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Pages 1 to 20

Pages 1 to 20

Pages 1 to 20

Pages 1 to 20

H.—3o.

A Dutch and a Russian Ship unloading in the Night at Hay's Wharf, London, directly beneath the Offices of the Primary Products Marketing Department, which are shown brilliantly lit.

Frontispiece.]

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CONTENTS.

A. Accounts — Page Annual .. .. .. . • . • . • • • 36, 39—45 Dairy Companies .. .. . ■ .. .. ■ • 33 Advertising and Publicity .. .. . ■ .. . • .. 22 Arrivals at United Kingdom Ports .. .. .. .. 15 B. Butter — Consumption . . .. .. .. . . .. 21 Imports . . . . .. . . . ■ . • • • 30, 46 Prices . . .. .. • • • • •. ■ ■ 30, 50 Purchases, Quality of .. .. . . .. .. 8 C. Cheese— Consumption .. .. .. .. .. .. 21 Imports .. .. .. • • ■ ■ • • • • 32, 46 Prices . . . . . • • • • • • • • • 30, 52 Purchases, Quality of .. . . . . .. .. 9 Costs of — Dairy Companies . . .. . . .. . ■ .. 33, 34 Farm Working and Maintenance .. .. . . .. 5 Cold Storage in United Kingdom .. . . .. .. . . 26 D. Dairy Industry in Great Britain .. .. . . . . . . 20 Dairy-produce, Purchase of, by Crown .. .. . . . . 4 E. Exports — From New Zealand Ports .. .. . . .. .. 11 To West Coast Ports, United Kingdom . . .. .. 15, 47 F. F. 0.8. Selling .. .. .. • • .. .. .. 19 Freight Kates .. .. ■ • • • ■ ■ • • 26 G. Ghee .. .. .. •• •• •• • ■ 32 Gradings— 1935-36 and 1936-37 .. .. .. .. .. .. 10 Quality Percentages .. . . .. .. .. 8 Guaranteed Prices, 1936-37 and 1937-38 .. .. .. . . 7 I. Imports into United Kingdom— Butter .. .. . ■ ■ • • • • • • • 30, 46 Cheese .. .. . • • • • • • • • • 32, 46 Insurance Rates .. .. ■ • • ■ • • • • .. 26 Internal Marketing Division . . . . . . . . . • ~ 37 M. Margarine and Butter Consumption .. .. . . .. .. 21 Market Conditions, 1936-37 .. . . .. . . . . 28 Marketing Methods — History of .. • ■ • • • ■ • ■ • ■ .. 11 Objective of Department . . . . .. . . . . .. 14 Effect of Elimination of F. 0.8. Sales . . . . .. 19 P. Payouts by Dairy Companies .. . . . . . . .. 33, 34 PricesAverage of Eight to Ten Years for Guaranteed-price Basis . . . . 4 Guaranteed Purchase, 1936-37 and 1937-38 .. ~ . . 7 Trend, 1936-37 . . . . . . .. • • • • .. 28 In London . . .. . ■ ■ • • • 30 Paid and Realized .. .. . . . • ■ ■ . . 36 Primary Products Marketing Act .. .. .. . • 3 Procedure of Payment, &c., in New Zealand . . . . .. 9

I—H. 30.

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CONTENTS —continued. Q. Quality— Page Of Produce purchased .. .. . . .. ~ .. 8 Premiums for .. .. .. . . _ 7 S. Sales— To Ports outside United Kingdom .. .. .. .. .. 27 In United Kingdom : Weekly Graph . . .. .. 12, 13 Shipments to— West Coast Ports, United Kingdom .. . . .. .. 15, 47 Outside Markets .. .. .. .. ~ _ 27 Shipping .. .. .. .. .. .. 24 Shipping Inspection .. .. .. ~ .. . .. 25 Storage in United Kingdom . . .. . . . . _ , 26 Store Warrant Advances .. . . . . 10 W. World Trade in. Butter and Cheese .. . . .. .. 49, 54

2

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1937. NEW ZEALAND.

PRIMARY PRODUCTS MARKETING DEPARTMENT ANNUAL REPORT AND ACCOUNTS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31st JULY, 1937.

Presented to both Houses of the General Assembly pursuant to the Provisions of the Primary Products Marketing Act, 1936.

Sir, — I have the honour to submit the annual report and Statement of Accounts of the Primary Products Marketing Department for the year ended 31st July, 1937. INAUGURATION OF DEPARTMENT. The Primary Products Marketing Act, which was passed in May, 1936, established the Primary Products Marketing Department. The preamble to the Act states that it is considered essential in the public interest that producers of primary products should, as far as possible, be protected from the effects of fluctuations in market prices, and the means adopted by the Government of affording such protection are stated as follows : — (a) The Government is empowered to acquire ownership of primary products at prices to be fixed from time to time. (b) In respect of primary products intended for consumption in New Zealand the Government is empowered in its discretion either to acquire the ownership of such products at fixed prices or to control the sale and distribution thereof. (c) The immediate inauguration of a plan to deal effectively with dairy-produce through the Primary Products Marketing Department, the principal functions of which are to make all necessary arrangements with respect to — (i) The acquisition, on behalf of the Crown, of any primary products in accordance with the Act: (ii) The marketing, in New Zealand or overseas, of primary products, whether or not such products have been acquired on behalf of the Crown. The Department commenced operations on Ist August, 1936. The officers and staff of the Dairy Produce Export Division in New Zealand and London have been appointed almost entirely from the staff of the New Zealand Dairy Board, which, prior to the setting-up of the Department, arranged for the export of dairy-produce, and for the allocation of such produce to agents in the United Kingdom for sale on behalf of dairy-factory companies. The present activities of the Department cover the acquisition of export butter and cheese and the marketing of such butter and cheese in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, and regulation of tlie sale and distribution of butter and other products within New Zealand. The acquisition and sale of export butter and cheese is conducted by the Dairy-produce Export Division of the Department, whilst the control and regulation of marketing within New Zealand is conducted by the Internal Marketing Division of the Department. The activities of the Internal Marketing Division are reviewed in a separate section of this report.

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The Department has its head office in Wellington, and branches in Auckland, New Plymouth, and Dunedin, and an agency at Lyttelton. The Department also has its own organization in London, known as the Dairy Sales Division. In accordance with the undertaking which was given to dairy-factory companies, all contracts made by them in respect of butter and cheese manufactured prior to Ist August, 1936, were completed. The Department undertook to arrange the shipping and marketing of the 1935-36 produce on behalf of dairy companies, and the last shipment was made per s.s. " Tamaroa "on 9th October, 1936. The first shipment of dairy-produce by the Department, in terms of the Primary Products Marketing Act, was per s.s. " Port Darwin " sailing on 29th August, 1936. ACQUISITION OF DAIRY-PRODUCE BY THE CROWN, AND GUARANTEED PURCHASE PRICES FIXED. All dairy-produce that is intended for export becomes the property of the Crown as soon as it is placed, with the concurrence of the Department, on board any ship for export from New Zealand. The prices fixed for all butter and cheese manufactured from milk or cream delivered to a dairy factory on and after Ist August, 1936, and exported from New Zealand on or before 3lst July, 1937, were based, in terms of the Act, on the prices received in New Zealand during a period of from eight to ten years prior to 31st July, 1935, for produce of the same kind. The average prices received for butter and cheese for periods of eight years, nine years, and ten years prior to 31st July, 1935, and the corresponding butterfat payouts are shown in the following table :—

In fixing the guaranteed purchase prices for the 1936-37 season on the basis of the prices received in New Zealand during the period of from eight to ten years prior to 31st July, 1935, the Government decided to pay prices which were in excess of the highest of the averages shown for the eight-year, the nine-year, and the ten-year period. The respective average butterfat payments for butter were — Per Pound. For eight years .. .. .. .. .. .. 12-lid. For nine years .. .. .. .. .. .. 12-37 d. For ten years .. .. .. .. .. .. 12-73 d. To ensure a pay-out fully equal to the best average period the Government decided to buy all butter for export at a basic price of per pound and cheese at a basic price of 6jfd. per pound. It was estimated that these prices would enable efficient dairy-factory companies to pay 13-04 d. per pound for butterfat for butter, and to provide for a premium of lfd. per pound for suppliers of butterfat for cheese-manufacture. The table shown above gives the average realizations for the periods mentioned, and shows the corresponding butterfat payments to suppliers to butter-manufacturing companies. An overallowance in the conversion formulas for costs of butter-manufacture resulted in a lesser differential (cheese over butter) than the l|d. promised. The table on page 34 of this report shows that the estimated New Zealand average payments for the 1936-37 season for butterfat are 13-529 d. per pound for butterfat for butter-manufacture, and 14-440 d. per pound for butterfat for cheese-manufacture. These figures reveal a differential of 0-911 d., which is 0-589 d. short of the promised l|d. The Government have noted this disparity, and a further payment will be made to cheese-manufacturing companies of |d. per pound on all cheese graded up to and including the 18th March, 1937, purchased by the Government and exported from New Zealand on or before 31st July, 1937. This further payment will enable cheese-manufacturing companies working under average conditions in respect of yield of cheese per pound of butterfat and costs of manufacture and delivery to overseas steamers to pay to their suppliers a price at least l|d. per pound in excess of the average price of 13-529 d. quoted for butterfat for butter-manufacture.

4

Purchase Prices of Produce. Corresponding Butterfat Pay-out. Average Period (Years). Creamery whey Creamery Ch-e Butter. Butter. Butter. B utter. whey s Butter). Shillings per Hundredweight. (F.o.b. Ocean Steamers.) Pence per Pound. 8 .. .. .. 109/4 56/6 99/4 12-11 12-66 0-55 13-21 9 .. .. .. 111/2 57/1 101/2 12-37 12-83 0-56 13-39 10 .. .. .. 114/0 58/6 104/0 12-73 13-23 0-58 13-81

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PRICES 1937/38 SEASON. The prices fixed for all butter and cheese exported after the 31st July, 1937, and which is manufactured from milk or cream delivered to a dairy factory on or before the 31st July, 1938, were based on the formula set out in section 20 of the Primary Products Marketing Act, the appropriate subsections being as follows : — (4) In fixing prices under this section in respect of dairy-produce exported after the thirty-first day of July, nineteen hundred and thirty-seven, regard shall be had to the prices fixed under this section in respect of dairy-produce exported before that date, and to the following additional considerations, namely : — (a) The necessity in the public interest of maintaining the stability and efficiency of the dairy industry : (b) The costs involved in the efficient production of dairy-produce : (c) The general standard of living of persons engaged in the dairy industry in comparison with the general standard of living throughout New Zealand : (d) The estimated cost to the Department of marketing the dairy-produce concerned, and also the cost of the general administration of this Act: (e) Any other matters deemed to be relevant. (5) Due regard having been paid to the several matters mentioned in subsection four hereof the prices fixed in respect of any dairy-produce exported after the thirty-first day of July, nineteen hundred and thirty-seven, shall be such that any efficient producer engaged in the dairy industry under usual conditions and in normal circumstances should be assured of a sufficient net return from his business to enable him to maintain himself and his family in a reasonable state of comfort. The guaranteed price had to be such as would maintain both the stability and the efficiency of the dairy industry ; both could be destroyed by a price that is either too high or too low. Some 21,500 return forms were sent to farmers under the direction of the Government Statistician. Based on 19,307 full and complete returns sent in by farmers the following information was derived : Variation in size of herds, average butterfat-yield per cow and per acre, the dairy-farm population, the incidence of employment on dairy-farms under the headings of male and female family labour and hired labour, and the distribution of male labour according to size of herd. This was the first comprehensive view ever obtained of the New Zealand dairy industry. A more detailed and intensive investigation was made of dairy-farms by the Department of Agriculture from the point of view of cost analysis ; 75 per cent, of these consisted of farms investigated by the Department on behalf of the Dairy Industry Commission, 1934. The information supplemented and confirmed the broader survey of the Government Statistician. A detailed analysis was also made of dairy-factory costs. A production per acre of from 100 lb. to 175 lb. of butterfat was regarded as the standard which could readily be realized by an efficient producer operating under usual conditions and in normal circumstances. On the basis of using adult male labour, 12,500 lb. of butterfat was taken as the labour standard of efficiency for two units. Per cow efficiency was taken at 258 lb. of butterfat, and capitalization (including unimproved value, improvements, and stock and chattels) at £73 a cow. The standard rate of interest applied to determine total interest charges was 4J per cent. The standard allowance for working and maintenance costs was 5 - 07 d. per pound of butterfat. The full statement of working and maintenance costs in shown on page 6. The detailed figures of working and maintenance costs are as follows:— Working and Maintenance Costs Pee Pound of Butterfat : Mean Smoothed Data for Three Fat Groups (100-125, 125-150, and 150-175 lb. Butterfat Per Acre). Butter. Cheese, d. d. 1. Cultivation and harvesting (special costs) .. .. .. .. 0-228 0-172 2. Grass and other seeds .. .. .. .. .. .. 0-132 0-152 3. Fertilizer and lime .. .. .. .. .. .. 1-107 1-171 4. Fencing repairs and renewals .. .. .. .. .. 0-223 0-202 5. Water-supply (repairs and maintenance) .. .. .. .. 0-069 0-066 6. Drainage (repairs and maintenance) .. .. ~ .. 0-040 0-038 7. Noxious-weeds control .. .. .. .. .. .. 0-025 0-061 8. Rabbit control (poison and Board rates) .. .. .. .. 0-003 0-002 9. Casual labour (items 2to 8) .. . . . . . . . . 0-094 0-071 10. Cow-covers used (repairs and replacements) .. .. .. .. 0-044 0-040 11. Veterinary expenses for cows and pigs only . . . . . . 0-064 0-061 12. Implements, &c. : Repairs and spare parts .. .. .. .. 0-109 0-106 13. Horse expenses .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0-052 0-106 14. Tractor and/or truck expenses .. .. .. .. ..0-079 0-040 15. Farm-building expenses .. .. .. .. .. .. 0-129 0-121 16. Milking-plant repairs .. .. .. .. .. .. 0-124 0-106 17. Milking-shed power and heating .. .. .. .. .. 0-326 0-293 18. Milking-shed materials used .. .. .. .. .. 0-069 0-065 19. Main working-expenses (items Ito 18) .. .. .. .. 2-917 2-873

5

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Butter. Cheese. Depreciation— d. 20. Implements, &o. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0-267 0-257 21. Farm buildings .. .. .. .. .. .. 0-183 0-167 22. Milking plant .. .. .. .. .. .. 0-247 0-197 23. Horse .. .. .. .. .. ... .. 0-129 0-146 24. Tractor and/or truck .. .. .. .. .. .. 0-139 0-071 25. Total depreciation (items 20 to 24) .. .. .. .. 0-965 0-838 26. Insurance (labour and fire, &c. (excluding house)) .. .. .. 0-059 0-061 27. Telephone .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0-069 0-070 28. Rural delivery .. .. .. .. .. . „ .. 0-008 0-007 29. Subscription to farmers' organizations .. .. .. .. 0-020 0-020 30. Accounting-expenses .. .. .. .. .. 0-016 0-016 31. Truck and/or car registration, and drivers license .. .. .. 0-051 0-061 32. Car expenses (for farm use only) .. .. .. .. .. 0-188 0-177 33. Other sundries .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0-030 0-030 34. Herd-testing and calf-marking . . . . . . . . . , 0-079 0-061 35. Rates .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0-376 0-424 36. Land-tax.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0-014 0-016 37. Sundry overhead expenses. (items 26 to 36) .. .. .. .. 0-910 0-943 38. Cow and pig food, &c., purchased .. .. .. .. .. 0-277 0-273 Main-working-expenses (items 1 to 18) .. .. .. .. 2-917 2-873 Total depreciation (items 20 to 24) .. .. .. .. 0-965 0-838 Sundry overhead expenses (items 26 to 36) .. .. .. 0-910 0-943 Cow and pig food, &c., purchased (item 38) .. .. .. 0-277 0-273 Total working and maintenance expenses .. .. .. 5-069 4-927 Note.—To the total working and maintenance cost per pound of.butterfat for farms supplying cheese-factories, approximately 0-14 d. per pound of butterfat should be added, being the assessed farm portion relating to costs of milk-delivery to factory not elsewhere shown. The standard for pig returns was l-54d. per pound of butterfat. This figure is probably below the average of efficient farmers as the Dominion average was taken ; this average includes farms where no pigs are kept and farms supplying casein-factories. In all other cases the standards were worked out on the investigations made and the information obtained. In considering the figure for pigs it should also be noted that the figure for dairy-farm working and maintenance costs includes (a) purchased pigfoods, medicines, &c., and (b) depreciation on piggeries, and in the allowance for cow capitalization there is provision for the investment on pigs and pig equipment. The allowance for factory-costs and all other costs to f.o.b. ocean steamer was for butter 2-25 d. per pound of butterfat and for cheese 3-25 d. per pound of butterfat. In the overrun of 21-75 per cent, and the cheese-yield of 2-45 lb. there is a margin in favour of reasonably efficient factories working under average conditions. The allowance on a two-unit farm for housing and other perquisites was 30s. a week, and labour reward for the farmer at £4 a week. The history of the dairy industry shows clearly that high prices do not necessarily promote the stability of the industry, because of the tendency to capitalize the benefits in inflated land and stock values. The guaranteed price should not be such as will induce persons to capitalize its benefits, especially as the trend of land and stock prices in 1936-37 was of a hardening nature. The standards of efficiency are greatly exceeded by the more efficient dairy-farmers of New Zealand, and the allowances for working and maintenance costs are on such a scale that, if they are expended for the purposes specified, only an inefficient farmer, or a farmer working under unusual conditions or in abnormal circumstances, could fail to attain the average of the per-cow per-acre and per-man standards mentioned. _ Any excess of efficiency above these standards and any increase in pig returns represents an additional return to the efficient farmer. And it must be remembered that an efficient farmer in usual circumstances and in normal conditions is fully protected from the vicissitudes of the external market. With the allowances for labour there is no justification for any unpaid or sweated labour to be utilized on any efficient dairy-farm in New Zealand, and if there is any unpaid labour employed the farmer is increasing his own personal income. It should, of course, be stressed that there is nothing essentially reprehensible in the utilization, within reasonable limits, of family labour. By the adoption of 6,250 lb. of butterfat as the production of a full-time labour unit a reasonable payment is provided for all labour units employed, whether male or female labour, members of the family, or employees. The data collected show that approximately only 20 per cent, of the labour employed in the industry is hired labour. The new procedure has been organized for the purpose of inducing the average efficient farmer to work his holding and to pay him for his knowledge and experience, and for time worked, whilst freeing him from the menace of price-fluctuations.

6

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The full range of f.o.b. purchase prices fixed for the 1936-37 season and the 1937-38 season is as follows: —

It is to be noted that in the case of butter the basic f.o.b. purchase price is increased by 0-6875 d. (•&d.) per pound, the comparative figures being— 12-5625 d. (I2 j 9 g-d.) per pound for the 1936-37 season. 13-25 d. (13id.) per pound for the 1937-38 season. In the case of cheese the basic f.o.b. purchase price is increased by 0-7275 d. per pound, the comparative figures being— 6-8125 d. per pound for the 1936-37 season. 7 • 54d. per pound for the 1937-38 season. The prices fixed for the 1937-38 season for whey butter have the same relation to the prices of creamery butter as was the case in respect of the 1936-37 season. The premiums fixed for the 1937-38 season to cover the additional costs of manufacture of coloured and waxed cheese are the same as those which applied for the 1936-37 season, but the premium fixed for the 1937-38 season for the manufacture of unsalted butter is raised to 3s. 4d. per hundredweight. These premiums apply to butter and cheese of the type mentioned, and which is manufactured and packed at the request of the Department. The conversion formulae used in the determination of the 1937-38 season prices shown above are — Butter. Cheese. Over-run.. .. •• 21-75 per cent. Yield .. .. .. 2-51 gross, 245 Costs of manufacture and\2-25d. per pound net. delivery to f.o.b. J butterfat. Return from whey butter .. 0-66 d. per pound butterfat. Costs of manufacture and\3-25d. per pound delivery to f.o.b. f butterfat.

7

1936-37 Season. 1937-38 Season. Butter and Cheese manufactured on Butter and Cheese exported after Grade. and after 1st August, 1936, and 31st July, 1937, and which is exported on or before 31st July, manufactured on or before 31st 1937. July,. 1938. Creamery Butter. Creamery Butter. Finest Grade — Per Lb. Per Cwt. Per Lb. Per Cwt. 94 points and over .. .. 12-6875d. 118/5 13-375d. 124/10 93 to 93£ points .. .. 12-5625d. 117/3* 13-25d. 123/8* * (Equivalent to 106/6 sterling * (Equivalent to 112/- sterling per cwt. on London market.) per cwt. on London market.) First Grade — 92 to 92| points .. .. 12-5d. 116/8 13-1875d. 123/1 90 to 91| points .. .. 12-3125d. 114/11 13-00d. 121/4 Second Grade .. .. ll-8125d. 110/3 12-50d. 116/8 Whey Butter. Whey Butter. First Grade .. .. ll-5625d. 107/11 i 12-25d. 114/4 Second Grade .. .. ll-0625d. 103/3 | ll-75d. 109/8 Cheese. Cheese. Finest Grade — 94 points and over .. .. 6-96875d. 65/0f 7-69625d. 71/10 93 to 93£ points .. .. 6-9375d. 64/9 7-665d. 71/6£ First Grade — 92 to 92| points .. .. 6-8125d. 63/7* 7-54d. 70/4£* * (Equivalent to 61/3 sterling * (Equivalent to 67/- sterling per cwt. on London market.) per cwt. on London market.) 91 to 91 \ points .. .. 6-75d. 63/- 7-4775d. 69/9| Second Grade .. .. 6-5625d. 61/3 7-29d. 68/0| Premiums. Premiums. Unsalted butter .. .. 2/4 per cwt. 3/4 per cwt. Coloured cheese . . .. 6d. per crate 6d. per crate. Deep-coloured cheese .. . . 1/5 per crate 1/5 per crate. Waxed cheese .. .. 4fd. per crate 4|d. per crate. Deductions. Deductions. Butter per Box. Cheese per Crate. Butter per Box. Cheese per Crate. Insurance to f.o.b. .. .. 0-68d. l-07d. 0-69d. l-085d. Dairy Board levy .. .. l-12d. l-63d. 0-56d. 0-815d. * Basic price.

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On the basis of the basic guaranteed price of 13fd. per pound, and on the conversion formula mentioned above, the butterfat payment made to suppliers by butter-manufacturing companies, working under average conditions, should be 13-88 d. per pound. This price is represented by farm costs and allowances as follows Price per Pound Butterfat. Farm working and maintenance costs .. .. .. .. 5-07 d. Allowance for interest on capital .. . .. .. .. 3-06 d. Labour on farm .. . . . . . . . . . 7 ■ 29d. 15-42 d. Less return from pigs.. .. .. . . . . .. l-54d. 13-88 d. In order to cover the difference in costs of production and in returns from by-products in the case of butterfat for cheese, the purchase prices of cheese are so fixed that the average efficient cheesemanufacturing company will pay out to its suppliers on the basis of the basic guaranteed price of 7-54 d. per pound, and on the conversion formula mentioned above, 2d. per pound butterfat over the payout for butter, or 15-88 d. per pound. PREMIUMS FOR QUALITY. It will be noted that the basic purchase prices are subject to additions and deductions according to the quality of the butter and cheese as disclosed by the grade points awarded by the Government graders. The incentive thus given to maintain and improve the quality of dairy-produce has been appreciated by representatives of dairy-factory companies, and a definite improvement has resulted, as revealed by the following comparative grading figures:—

Grading of Dairy-produce: Percentages of New Zealand Butter and Cheese of the Various Grades.

The quantities of butter and cheese purchased and paid for at the respective differential prices are shown in the following tabulations : —

Creamery Butter (in Tons): Quantities purchased and paid for at Differential Prices.

8

Butter. Cheese. Finest. First. Second. Total. Finest. First. Second. Total. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. 1932-33 .. .'. 79-32 19-74 0-94 100-00 17-29 80-5 2-21 100-00 1933-34 .. .. 78-00 20-75 1-25 100-00 26-04 72-06 1-90 100-00 1934-35 .. .. 77-04 21-66 1-30 100-00 20-60 76-27 3-13 100-00 1935-36 .. .. 76-48 22-36 1-16 100-00 19-47 77-18 3-35 100-00 1936-37 .. .. 79-98 19-12 0-90 100-00 20-58 76-81 2-61 100-00

Finest Grade. First Grade. Grading Ports. Total. q , q „, 94 Points p " t 92 to 92J 90 to 91J Grade. and over. Points. Points. (.Basic i riee.) Tons. Tons. Tons. Tons. Tons. Tons. Auckland .. .. .. 105,086 25,504 56,430 12,369 10,481 302 Bluff .. ,. .. 616 4 147 196 171 98 Dunedin .. .. . . 735 133 495 62 25 20 Gisbome .. .. .. 2,909 1,699 965 216 29 Lyttelton .. .. .. 3,161 2,067 967 80 8 39 Napier .. .. .. 3,255 2,370 556 65 264 New Plymouth .. .. 11,111 6,564 3,179 909 458 1 Patea .. .. .. 2,180 278 861 517 519 5 Timarn .. .. .. 367 40 252 38 9 28 Wanganui .. .. .. 3,391 2,597 608 129 53 4 Wellington .. .. .. 16,999 12,588 2,257 969 1,175 10 Grand totals .. .. 149,810 53,844 66,717 15,550 13,192 507 Percentage of qualities . . 100 35-94 44-53 10-88 8-81 0-34

EL—3O,

Whey Butter (in Tons): Quantities purchased and paid for at Differential Prices.

Cheese (in Tons): Quantities purchased and paid for at Differential Prices.

It will be noted that in tlie case of creamery butter 44§ per cent, was paid for at the basic guaranteed price, and 36 per cent, above and 191 per cent, below the basic guaranteed price. In the case of cheese 55 J per cent, was paid for at the basic guaranteed price, and 20J per cent, above and 24 per cent, below the basic guaranteed price. PROCESSES IN PURCHASE OF BUTTER AND CHEESE AND SHIPMENT AND DELIVERY TO MARKETS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. The procedure adopted by the Department in regard to the purchase and sale of dairy-produce is as follows :— 1. Dairy factory companies forward butter and cheese to the cool stores for export as in the past. The care of the produce in cool store is the responsibility of dairy companies, but supervision is exercised by the expert officers of this Department and by the Government Dairy-produce Graders, with a view to the preservation of the quality of butter and cheese.

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9

Grading Ports. Total. First Grade. Second Grade. Tons. Tons. Tons. ' Auckland .. .. .. 363 202 161 Bluff .. .. .. .. 30 29 1 New Plymouth .. .. .. 343 332 11 Patea .. .. .. .. 589 577 12 Wellington .. .. .. .121 109 12 Grand totals .. .. .. 1,446 1,249 197 Percentage of qualities . . . . 100 86 -38 13 • 62

Finest Grade. First Grade. Grading Ports. Total. no , nol Second 94 Points 93 to 931 p ° t 91 to 911 Grade. and over. Points. . 01 ?, s .' , Points. (Basic Price.) Tons. Tons. Tons. Tons. Tons. Tons. Auckland .. .. .. 15,178 74 1,053 8,637 4,200 1,214 Blufl .. .. .. 11,508 296 2,532 5,303 3,131 246 Dunedin .. .. .. 1,960 163 595 923 267 12 Gisborne 82 .. 5 51 25 1 Lyttelton .. .. .. 1,022 65 370 529 46 12 Napier .. . . . . 110 . . 57 44 9 New Plymouth. .. .. 16,798 539 5,575 7,961 2,626 97 Patea .. .. .. 22,111 191 3,074 14,209 4,333 304 Timaru .. .. .. 618 .. 88 498 29 3 Wanganui .. .. .. 2,477 346 401 1,349 336 45 Wellington .. .. 14,844 405 2,018 8,541 3,559 321 Grand totals .. .. 86,708 2,079 15,768 48,045 18,561 2,255 Percentage of qualities .. 100 2-40 18-18 55-41 21-41 2-60 Waxed .. .. .. 58-54 Coloured .. .. 32-69 Cheese figures calculated at fourteen crates, to a ton.

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2. Dairy factory companies may obtain advances from their bankers on produce in cool store awaiting shipment, at the banks' best interest-rates. The amounts advanced by the banks are as follow : — _ Per Box. Creamery Butter. £ g Finest grade .. .. .. .. .. .. ..306 First grade .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 219 4 Second grade .. .. . . .. .. .. .. 215 0 Cheese. Per Crate. North Island — £ B . a. Finest grade .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 419 6 First grade .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 417 0 Second grade .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 414 6 South Island—• Finest grade .. .. .. ... .. .. 4 17 6 First grade .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 415 0 Second grade .. . . . . . . .. . . .. 412 6 3. Butter and cheese for export is allocated for shipment in accordance with the recommendations of the Dairy Sales Division in London, after consultation with the selling-agents. The shipping programme is worked out by the Department and the Overseas Ship-owners' Allotment Committee, which meets regularly for the purpose of planning arrivals of butter and cheese at United Kingdom ports, in accordance with the agreed programme. Under the present system the Department has been able to arrange a better programme of shipments to United Kingdom outports. 4. Dairy-produce becomes the property of the Crown as soon as it is placed on board any ship for export, and payment in full to dairy-factory companies is made forthwith. Credit-notes are issued in favour of dairy companies for butter and cheese, and the amount due is remitted to the credit of the bank accounts of the individual companies, under a special arrangement entered into with the trading banks. 5. All butter and cheese for export to the United Kingdom is shipped to the Dairy Sales Division, for sale on consignment. Delivery orders are issued to merchant agents enabling them to obtain the quantities allocated to them for sale. 6. The financing of payments to dairy-factory companies for butter and cheese is arranged through the Dairy Industry Account established at the Reserve Bank of New Zealand. The administrative, marketing, shipping, insurance, and other expenses of the Department are paid from this account. The proceeds of sale of dairy-produce are paid into the account, the final balance of which will show the surplus or deficit on the operations for the year. 7. The sale of butter and cheese in the United Kingdom is conducted by a group of twenty merchant firms appointed as agents for the Department. These merchant firms sell on agency terms for a commission of 2 per cent., which includes the credit risk. The agents are firms which have been selling the produce for years under the marketing system in operation before the passing of the Primary Products Marketing Act. Provisional allocations of produce are made to the agents for a period of one year, and quantities are reviewed and varied according to the selling ability of the firms as indicated by price returns and marketing and distributive service rendered. QUANTITIES OF BUTTER AND CHEESE GRADED. For the twelve months ended 31st July, 1937, the total gradings of butter and cheese compared with 1935-36 were as follows : — Butter (in Tons). 1936-37. 1935-36. Salted .. .. .. ..147,168 139,973 Unsalted .. .. .. .. 7,396 6,714 154,564 146,687 Cheese (in Tons). White .. .. .. .. 59,337 58,263 Coloured .. .. .. .. 28,885 27,292 88,222 85,555 Butter gradings for the 1936-37 season show an increase of 5'37 per cent, and cheese gradings an increase of 3'12 per cent. Expressed in terms of butterfat the total increase in gradings is 4-889 per cent. QUANTITIES OF BUTTER AND CHEESE EXPORTED. The quantities of butter and cheese exported from the various grading ports of the Dominion are shown in the following tabulation :—

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Butter and Cheese Exports from 1st August, 1936, to 31st July, 1937.

MARKETING OF BUTTER AND CHEESE. The following review covers the developments during recent years in the marketing of dairy-produce, and outlines the essential features of the system which the Marketing Department operates through the Dairy Sales Division. The methods of sale of New Zealand dairy-produce in the United Kingdom have changed substantially during the post-war period. As the dairy industry increased in importance in New Zealand, and the exports of butter and cheese accounted for an increasingly greater proportion of the national income, certain sections of producers became aware of the necessity of taking a greater interest in the marketing of their produce. Even in pre-war days the National Dairy Association of New Zealand had established an office in London, one of its functions being to establish contact with the Tooley Street merchants who were selling New Zealand dairy-produce. In 1921 the New Zealand Co-operative Dairy Co., Ltd., opened an office in London to supervise sales of the company's butter and cheese by its appointed agents, and in that year also the New Zealand Produce Association came into being with a selling-floor in Tooley Street. Finally, in October, 1927, the New Zealand Co-operative Dairy Co., Ltd., formed a new marketing company —Amalgamated Dairies, Ltd. —which eventually disposed of the whole of the output of the New Zealand Co-operative Dairy Co., Ltd., coming to the United Kingdom. An associated company —Empire Dairies, Ltd. — is used to a great extent by Amalgamated Dairies as the selling-medium, and this associated company also sells substantial quantities of dairy-produce from Australia and other Empire countries. These organizations, of course, represented only a certain section of New Zealand producers, and the rapid fluctuations in prices which occurred in the early years of the post-war period brought about a demand from the leaders of the dairy industry for a greater degree of co-ordination in the methods of sale. As a result, the New Zealand Dairy-produce Control Board came into being in 1924, the Board being established in terms of the Dairy-produce Export Control Act, 1923. In the first two years of its existence the Board confined its activities to arranging contracts for the sea carriage of butter and cheese from New Zealand, marine insurance, regulation of shipments, advertising in the United Kingdom, and investigation of marketing procedure. In 1926, however, the Board took full control of marketing, but the venture was abandoned after less than one year's trial. The Board's control scheme revealed the difficulty of getting within the industry a sufficient measure of unanimity to enable a major proposal to be successfully carried out. After the abandonment of the control scheme, and until 1933, the Board confined its activities to shipping, insurance, and advertising, the dairy-factory companies being left free to sell through or to consign for sale to whom they chose. The disastrous fall in prices which commenced in 1929 and continued in the succeeding years, and the rapid increase in production which added to the difficulties of marketing at this time, again brought into question the existing system of uncontrolled methods of sale, and in 1933 the Dairy Board again assumed a greater degree of control. Dairy companies were still permitted to sell f.o.b. or to consign as they thought fit, but the Board took over the allocation of factory outputs to the various sellingagents in the United Kingdom, who undertook that they would not speculate in New Zealand dairy-produce on their own account. This system did not work very satisfactorily, because it was generally recognized that the Board, not being the owner of the produce, was not in a position satisfactorily to enforce the letter and the spirit of the undertaking. In 1935 the Board, with the approval of the industry, decided to introduce a group-marketing system under which it was hoped that dairy-factory companies in suitable geographical areas in New Zealand would, in time, form co-operative selling organizations under the direction of the Board.

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To Great Britain. To &^. and Destinartons. TotaI Ex P Mts - Percentage. Grading Ports. —— -—' " Butter. Cheese. Butter. Cheese. Butter Cheese. Batter. Cheese. Butter. Cheese. Boxes. Crates. Boxes. Crates, j Boxes. Crates. Boxes. Crates. Auckland .. 4,020,656 205,491 36,851 1,229 76,546 873 4,134,053 207,593 69-35 17-41 New Plymouth .. 432,142 235,720 .. .. •• •• 432,142 235,720 7-25 19-76 Patea .. .. 102,234 309,334 .. .. .. .. 102,234 309,334 1-71 25-94 Wanganui .. 136,382 33,572 .. .. .. •• 136,382 33,572 2-29 2*81 Wellington .. 669,422 204,880 3,450 4 8,753 82 681,625 204,966 11-44 17-19 Gisborne .. 128,663 1,160 .. .. .. .. 128,663 1,160 2-16 0-10 Napier .. .. 137,515 1,540 137,515 1,540 2-30 0-13 North Island totals 5,627,014 991,697 40,301 1,233 85,299 955 5,752,614 993,885 96-50 83-34 Lyttelton .. 130,760 13,214 1,000 .. 150 .. 131,910 13,214 2-21 1-11 Timaru .. .. 16,709 8,523 16,709 8,523 0-28 0-72 Dunedin.. .. 32,956 29,509 88 32,956 29,597 0-56 2-48 Bluff .. .. 26,806 147,058 .. .. .. 244 26,806 147,302 0-4-5 12-35 South Island totals 207,231 198,304 1,000 .. 150 322 208,381 198,636 3-50 16-66 Dominion totals.. 5,834,245 1,190,001 41,301 1,233 85,449 1,287 5,960,995 1,192,521 100-00 100-00

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MARKETING OF NEW ZEALAND BUTTER IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. Quantities (in Tons) sold Weekly, with Average London Prices (per Hundredweight Sterling), 5th November, 1936, to 31st July, 1937.

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MARKETING OF NEW ZEALAND CHEESE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. Quantities (in Crates) sold Weekly, with Average London Prices (per Hundredweight Sterling), 19th November, 1936, to 31st July, 1937.

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The decision of the Government to purchase the total exportable output of butter and cheese from the Ist August, 1936, transferred all responsibility for marketing from the industry to the Government. For the first time in the history of the industry a single authority could make decisions in the broader interests of the industry as a whole. An industry viewpoint superseded the narrower and shorter-term viewpoint, and the marketing advantages of organized regulation became a reality under the system inaugurated by the Government. The desire of the Department is that a system of shipment and marketing of our dairy-produce should be developed which will ensure regular arrivals of butter and cheese of uniformly high quality, in fresh condition, delivered at the main distributing ports in the United Kingdom in quantities to meet the market requirements, and the sale of this produce on a consignment basis through accredited agencies with distributive outlets at a minimum cost to the producer and consumer. MARKETING IN THE UNITE!) KINGDOM. No drastic changes in the channels of distribution of New Zealand butter and cheese in the United Kingdom have been introduced during the season just closed. The services of those companies which, in the past, acted as selling-agents for New Zealand dairy companies were freely offered to the Primary Products Marketing Department, and the well-established organization of the New Zealand Dairy Board in the United Kingdom was transferred en bloc to the Department. Single ownership of consignments by the Government has been substituted for multiple ownership by producing factories, but pre-existing channels of distribution, and the machinery of supervision and control, have been substantially improved. In recent years, prior to the inception of Government purchase, New Zealand butter and cheese shipped to the United Kingdom have been either forwarded on consignment for sale to best advantage on arrival or sold on f.o.b. or c.i.f. terms. Some twenty-eight importing houses received consignments for sale on agency terms. Some of these houses also operated on c.i.f. terms, either on their own account or for the account of third parties. In addition, certain brokers made sales, more or less intermittently, on f.o.b. and c.i.f. terms. From these organizations the Primary Products Marketing Department selected twenty-two importing houses to act as their selling-agents, the objectives being— (a) To secure the services of sales organizations which would provide the maximum regular distribution of New Zealand butter and cheese to wholesale, retail, and manufacturing interests throughout the United Kingdom : (b) To retain those importing houses which were most likely to co-operate with the Department and with their fellow-agents in order to eliminate unregulated selling competition : (c) To create a minimum of disturbance in existing distributive methods. So far as the 1936-37 season is concerned, these objectives have been adequately fulfilled. Agents are no longer under the necessity of maintaining expensive organizations in New Zealand in order to retain and increase their business with individual dairy-factory companies, the elimination of that expense through the inauguration of the present system is reflected in a reduction in the rate of sellingcommission by \ per cent., equal to approximately £100,000 sterling on the season's output. The method of dealing with agents is as follows :— At the commencement of the season each agent is advised of the approximate total quantity of butter and cheese allotted to him for the year, and the brands of which that quantity is made up. As soon as possible after the despatch of each shipment from New Zealand, agents receive notification of the quantity and brands of their portion of the consignment. On arrival of the carrying-vessel at its destination the produce is placed at agents' disposal by means of delivery orders issued when the vessel commences to discharge. After sales have been made settlement is effected in a manner convenient to all parties, having regard to the customs of trade ; no advances are expected or payments made until after the produce, has been sold. The Department receives comprehensive daily returns of all sales made. In addition, constant personal touch is maintained with each agent, and, in consequence, those entrusted with the disposal of our produce are able readily to obtain accurate information relating to sales, prices, stocks, and arrivals, which enables them to adjust their offerings so that, while goods are always available to meet buyers' requirements, there is an absence of undue sales pressure during periods of quiet demand. OUTLETS FOR BUTTER AND CHEESE AND EXTENSIONS WHICH HAVE BEEN MADE. West Coast Shipments. The quantity of butter and cheese shipped to the West Coast United Kingdom ports continues to increase, and during the season under review all the major outports will have received larger quantities than in the previous year. The increase of butter export was entirely absorbed by the outports, while in the case of cheese the outport requirements necessitated a reduction of the total shipped to London. Shipments to Hull were resumed this season, and initial shipments made to Newcastle ; it is hoped to increase the quantities to these ports and to provide a regular service that will enable steady development to be made. An interesting comparison of the tonnage of butter and cheese received at United Kingdom porta during recent years is shown in the following tabulations : —

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Arrivals of New Zealand Butter in United Kingdom Ports (in Tons).

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Port. 1932-33. 1933-34. 1934-35. ! 1935-36. (Pl^mme .) London- — New Zealand .. 93,730 102,147 98,276 105,143 106,066 Other sources .. 136,030 158,323 159,884 149,157 Total .. .. 229,760 260,470 258,160 254,300 Southampton — New Zealand .. 394 815 1,570 Other sources .. 2,370 1,490 4,336 8,185 Total .. .. 2,370 1,490 4,730 9,000 Avonmouth- — New Zealand . . 7,495 8,096 _ 7,311 7,166 10,608 Other sources .. 245 814 589 554 Total .. .. 7,740 8,910 7,900 7,720 Cardiff — New Zealand .. 218 413 787 555 217 Other sources .. 22 .. 293 325 Total .. .. 240 413 1,080 880 Liverpool New Zealand .. 6,585 6,572 6,778 7,342 8,001 Other sources (Liverpool 7,662 8,702 14,664 14,604 and Manchester) ; Total .. .. 22,440 25,650 29,950 31,240 Manchester — New Zealand .. 8,193 10,376 8,508 9,294 10,705 Glasgow — New Zealand .. 6,524 8,380 6,79-3 8,081 9,050 Other sources .. 5,076 5,560 10,127 8,069 Total .. .. 11,600 13,940 16,920 16,150 Newcastle — New Zealand .. .. . • • • • • 37* Other sources .. 30,440 31,050 25,730 25,540 Total .. .. 30,440 31,050 25,730 25,540 HullNew Zealand .. . . 116 146 .. 75* Other sources .. 23,620 28,994 26,724 28,140 Total .. .. 23,620 29,110 26,870 28,140 * Arrived.

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BUTTER. Map showing Annual Imports into United Kingdom Ports, 1st October, 1932, to 30th September, 1937.

Note. —Totals from weekly Customs and Excise returns. Customs returns of total arrivals at Manchester are not comparable with New Zealand figures from London office of the "Department.

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Arrivals of New Zealand Cheese in United Kingdom Ports (in Tons).

3—H. 30.

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Port. 1932-33. 1933-34. 1934-35. 1935-36. 1936-37. I (rrogramme.) London — New Zealand .. 80,564 79,982 69,333 66,407 62,906 Other sources .. .. 24,043 28,192 21,493 Total .. .. n.a. 104,025 97,525 87,900 Southampton — New Zealand .. .. .. 165 306 772 Other sources . . . . • • 485 1,024 Total .. .. 820 180 650 1,330 Avonmouth — New Zealand .. 5,586 6,278 6,137 5,494- 7,228 Other sources .. 1,774 2,442 2,563 1,776 Total .. .. 7,360 8,720 8,700 7,270 Cardiff — New Zealand . . 160 288 474 519 150 Other sources .. 1,260 752 1,076 871 Total .. .. 1,420 1,040 1,550 1,390 Liverpool — New Zealand .. 4,531 5,057 4,315 3,555 5,125 Other sources (Liverpool 3,659 2,295 3,663 3,141 and Manchester) — Total .. .. 13,650 12,630 12,350 10,660 T\/[ ' New Zealand .. 5,460 5,278 4,372 3,964 5,087 Glasgow — New Zealand .. 5,209 5,150 4,167 3,776 5,282 Other sources .. 1,731 1,705 813 909 Total .. -.. 6,940 6,855 4,980 4,685 Newcastle — New Zealand .. • ■ • • • • • • 51 Other sources . . • • 1,380 1,335 1,425 Total .. .. n.a. 1,380 1,335 1,425 HullNew Zealand .. .. 40 88 .. 58 Other sources .. .. 960 1,592 1,080 Total .. .. n.a. 1,000 1,680 1,080 Note. —New Zealand figures calculated at fourteen crates to a ton. N.a. means not available

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CHEESE. Map showing Annual Imports into United Kingdom Ports, 1st November, 1932, to 31st October, 1937. (Tons.)

Note. —Totals from weekly Customs and Excise returns. New Zealand figures from New Zealand Dairy Sales Division converted from crates at fourteen crates to ton. Customs returns of total arrivals at Manchester are not comparable with New Zealand figures from London office of the Department.

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REACTION OF TRADE TO NEW MARKETING SYSTEM. The new marketing-system has been favourably received by the trade as a whole. Buyers, with the exception of those who were accustomed to operate from time to time on c.i.f. or f.o.b. terms, appreciate the change, as the produce is offered to them freely through their usual channels of supply. All reports from our agents indicate their satisfaction, and confirm the opinion that the goodwill of New Zealand stands very high in all overseas distributive circles. EFFECT OF ELIMINATION OF F. 0.8. SELLING ON MARKETING AND MARKET PRICES. The sales methods of the Department are based upon " landed terms "—that is to say, no goods are sold before the commencement of discharge from the carrying-vessel at the port of destination in Great Britain. In previous years certain quantities were sold by dairy companies on c.i.f. or f.o.b. terms. Such sales varied in volume from year to year. In the past eight years the proportion thus sold varied from 15 per cent, to 34 per cent, for butter, and from 5 per cent, to 28 per cent, for cheese. A substantial proportion of f.o.b. or c.i.f. sales were bought on a purely speculative basis —that is, the purchaser bought in the belief that on arrival the goods could be resold at a profit on the purchase price. In the majority of such cases the goods were resold through Tooley Street importers or brokers in competition with current arrivals of consignment goods, and not infrequently to the detriment of consignment sales. Regular business between consignment agents and their wholesale and retail customers was often disturbed under those conditions, and the elimination of that interruption is the subject of favourable comment by many of our agents. F.o.b. and c.i.f. sales to wholesale and retail distributors and to manufacturers are in a somewhat different category. Goods sold to such buyers, do not, as a rule, " come back on the market," but are used for the regular trade of the purchaser. In this connection it should be noted that the proportion of Australian butter shipped to the United Kingdom, sold on f.o.b. or c.i.f. terms, has fallen substantially in recent years, as the following figures show : —

As Continental descriptions are not usually sold forward for delivery any length of time ahead there is no evidence that in the year under review business has been lost by New Zealand to Australia or to any other competitor because of the absence of forward sales. On the other hand, the sale of our consignments has been facilitated. GENERAL POSITION OF OUR BUTTER AND CHEESE ON THE MARKET COMPARED WITH OTHER COUNTRIES. It is extremely difficult to review over a short period the variations in price-levels as between the different classes of butter being sold in the United Kingdom markets. Frequently factors not immediately apparent to the casual observer temporarily influence prices and provoke illogical reasoning and deductions. Viewing this question from the New Zealand produce standpoint, the results over the season must be considered satisfactory. In comparison with continental butters generally our prices are more favourable than in the two previous years. For the year 1936 as a whole, the price of New Zealand finest salted butter averaged 10 per cent, more' than in 1935, while Danish showed an increase over the same period of 6 per cent During 1936 Danish butter averaged 18 per cent, higher than New Zealand, compared with 23 per cent, higher in 1935 and 35 per cent, higher in 1934. It should be noted that in 1936 New Zealand supplies increased substantially over the 1935 figures, whilst Danish supplies did not increase. (See price schedule, page 30.) Broadly speaking, the general improvement in butter quality, particularly in the lower-priced classes, must tend towards a narrowing of margins. Quality improvements in several countries supplying the British market have been accelerated by the creation of export Boards given power to regulate conditions of manufacture, grading, and sale. In many countries such authorities have also wide powers covering domestic and export marketing, and while their powers have not in some countries been exercised, the tendency is in that direction.

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Percentage | T e of Season ' of Australian ! Augtralia * Butter b I Butter sold 8old lo . b . or c .i. f . c.i.r. 1931-32 .. •• •• •• 35-6 29,927 1QS2—33 •• •• 28-9 26,959 ISIS :: :: is-s H,O«O i QH4—35 .. .. •• 16-8 18,600 1935-36 .. •• •• •• 7-8 6 > 859 1936-37 .. •• •• •• 10 ' 7 7 ' 697 (approx.)

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Bibliographic details

H-30 PRIMARY PRODUCTS MARKETING DEPARTMENT ANNUAL REPORT AND ACCOUNTS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31st JULY, 1937., Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1 January 1937

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H-30 PRIMARY PRODUCTS MARKETING DEPARTMENT ANNUAL REPORT AND ACCOUNTS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31st JULY, 1937. Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1 January 1937

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