurred during hours of dusk or darkness. During these hours, however, it is found that the volume of traffic, using the highways is only one-fifth of the volume during the daylight hours. It is thus seen that the accident hazard at night is almost five times as great as the daylight hazard. This conclusion compares very closely with that reached in America, where it has'been found that although the night traffic was only one-fourth of the traffic during the daylight hours, over half of the number of accidents occurred at night. In cities and on highways in the United States of America and in Great Britain, where adequate illumination has been provided, the accident rate at night has immediately dropped to an amazing extent. Instances where highway lighting accomplished this reduction in the accident rate are too numerous to quote. One striking example, however, is on the Mount Vernon Highway, Washington, D C., where the number of accidents during hours of darkness was 2-5 times as great without highway lighting as with it. 0 With a lighting system which provides conditions of visibility comparable to daylight, there appears no reason why the night hazard should exceed that during daylight—i.e., the accidents throughout the whole twenty-four hours either day or night would be approximately in proportion to the volume of traffic. In New Zealand this would represent a reduction of 32 per cent, in the total accidents. In other words, an annual saving of over fifty lives and 1,600 other accidents causing personal injury might be expected if all roads and streets were adequately lighted. The Extent to which Highway Lighting should be adopted. For financial reasons it is manifestly impossible to provide suitable lighting on all roads. The Committee considers that the highways outside the cities and larger municipalities should be illuminated where the motor-traffic exceeds a certain daily volume. It is suggested that under

7—H. 40. *

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average conditions it would be economic to light a highway when the daily traffic volume reaches 2,500 vehicles. This figure is based upon rather scanty data regarding the economic loss due to accidents and also the relation between the number of accidents and the traffic density. The conclusion derived from this data suggests that the cost to the community represented by the loss of earning-power, medical expenses, and the property damage incurred by accidents, amounts to a figure in the vicinity of jd. per vehicle-mile. This is based largely on American statistics, which may not be strictly applicable in New Zealand. However, the figures supply a means of indicating to a very approximate degree when it is economic to incur certain expenditure upon the elimination of accident hazards. It may be mentioned that among other factors the volume of motor traffic which may influence the question of the desirability for night illumination are the volume of cyclist and pedestrian traffic. Apart from the strictly economic viewpoint there is the human side of the problem represented by the suffering and sorrow which inevitably accompanies accidents, and the strain upon drivers and consequent bodily and mental fatigue caused through night driving under inadequate conditions for seeing. The Committee therefore feels that it is desirable to light as many of the denser traffic routes as possible for the purpose of preventing accidents caused through lack of seeing ability, and for the general benefit of the road-user. From the most recent traffic records it is found that the only highways outside of the cities and larger boroughs where the traffic exceeds 2,500 motor-vehicles daily are — (i) The Hutt Road from Thorndon to Petone (5,800 vehicles daily). (ii) The Great South Road from Auckland to Otahuhu (2,700 vehicles). This represents a total length of about sixteen miles, which would be lighted if the Committee's recommendations are adopted. The only other highways where this volume is at present approached are the Great South Road from Otahuhu to Papakura, and the Christchurch-Dunedin Main Highway from Christchurch to Sockburn. The Type op Lighting. The various available types of light sources are :— (i) Electric filament lamps ; (ii) Electric gaseous-discharge lamps — (a) Mercury-vapour type. (b) Sodium-vapour type. The electric filament lamp is the common type of household and street lamp emitting a white light. The mercury-vapour lamp emits a bluish-coloured light and is the type to be seen in use at night in Lambton Quay, Wellington. The sodium-vapour lamp gives a soft yellow light, and the first major installation of this type in New Zealand was recently inaugurated on a length of highway in Devonport, Auckland. The gaseous-discharge type of installation, either mercury or sodium, gives a much greater degree of illumination for the same expenditure of current than does the filament type. The cost of the lamps in New Zealand is, however, much greater in the case of the gaseous-discharge type. After carefully considering the information available it appeared to the Committee that the most suitable form of illumination in the case of highways outside of shopping areas is provided by the sodium type of electric-discharge lamp. This light produces no glare and lights up the road surface in such a manner that all objects ahead may be clearly discerned in silhouette against a lighted background. Owing to the monochromatic nature of the light, there are no colour contrasts, and on this account, unless modified by the presence of other lights, which neutralize the yellow effect, sodium lighting is not suitable in shopping areas. The Standard op Lighting. Expressed in non-technical terms, the minimum standard of lighting which in the opinion of the Committee should be provided on the highways should be such that drivers may proceed with safety at a reasonable speed without the use of headlights. With a sodium installation such a standard of illumination may be attained with lamps of not less than 100 watts, the spacing between lamps to be from 2 chains to 150 ft.—i.e., thirty-five to forty lamps to the mile. The Cost of Lighting. The initial cost of installation may be assumed to vary from £600 to £800 per mile according to local conditions. The annual charges for operating the system from dusk to half an hour after midnight, including interest on the first cost and the provision of a sinking fund, should in no case exceed £300 per mile, and will generally be little over £200. It is considered uneconomic, in view of the very small amount of traffic normally using the roads after midnight, to continue to operate the lights later than 12.30 a.m. Duty on Highway Lamps and Fittings. At the present time there is a very heavy duty payable upon the gaseous-discharge lamps and fittings used in this country. In view of the national importance of the benefits to be derived from a system of adequate lighting the Committee recommends that the Customs duty on lamps of the gaseous-discharge type, together with the fittings and equipment used in connection therewith, be removed or reduced to a nominal amount. *

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The Committee feels that, with this item of the cost substantially reduced, local authorities would be encouraged to proceed with the installation of lighting where it would otherwise be financially impossible. It is pointed out that at present the use of this type of equipment in New Zealand is very limited, and there would thus be very little loss to the Government in revenue. Financial Responsibility tor Lighting. The highways which would come within the scope of the lighting proposals are in general of a national character, and their illumination is a question vitally affecting all road-users. It is manifestly impossible for many of the small local authorities to finance wholly such a system of modern lighting as is proposed, and if left to shoulder this responsibility the probable result would be no lighting, or a poor lighting system which is proved to be frequently productive of greater hazards than no lighting. It is consequently the opinion of the Committee that this facility should be provided mainly by the Government. Only a comparatively small contribution —say, to the extent of their present expenditure on lighting—should be made by the local authorities through whose districts the arterial road passes. Lighting of City and Municipal Streets. While this phase of the lighting question is possibly not strictly within the province of this Committee, it is considered desirable for purposes of road safety to urge that every endeavour be made to provide an adequate standard of street-lighting. The Committee recommends that street-lighting be generally improved to a standard at least equal to that proposed for highways, and that the order of precedence be largely determined by the volume of traffic carried by the streets. Summary of Conclusions and Recommendations. (1) That the night-accident hazard is five times as great as during daylight and that the obvious reason for this is the lack of adequate " seeing ability." (2) That the only satisfactory means of providing adequate visibility and reducing the heavy night-accident rate on the highways is by a properly designed system of artificial illumination. (3) That highways where the traffic exceeds 2,500 motor-vehicles in twenty-four hours should be illuminated at night. _ (4) That wherever possible other highways carrying a very large volume of traffic or where the night-accident rate is heavy should similarly be illuminated. (5) That the most suitable type of lighting on highways outside of shopping areas appears to be the sodium type of electric gaseous-discharge lamp. _ _ _ (6) That the minimum standard of illumination required is such as would permit safety in driving at a reasonable speed without using headlights. (7) That this standard may be achieved with a minimum of 100 watt sodium lamps spaced at thirty-five to forty lamps per mile. (8) That the cost of installation of such lighting would be £600 to £800 per mile, and the animal charges £200 to £300 per mile. (9) That lighting is unnecessary later than 12.30 a.m. (10) That the duty on gaseous-discharge lamps and fittings for highway and street-lighting should be removed. . . (11) The Committee's recommendation would mean a capital expenditure of approximately £12,000 and an annual expenditure of £3,200. (12) That the cities and other municipalities be urged to provide street-lighting of a minimum standard equal to that proposed for highways, and that the major traffic streets be considered first. G. L. Laurenson, Chairman. [Adopted by the Council.] ROAD CONDITIONS. I have to report that the Road Conditions Committee, after studying available data regarding accidents where faulty road conditions were a contributory factor, has framed certain recommendations for the consideration of the Council. It will be seen that these recommendations refer mainly to a number of existing road hazards to which it is felt that the attention of road-controlling authorities should be drawn, and also to the respective remedial measures which the Committee is of the opinion should be taken to lessen of remove these hazards. . It is suggested that the Council should recommend that the Minister circularize the local authorities regarding these matters. The recommendations are as follows: — ■ .. (1) Protective Fences. —In view of the comparatively large proportion of " over-rhe-bank accidents, it is strongly recommended that a suitable form of protective fence be provided at such bends and other places on hill roads where the consequences of a vehicle leaving the road might be serious. These fences should have white posts and should, furthermore, be of a design approved by the Main Highways Board. The Main Highways Board has estimated the cost of fencing in necessary places on the highway system at £80,000. The Committee suggests that the Board be approached with a view to expending £20,000 annually on this work during the next four years. *

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(2) Footpaths. —In a number of localities adjacent to centres of urban population and seaside or otter holiday resorts it is considered desirable that the volume of pedestrian traffic be ascertained, in order that the need for provision of footpaths may be determined. Frequently where footpaths are provided already the standard of construction or maintenance is so poor that pedestrians prefer to risk using the main roadway. The need for proper maintenance of footpath surfaces to a good standard should be stressed. (3) Visibility at Intersections.—Although a large number of the many accidents occurring at intersections are undoubtedly due to failure of the motorist to give way, the Committee recommends that attention of road-controlling authorities be drawn to the need for removal of unnecessary or potentially dangerous obstructions to vision at these points, such as trees, high hedges, fences, and advertising signs, &c. (4) Super-elevation m Curves.—lt was pointed out that in the case of non-permanent surfaces such as gravel, macadam, pumice, &c., the correct super-elevation may be built up and maintained by -the ordinary process of maintenance grading. This is considered worthy of mention in circularizing the local authorities. The Committee also suggests that the Main Highways Board be requested to ascertain the cost of providing proper super-elevation on the highway system. (5) Loose Shingle. —The danger of heavy loose shingle on roads generally and in particular at bridge approaches is stressed by the Committee. Quantities of loose metal in excess of the depth that may be expected to bind readily should be avoided. Also the practice during grading of leaving a windrow of gravel in the centre of the road for longer than is absolutely necessary should be strongly deprecated. (6) Slippery Surfaces.-—The provision of " sand-paper " bituminous surfaces should be advocated, and where bituminous or sealed surfaces have become smooth suitable treatment should be applied. This is particularly applicable to many urban streets where frequently the original permanent surfacing was carried out prior to the introduction of the more modern methods of bituminous construction. The main cause of skidding is considered to be an excess percentage of bitumen, so that any type of bituminous surfacing which carries less than 7 per cent, or 8 per cent, of bitumen in the aggregate is fairly satisfactory. There does not appear to be much trouble on the more recent types of construction on main highways. The question of tires worn smooth should not be overlooked. Generally the cost of tires is not a large proportion of the cost of motor-vehicle operation and it is doubtful economy to allow tires to wear down almost to the fabric. It appears that in the interests of safety smooth tires should be prohibited. The tire-manufacturer generally is co-operating in producing a non-skid tire, but his efforts are nullified when the pattern is worn completely off the tread. (7) Colour of Bituminous Sicrfaces. —The Committee suggests that the Main Highways Board be requested to investigate the possibility of improving the colour of black surfaces for night driving by the introduction of light-coloured aggregates where these are available. The Wellington City Council is in this connection making an investigation regarding the use of aluminium powder in the mix. (8) Snow on Road Surfaces. —Wherever applicable, local authorities should be urged to carry out promptly the removal of snow from the road surfaces. (9) Planking on Timber Bridges.—The potential danger of longitudinal running planks —i.e., planks extending over strips of the bridge surface only—is stressed. The Committee recommends that these should extend over the full width wherever possible the alternative being their complete removal. (10) Painting Bridge Handrails and Approach Fences.—Road-controlling authorities should adopt a strict policy of painting and maintaining the visibility of these for the safety and convenience of the road user. (11) Marking the Edges of the Road.—On curves or on dangerous sections where conditions render this necessary—e.g., hilly road subject to fog—Some system of indicating the edges of the roadway should be adopted. It is suggested that the Main Highways Board should recommend the various methods by which this may be effected, such as disks or posts, white side-lines, &c. (12) Centre-line Markings. —These should be painted on all curves on dustless surfaced roads where visibility is restricted as it is considered by the Committee to be of great assistance in the promotion of safe driving. These should extend for at least the full length of the curve, but it is, however, thought undesirable that the white lines should in general be adopted on straights. (13) Signs where Road is under Construction.—Although possibly not entirely within its province; the Committee wishes to draw attention to the necessity for provision of proper " Warning " or " Caution " signs indicating that roadworks are in progress. More precise attention should be devoted by road authorities to the wording and placing of these signs and to their prompt removal when the need for special caution no longer exists. A greater degree of uniformity in the type of sign adopted is desirable, and guidance to local authorities in this respect might be given by the Main Highways Board. (14) Safety Barriers at Schools.—The erection of these is in progress and commended by the Committee. It is considered that these should be provided at the exits from all school-grounds, and possibly in certain cases of Sunday Schools. (15) Railway Level-crossings.—The Government has announced a programme for the progressive elimination of 250 level-crossings on the main highways at a total estimated cost of £1,750,000. While these crossings represent only one-tenth of the total number in the Dominion, their elimination will remove this hazard for over 60 per cent, of the total rural traffic. The committee is of the opinion that, after the elimination of these is accomplished, a more modified programme might be considered

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regarding the remaining crossings. When compared with the fatal accidents recorded through other road dangers it is found that the railway-crossing hazard does not bulk so large as might be expected, and, with the elimination of 250 of the most heavily trafficked and consequently potentially dangerous crossings, will not be such a predominant factor in accidents. In view of the high average cost of separating the grades it is recommended that the Main Highways Board be requested to investigate thoroughly the possibilities and costs of other protective measures for dealing with this problem. In this connection the Main Highways Board is now endeavouring to secure particulars of a certain protective device which appears to have good possibilities. (16) Statistics regarding the Road Factor. —The final recommendation of the Committee is in regard to the urgent need for a comprehensive system of statistics from which may be determined the relative economy of the various measures to be taken in making the roads safe. From the accident records also, a system of spot maps should be kept and the exact locality of accidents marked thereon, and in this way the danger points would readily be identified and protective measures effected. Attached to this report is a copy of a table compiled by the Transport Department which analyses past records of fatal accidents where it was considered that the road factor contributed in some manner or to some degree to the accident. J. Wood, Chairman. [Adopted by the Council.]

Fatalities and other Serious Accidents from January, 1930, to August, 1936 (inclusive), in which Road Conditions were a Contributory Factor.

Notb.—-The number of accidents in which the road was a factor represents 36-9 per cent, of total of 1,135 recorded accidents during the above period. TRAFFIC LAWS. I have to report that the above sub-committee met ori the 4th November, and gave detailed consideration to the Draft Traffic Regulations and the numerous comments concerning them which have been received. As a result the sub-committee made many suggestions for amendment of the draft, which is now placed before the Council with these amendments incorporated. The main alterations are as follows :— Regulation i : General.—Clause (2) has been redrafted as shown. Clauses have been added as to general requirements. The principal ones relate to compliance with traffic-control lights and stopping or parking requirements for all vehicles. Regulation 5 : Offences. —The penalty clause is widened. It is also recommended to the Council that the maximum penalty for pedestrians be increased from ss. to a higher sum. Regulation 7 : Lights. —This was revised by the sub-committee on lighting, and therefore was not considered by the Traffic Laws Sub-committee. Regulation 11\ Motor-vehicle Inspection. —It is recommended that the date for issue of Warrants of Fitness be extended, that the approved issuing firms be required to erect a prescribed sign, and that the Minister make an announcement that inspection of vehicles by private firms is a temporary measure, pending its being taken over by the Government and local authorities. Regulation 12 : Loading and Dimensions. —(1) A maximum height of 14 ft. is suggested. Regulation 13: Towing.—Omit words re duplication of towing connection. Regulation 14 : Rules of the Road. —(1) Redrafted as shown. (2) It is suggested that the Council consider prohibiting trams being overtaken on the right.

53

Primary or Contributory Factors in Accident. 1 1 I • B . i ..si i I If 3 ? 1 If -IP h- 4 Jj> §, Jj> a" # 1.5 Type of Accident. -g f § 33 S S g 5 £ § £ <* & o o d « ® V o 2 5 V (3 >> o . H o I ? ! 1 S I 1 Ā I £ ? t »1 18 I ■ s & 2 8 g S ® tf tg -g$ s i So g £ 33 § t ■s £ | a 8 S g- * SI l£ g H> |1 | I 3 S | I § l § § § a | s a s :s R s -c s s § -a a s s s O ft CZ2 0(x<PQ{=< PH H & Vehicle overturned .. .. •■ IX 16 21 2 2 10 62 14-8 Vehicle over bank .. .. .. .. 3 5 10 9 5.. 1.. 34 8 3.. 3 1 2.. 84 204 Collision — Two motor-vehicles .. 91 .. .. 3 6 1 1 ..2 1 41 1 1 2 150 35-9 Motor-vehicle and train .. .. 45 45 10 • 8 Motor - vehicle and horse 4 1 5 1-2 vehicle Motor-vehicle and pedestrian 5 .. .. 1 2 8 1-9 Motor-vehicle and stationary .. 1 1 1 1 .. 4 6 1 1 16 3-8 object Motor-vehicle and tram .. 3 .. 1 I 5 1' 2 Motor-vehicle and cyclist .. 34 .. .. 1 .. . • 2 6 . . .. 43 10'3 Totals .. ..137 46 15 27 38 12 14 .. 3 1 99 10 5 4 3 1 2 1 418 100-0 Percentage of total .. 32-8 11*0 3-6 6*5 9-1 2*9 3*3 .. 0*7 0-2 23*7 2*4 1*2 1*0 0*7 0-2 0*5 0-2 100-0

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Regulation 21: Equipment.—The suggestion has been incorporated that all bicycles have a white rear surface, whether tail-light is fitted or not. Former Pedestrian Regulations 28 (keeping to right), 30 (duties after descending from tram), and 33 (keeping lookout while crossing roadway) have been omitted, as it is suggested that they be incorporated in the form of advice in the Highways Code. General. —New provisions proposed are prohibition of overtaking at intersections or unless 300 ft. clear view, driver's signals for right turns and stop, and prohibition of passing stopped trams goingsame way. It is proposed that from the date of issue of the regulations three months be permitted for fitting windscreen wipers and one month for fitting other new equipment. As soon as the scope of the Traffic Regulations has been finalized, a Highways Code, explaining requirements in simple language and containing supplementary advice, will be prepared and submitted to the Council. On behalf of the Traffic Laws Sub-committee, G. L. Laurenson, Chairman to Sub-committee. [Adopted by the Council with following additional recommendations : Maximum penalty of £2 for pedestrians ; tail-lamps to be visible at 60 ft. ; passing of trams to be left as at present ; only one spot-light be permitted ; pedestrians be required to keep as far as practicable to the right when walking along roadways.] ACCIDENT STATISTICS. I have - to report as follows regarding the progress made by the Statistics Committee :— In the first place the Committee realizes the value of adequate and comprehensive statistics being kept in order to determine the relative importance of the contribrttory causes of accidents as a basis for — (1) Devising the appropriate means for their prevention ; and (2) Ascertaining the efficacy of the various protective measures taken. The question then arises as to what statistics should be collected for analysis and the means of collecting them. For this purpose accidents may be grouped as follows :—• (1) Accidents involving personal injuries— (a) Fatal: (b) Non-fatal. (2) Accidents which do not involve personal injury but involve damage to property — (a) Vehicle insured under a comprehensive policy : (b) Vehicle not insured. Personal Injury Accidents. While there is at the present time legislation providing that if a motor accident involves injury to any person it shall be reported to the police, this information is not statistically recorded on a standard basis. Records of fatal accidents only are at present compiled and analysed as to causes, and these do not provide a sufficient number of cases to be of adequate statistical value. The Committee feels that the information which is now secured by the police in respect of all cases of personal injury would, if made available, provide a basis for comprehensive records of all such accidents. Complete records of this class of accident would enable definite comparisons to be made regarding the accident rate by reason of the fact that a certain definite class of accident would be recorded. There would also be a sufficient number of cases upon which to base remedial measures and to gauge their effect. The Committee therefore recommends that the co-operation of the Police Department be sought with a view to undertaking the reporting of accidents to the Census and Statistics Department for compilation and analysis of causes. The Commissioner of Police has expressed his willingness to assist in this matter as far as possible, and there appears no reason why a suitable system on these lines might not be introduced at an early date. Form of Accident Report. The Committee has examined carefully the various data which it is proposed to secure in regard to each accident, and the attached accident report form has been evolved. This form is based partially upon a form proposed some years ago and also upon the report form adopted generally in the United States of America. The information asked for on the form conforms with the recommendations regarding accident statistics made by the Conference of Statisticians at Ottawa, 1935. It is recommended that, subject to the endorsement of the police, the form submitted with this report be adopted. The procedure to be followed in the case of an accident involving personal injury would be :— (1) The driver would report the accident to the nearest police-station (as now required by law). (2) The police would fill in as completely as possible the data required by the form. (In some cases this may not be finalized until legal proceedings, if any, are completed). (3) The form would then be forwarded by the Police Department to the Government Statistician for compiling accident records and analysis of contributory causes.

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Accidents which do not involve Personal Injury, but involve Damage to Property. The Committee has made a preliminary investigation of the possibilities of securing data in regard to accidents where no personal injury occurs, but where a vehicle or other property is damaged. There is no statutory authority by which drivers might be compelled to give information regarding accidents where there is no personal injury. Moreover, reports of accidents furnished by the motorist would be apt to contain inexact information and it would generally be impossible to check their accuracy. The only present means whereby information regarding these accidents would be available is through the various insurance companies. However, it is ascertained that only a little over 40 per cent, of the total number of licensed vehicles are insured under comprehensive policies, and consequently the insurance companies would handle only a proportion of this class of accident. Furthermore, in the case of the majority of claims, the companies would not have sufficient data to supply all the desired information. It was also felt that the owner of an uninsured vehicle possibly represented a different psychology and that the data obtained from accidents involving insured vehicles only might not be representative of all accidents. The Committee therefore makes no recommendation to the Council at this stage regarding accidents involving damage to vehicles, but recommends that the collection of statistics should at present be confined solely to those accidents involving personal injuries. J. EL Jerram, Chairman. [Adopted by tbe Council subject to the returns being presented in the first place to the Transport Department.]

Approximate Cost of Paper.—Preparation, not given ; printing (1,570 copies, including graphs) £90.

By Authority: E. Y. Paul, Government Printer, Wellington. —1937. Price Is. 3d.~\

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H-40 TRANSPORT DEPARTMENT (ANNUAL REPORT OF)., Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1 January 1937

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H-40 TRANSPORT DEPARTMENT (ANNUAL REPORT OF). Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1 January 1937

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