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Pages 1 to 20

Pages 1 to 20

Pages 1 to 20

Pages 1 to 20

11. 20

1937. NEW ZEALAND.

PRISONS (REPORT ON) FOR THE YEAR 1936-37.

Presented, to. both Houses of the General Assembly by Command of His Excellency.

The Hon. the Minister oe Justice to His Excellency the Governor-General. Wellington, 17th September, 1937. I have the honour to submit to Your Excellency the report on the prisons and borstals of the Dominion for the year 1936-37. I have, &c.,. H. G. R. Mason, Minister of Justice.

The Controller-General of Prisons to the Hon. the Minister op Justice. Sir, — I have the honour to present the annual report of the Prisons Department for the financial year ended 31st March, 1937, and the criminal statistics for the calendar year ended 31st December, 1936, together with the reports from the controlling officers of the various institutions administered by the Department. These supplementary reports narrate in detail the numerous activities carried on at the several institutions as part of the scheme of training and occupational therapy adopted for the various classes of offenders. In last year's report two outstanding features were referred to —vi/,., the decline in the Dominion's prison population, and the marked improvement in revenue after the slump period through the productive use of prison labour. The year 1936 has witnessed a still further diminution in the number of commitments to prison, but the total revenue earned (£63,845) was slightly less than in 1935, although it was considerably higher on a per capita basis. It is satisfactory to note that the farming revenue increased by 33 per cent., but the earnings from the quarries and roadworks, which are more directly related to the man-power engaged, were less than for the previous year. Prison Statistics. Decline in Receptions. —The total number of receptions (3,813) has continued steadily to decline over the past five years, the aggregate number received in 1936 being 346 less than during the previous year. The number of distinct prisoners received, which eliminates consideration of inter-institutional transfers and receptions of short-sentenced persons more than once in the same year, was 1,790. This is 368 less than the number of distinct persons committed to prison in 1935, and, compared with 3,401 for 1932, represents approximately a5O per cent, drop in five years. It is of interest to observe that the numbers still continue to diminish, the present number in custody being considerably less than the number at the 31st December last.

1 -IT. 20,

H.—2o

The following summary sets out in comparative form the number of receptions and discharges over the past five years : —

Receptions and Discharges.

Note. —These figures include inter-institutional transfers. The ratio of distinct prisoners received to each 10,000 of the general population has dropped from 13-76 for 1935 to 11-36 for 1936, which is the lowest figure for upwards of half a century. The constancy of the downward trend in the numbers of persons involved in crime resulting in imprisonment is indicated by the following figures Ratio of Prisoners t0 Year. Population. 1890 .. .. .. .. .. .. 38-61 1910 .. .. .. .. .. .. 32-45 1914 .. .. .. .. .. ..31-05 1932 .. .. .. .. .. .. 22-29 1933 .. .. .. .. .. .. 17-75 1934 .. .. .. .. .. .. 15-33 1935 .. .. .. .. .. .. 13-76 1936 .. .. .. .. .. .. 11-36 Reductions in Daily Average. —It will be seen from the above-mentioned table of receptions and discharges that the daily average number in custody was 1,005, which is 207 less than for the previous year. This is the lowest average for many years, and it is satisfactory to observe that the number is still falling, the daily average for the six months ended June last being 892. A factor which has a considerable bearing on the daily average is the length of sentences, and the tendency of the Courts in recent years, following the practice in England, is to commit for rather shorter terms than were imposed a few years ago. Whether this is a sound policy from the point of view of the protection of society it is too early to conjecture, but there is no doubt that the reactions to sentences of extreme severity were as harmful as those to sentences that are too short. Considered over periods of time the influences affecting the incidence of crime are many and complex, and changes in economic and social conditions may at times overshadow the influences of purely penalogical factors, thus it is well to bear in mind that inferences as to the state of crime must be drawn with great caution from statistics of prison populations alone. Nature of Offences. —The following table shows the nature of the offences classified under three main headings : —

Nature of Offences.

In my report last year I commented on the happy fact that New Zealand has no criminal gangs such as exist in countries with large metropolitan areas, and who prey on the community with an utter disregard for life and property. It is disquieting none the less to observe in the foregoing summary a small increase in the number of offences against the person. An examination of the detailed criminal statistics show, that this increase has been made up largely by the greater number of persons imprisoned for negligently driving motor-vehicles causing death. It is also to be noted that whereas a few years ago crimes of deception and fraud figured prominently, during the past year crimes of violence involving aggravated assault and assault with intent to rob have swelled the figures. The number of indecent assault cases also showed a small increase. Although the aggregate number of imprisonments for offences against property showed a drop from 887 for 1935 to 599 for .1936, the detailed statistics reveal that there has been a considerable increase in the number of offences of burglary.

2

1 1931. 1932. I 1933. 1934. j 1935. 1936. Number in custody at the beginning of year 1,569 1,657 1,583 1,443 1,234: 1,150 Number received during the year .. 6,354- 6,179 5,087 4,529 4:,159 3,813 Number discharged or transferred .. 6,266 6,253 5,228 4,135 4,243 4,001 Number in custody at end of year .. 1,657 1,583 1,443 1,236 1,150 962 Daily average in custody .. .. 1,634 1,669 1,543 1,360 1,212 1,005

I I „ Offences against Offences against Miscellaneous ' r ' the Person. Property. Offences. 1936 .. .. 189 599 1,002 1,790 1935 .. .. 175 887 1,096 2,158 1934 .. .. 155 889 1,332 2,376 1933 .. .. 196 1,048 1,487 2,731 1932 .. .. 194 1,313 1,893 3,401 1931 .. .. 216 1,155 1,832 3,203

H,— 2o.

Under the heading " Miscellaneous offences " it is to be observed that the number of offences for drunkenness, and drunkenness in charge of a motor-vehicle, has shown a fairly marked increase, which, unhappily, tends to retard the downward trend in the prison population. _ It would be preferable m cases of persistent drunkenness for commitments to be made to the inebriates' institutions under the Reformatory Institutions Act rather than to prison. Nationality of Offenders.— The following table summarizes those received into prison during the year on a nationality basis : —

Nationality of Prisoners.

It will be observed that the number of commitments to prison of New-Zealand-born offenders has continued to decline, and it is also satisfactory to note that the number of Maoris received was less than during the previous year. An analysis of the nature of the crimes under nationality of the offenders shows that the increase in the number of offences against the person has been due to crimes committed by persons born overseas. . Age of Prisoners.—Hereunder is set out in tabular form the prisoners received during the year classified in age groups, and for purposes of comparison similar figures over the past quinquennium are shown. A marked decrease in the number of young persons committed to prison or Borstal is shown, the number under twenty-five years of age being 100 less than for the previous year.

Length of Sentences. —The following table gives an analysis according to the term of sentence imposed, showing the proportion of each group to the total number of persons received :

It, will be observed that over 62 per cent, of the prisoners admitted to prison during the year under review received less than three months, and 75 per cent, less than six months, The futility of these short sentences of imprisonment from a reformative or training point of view has been stressed repeatedly, and this view is supported by practically all authorities overseas. The purpose of imprisonment, apart from the punitive and deterrent aspect, which seems to be the main idea underlying the short sentence, is the inculcation of habits of industry and orderliness and a sense of social responsibility. Time is an essential factor in habit-formation and also in the matter of imparting any vocational training calculated to assist the offender in earning his livelihood on release. The first sentence is said to be the " turning-point " in an offender's career, and it is

3

New-Zealand- British and Total Year. born (excluding Maoris. Foreign. -total. Maoris). 1936 .. .. 1,022 199 569 1,790 1935 .. .. 1,256 226 676 2,158 1934 .. .. 1,416 211 749 2,376 1933 .. .. 1,604 253 874 2,731 1932 .. .. 1,941 316 1,144 3,401 1931 .. .. 1,779 271 1,153 3,203 1930 .. .. 1,576 184 1,104 2,864

Age Group. 1932. j 1933. j 1934. 1935. 1936. Under 20 .. 222 175 120 131. 96 20-25 . ■ • 559 j 459 391 350 285 25-30 .. .. 504 403 343 321 254 30-40 .. • • 903 747 640 545 437 40 and upwards .. 1,207 937 878 809 715 Not stated .. .. 6 10 4 Totals .. 3,401 j 2,731 2,376 2,158 1,790

Ti Percentage to Total Number ot Prisoners. Number sentenced. Term of Sentences. 1935. ! 1936. 1935. 1936. Under one month. .. •• •• 782 752 36-3 42-0 One month and under three months .. - 452 371 20'9 20-7 Three months and under six months .. 259 218 12-0 12-2 Six months and under twelve months .. 174 132 8-1 7-4 One year and under three years .. •• 367 234 17-0 13-1 Three years and under five years .. .. 100 59 4-6 3-3 Five years and over .. .. ■ • 24 24 1-1 1-3 Totals 2,158 1,790 100-0 100-0

ft.—2o

vital that unless the offence is one that calls for serious punishment recourse should be had to some alternative to imprisonment, rather than that the initial dread be minimized through the serving of a short sentence less irksome than anticipated. There is no doubt that the probability of relapse increases with the number of previous sentences. It is significant that of the total number of persons received under sentence last year 33 per cent had not been previously convicted, and of the balance 22 per cent, previously had 'been dealt with other than by imprisonment, but of the total received only 15 per cent, had previously served a substantial term in prison or Borstal. It is thus clear that, comparatively few persons return to prison after serving a year or more, and that the greatest amount of recidivism is amongst those committed for short sentences. 8 In last year's report special reference was made to the desirability of introducing legislation along the lines of the Criminal Justice Administration Act in England providing for the allowance of time to pay fanes m instalments as an alternative to imprisonment. The passing of this legislation was the precursor of a phenomenal drop in the commitments to prison in England, and it is hoped that similar legislation will shortly be introduced -in New Zealand. Punishments and Infractions of Discipline. Capital Punishment.—No executions took place during the year. Floggings.—No floggings were administered. Corporal Punishment. Recourse has not been had to corporal punishment or mechanical restraint upon any refractory prisoner for a breach of the Prisons Regulations for many years There is no statutory provision for any form of corporal punishment for breach of discipline in either prisons or borstals m New Zealand. r Escapes.- Nineteen persons escaped during the year, and all were recaptured. Ten of these were from prisons and nine from Borstal. This number is not higher than the average It will be obvious that at the farms and camps, where there is necessarily and designedly a greater degree of trust reposed m the inmates, greater opportunities for escape exist. It is considered that m view of the small percentage who betray this trust it would be retrogressive to attempt to make the Tsetfrespec? CUrtallmg the ton ° Ur s y stem ' wMch is undoubtedly a force in the development An unprecedented and unfortunate incident occurred in the National Park area, where a small party of prisoners broke bounds from their roadside huts at night, appropriated a car, and burgled two storekeepers m the district. Considerable cunning was displayed in the manner in which the hut-doors were tampered with to prevent detection. The occurrences, fortunately, were fairly soon discovered, and most of the stolen goods restored, though damaged through being buried The prisoners involved were duly prosecuted before the Courts and the road sub-camp has been closed. Health of Prisoners. The health of the prisoners has been uniformly good throughout the year, there being no illnesses of any epidemic character. The daily average on the sick list 15, representing 1-5 per cent, of the daily average m custody. There were 58 admissions to the hospital and there were 5 deaths during the year 2 from pneumonia, 1 from cancer, 1 from tuberculosis, and 1 (a Chinese) from the effects of drug addiction. Last year the dietary scale was further improved by the inclusion of 2 oz. of butter in the daily ration. The dietary scale is exceedingly liberal and well balanced and is reflected in the almost invariable improvement m the physical condition of prisoners. Thirty-eight persons were transferred to the mental hospitals for treatment, and in every case where a prisoner s behaviour has indicated mental impairment an examination by a specialist has been arranged. The ready co-operation of Dr. Buchanan at Mount Eden, Dr. Tothill at Waikeria, Drs Russell and Hart, at Wellington, Dr. McKillop at Paparua, Dr. Hayes at Invercargill, and Dr. Allen at New Plymouth, all qualified psychiatrists, has been of helpful benefit, to the inmates and of valuable guidance to the Department. The arrangement made with the Director-General of Mental Hospitals whereby his specialist officers would be available to examine any accused person facing his trial where ills mentality is m question, and to make the report, of such examination available to both the defence and the prosecution, has worked satisfactorily and furthered the ends of justice. It is desirable that the Courts should be aware of the offenders mental condition before sentence rather than that examination should be deferred until the offender is sent to prison. Even where the crime for which an offender is charged can be traced to some nervous instability there cannot always be immunitv from punishment for the law does not recognize nervous disorder as a legal defence. Certifiable insanity is a defence' but in such cases society is protected as the person who would be found guilty but for his insanity is not released. He is placed m a Mental Hospital. Nervous disorder though not of a certifiable degree however may justify leniency m the direction of probation with special conditions, or it may be that custodial treatment and an ordered regimen is desirable in the interests of the offender himself. In this connection the remarks of Dr. Norwood East, Medical Commissioner of English Prisons and undoubtedly the greatest practical authority on forensic psychiatry, are apropos and illustrative of similar conditions m New Zealand :— It is suggested sometimes in defence of a prisoner on trial that he requires medical treatment instead of imprisonment, and medical men are exploited sometimes for this purpose m cases which are quite unsuitable. The result is unfortunate, for if the prisoner evades the consequences of his misconduct no useful purpose is served by non-effective treatment at a clinic or elsewhere. If a sentence of imprisonment is ordered the prisoner endeavours to use treatment as a means of obtaining preferential consideration, and when this is denied attributes future anti-social behaviour to medical ineptitude.

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'' In the case of a well-educated man with a long history of sex misconduct with boys it was alleged that the offences with which he was charged were due to a period of responsibility connected with his occupation which made it necessary for him to overcome his sense of inferiority, and that he dominated his victims to effect this. It was also asserted that his conduct was obsessional in character, and that he believed it was right, and that he was a suitable case of psychotherapy. The medical examiner apparently only obtained a crosssectional view of the man's career, for as a result of investigation and examination it was found that the assumptions could not be substantiated. Similar episodes in the past could not be attributed to environmental responsibilities, and the offences proved to be premeditated and were carried out at the opportune moment. The man was bi-sexual and anxious to accept the medical excuses in order to avoid punishment. But when approached with a view to psychological treatment he became co-operative only in so far as he was likely to gain personal profit and preferential treatment. A man sentenced to penal servitude for a sadistic crime had been detained previously in a mental hospital. The medical superintendent was satisfied, however, that he had feigned insanity in order to avoid imprisonment. His sex anomaly was marked and he was mentally abnormal in other directions. It was suggested at his trial that he should receive a course of psychotherapy rather than imprisonment. But he was hostile, insincere, untruthful, and quite unreliable, and no change in his personality could be expected as he had no desire to remedy his condition although he wished to avoid its consequences. " In some cases which appear to be at first suitable for psychological treatment it is found that the anti-social behaviour of the offender is fundamentally a demonstration of personality traits, which are so inherent or so firmly established as to be immovable. Broadly speaking, the most suitable cases for treatment have been, so far, those in whom environmental circumstances have influenced a personality already predisposed to react to accidental effects. It is forgotten too often that the causes of criminal behaviour are frequently identical with those associated with non-criminal behaviour. Moreover, the psychological investigation of criminals appears sometimes to be recommended on the assumption that the same mechanisms which operate in neurotic patients operate in criminals who present no evidence of neurosis. Many criminals, however, like the sadist referred to above, are unsuitable for treatment because their criminal habits satisfy them to such an extent that they refuse to be divorced therefrom. In many cases of apparently abnormal behaviour we are not dealing in fact with individual conduct, but with group conduct, and it is common knowledge that the increased suggestibility of a group leads its members to commit crimes which they would fear to undertake if unsupported by the gang. In some cases a change of environment may be more profitable than a prolonged psychological investigation, in spite of the fact that the mentally unstable are often attracted to the smaller groups within the community and that their conduct opposes the generally accepted standards of correct behaviour. It is a matter of anxiety to some psychologists who are not immediately concerned with criminal problems, as well as to those who are so engaged, that proper self-control and restraint have come to be discounted and identified with repression by delinquents, criminals, and others whose anti-social conduct is encouraged by admonitions to self-expression in sex and other matters. Many criminals avoid reality and refuse to acknowledge their own faults or accept the consequences of their own misconduct. The doctrine of self-expression is for them a comforting salvation, and it is not remembered always that psychological investigations may explain criminal conduct but are not intended to excuse it." Dr. East further states, inter alia, in his report: —- " Propaganda directed towards the psychiatric treatment of crime, although perhaps necessary and advantageous in some respects, is a dangerous weapon, since it inevitably leads people to believe that benefits will be delivered although failures may be more frequent than successes. It must be remembered that this method of treating crime has not at present produced any impressive series of carefully tested results which can be used to assess scientifically its practical value. There are observers, in this country and elsewhere, who are concerned about the unfortunate position which may result from excessive propagandism in matters affecting mental hygiene ; and those who await impatiently a critical survey of the position should be reminded that the application of psychiatric treatment to criminals must follow the method of science." He also adds that "it is obvious that psychological treatment is unnecessary and undesirable in the majority of criminal offenders, that harm might result through mental invalidism being suggested militating against other remedial influences". Revenue and Expenditure. The net revenue and expenditure figures from the Prisons Administrative vote may be briefly quoted to the effect that on the one hand there was a substantial increase in cost of salaries of approximately £8,000 due to restoration and additional appointments by reason of the shortened working-hours of the staff, and a 2-per-cent. reduction in revenue amounting to £1,300 due to reduced labour available. On the other hand there has been a decrease of approximately £6,000 in the general and industries working expenditure. The net result represents an increased net expenditure of approximately £3,000 compared with the previous financial year.

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Summary of Cash Expenditure and Revenue Received, Prisons Vote, 1924 to 1937.

Detailed accounts and balance-sheet are shown at the end of this report in Table B, showing the total cost of prison administration after taking into consideration all charges for interest and depreciation and building maintenance out of Public Works Department votes. Industries and Development. My previous report indicated that a period of high influx of prisoners and depressed economic conditions for a number of years had made it difficult to provide useful work for all inmates of a character non-competitive with the outside trades. During 1935-36 the substantia] reduction in the number of receptions, together with improved conditions outside, diminished this difficulty. For the 1936-37 period now under review this changed tendency has continued to a marked degree, and at the present time it has become a difficult matter to find sufficient labour for those industries which require a maximum of manual labour. In particular, the prosecution of farm-work has necessitated a substantial curtailment in quarrying and roadworks, which is reflected in a decrease of £9,500 revenue from the two latter activities compared with the previous year. Although these conditions have provided the Department with a new aspect of its constant problem of providing prisoners with labour of a utilitarian character and of remunerative results, it definitely enables the problem, for a few years at least, to be found a satisfactory solution. The Department has, as indicated above, concentrated much of the available labour on farming work aided by mechanized plant where necessary. This has been a substantial factor in raising farm revenue from £24,000 to £32,000 during the past twelve months. This latter figure represents the highest annual value of production to date. Except with regard to quarries and roadworks, it has been possible by partially mechanizing the minor industries, to help keep up miscellaneous revenue to a satisfactory level compared with previous years, notwithstanding the acute shortage of labour available. Apart from the monetary results, this development has the further advantage from the psychological and vocational viewpoint that by the judicious use of machine plant the Department is providing inmates with a more modern and useful farm and industrial training than it has been possible to undertake at any time in the past. The following figures show the cash expenditure incurred and cash revenue earned from prison industries over the past seven years, indicating by the steadily improving results that these industries are on a stable footing to recoup all expenditure invested in them.

Cash Expenditure and Cash Revenue: Prison Industries.

6

Daily Gross Expenditure. Credits. Net Expenditure. Yftar Average Number of j Inmates. Total. i Per Head. Total. Per Head. Total. Per Head. • _ I ' • £ £ £ £ £ £ 1924-25 .. .. 1,228 144,484 117-67 68,118 55-56 76,366 62-11 ]925-26 .. .. 1,340 152,794 114-00 79,099 59-02 73,695 54-98 1926-27 .. .. 1,397 148,766 106-47 70,915 50-76 77,851 55-71 1927-28 .. .. 1,490 161,199 108-21 66,979 44-95 94,220 63-26 1928-29 .. .. 1,502 163,451 108-83 73,994 49-27 89,457 59-56 1929-30 .. .. 1,425 172,248 120-83 83,806 58-87 88,442 62-04 1930-31 .. .. 1,525 171,382 112-36 70,669 46-33 100,713 66-03 1931-32 .. .. 1,641 152,581 92-93 55,867 34-03 96,714 58-90 1932-33 .. .. 1,661 142,940 86-04 52,412 31-84 90,528 54-49 1933-34 .. .. 1,488 138,193 92-88 54,823 36-77 83,370 56-11 1934-35 .. .. 1,306 137,484 105-25 60,242 46-12 77,242 59-13 1935-36 .. .. 1,170 144,460 123-47 69,933 59-77 74,527 63-70 1936-37 .. .. 985 146,314 148-54 68,661 69-70 77,653 78-83

Industries Industries Net Cash al *' Expenditure. Receipts. Revenue. £ £ £ 1930-31 .. •• •• •• 34,340 65,235 30,895 1931-32 .. .. •• 27,788 50,863 23,075 1932-33 .. .. .. 25,709 46,918 21,209 1933-34 .. .. ■■ 27,456 49,413 21,957 1934-35 .. .. •• •• 25,822 55,328 29,506 1935-36 ' 31,952 65,247 33,295 1936-37 .. .. .. 26,094 63,845 37,751

H. —20,

Prisoners' Food. To keep up with the modern trend, of thought and practice in the matter of the reformation of offenders, the value of accommodation and food of inmates of all classes receives constant consideration, and from time to time different improvements have been introduced. Care is exercised to avoid anything in the nature of pampering, but it is recognized that proper feeding makes for contentment, and experience shows that contented prisoners are more amenable to socializing influences and are more effective as industrial units than those with either real or imaginary grievances that may be traceable to alimentary imbalance. Ten years ago the food provided was noteworthy for its bulk and plainness, and although adequate to maintain and even improve the general standard of health, it nevertheless lacked those palatable essentials to ensure its full assimilation and value dietetically. To a great extent it depended on the ingenuity of the prison cooks and bakers to provide the best possible meals from what was issued, and this no doubt has always accounted from the inmates' point of view for the prison cooks and bakers being the most vital units of the institution. Some five or six years ago, however, an innovation was made in providing on a uniform basis an issue of regular puddings as an extra to the menu, and at the same time cooks were encouraged by issue of extra flour to provide pastries, small-goods, gravies, &c., and generally to serve all cooked foods in as great a variety of palatable forms as possible. This plan has been remarkably successful, and, with a liberal supply of vegetables provided, inmates' complaints of food are few. In cases of long-sentence prisoners provision is also made for a regularly recurring issue of extra food for short periods. About two years ago a further innovation was introduced by providing cocoa for one meal daily and also providing a reasonably liberal issue of milk, which is now J pint (5 oz.) daily, in lieu of the previous issue of J oz. Arrangements have been made, as mentioned earlier in the report, to extend the butter ration previously issued to females, as from Ist April, 1937, to all male inmates serving sentences of three months or over. To ensure that the foods issued are served in reasonable variety the Department now requires all controlling officers to furnish regularly to headquarters details of the actual menus provided during the month. It can be said without fear of sound contradiction that the existing dietary scale, and the menus provided from it, constitute a very fair standard compared with what is enjoyed by the average free citizen of the Dominion. Institutional activities. Mount Eden Prison. —To Mount Eden are drafted all long-sentence prisoners and others who cannot with safety or convenience be transferred to the farms and camps. The main industrial activities carried on for vocational purposes, as well as with a view to economy and profit, are tailoring, boot-manufacturing and repairing, tobacco-making, gardening, quarrying, and breadmaking. A new oil-burning range and a freezer have been installed in the kitchen. The former will be more convenient and economical, and the freezer is part of the equipment incidental to the utilization of farm-grown meat and milk from Waikeria Borstal farm., in conformity with the policy of making the Department as far as practicable self-sustained. The plant in the bootshop and tailoring shop has been modernized, and these industries now afford splendid facilities for vocational training. The Mount. Eden factory provides opportunities for acquiring experience over a wider range than would be practicable in a large factory where operatives are confined almost exclusively to one machine. A new tobacco-leaf-cutting machine has been procured. The leaf is grown at Waikeria, and the whole of the Department's requirements are now manufactured at Mount Eden. This has resulted in a considerable saving to the Public Account. For cultural purposes and to prevent mental retrogression, lectures and entertainments are frequently held. The library has been added to, and magazines, periodicals, and weekly papers are admitted. Educational classes have been regularly conducted, the usual school curriculum being modified to meet the special conditions giving the classes a socializing bent, the methods adopted involving the use of films, records, and newspapers. The work of the institution has been greatly assisted by a large body of voluntary workers, and in particular by the local Prisoners' Aid Society. Camps. —At Hautu Development Farm, due to the lessened number of men suitable for transfer, one of the camps has had to be closed and work has been concentrated chiefly on maintenance, subdivision, and consolidation. There are now 4,372 acres cleared and under cultivation or in grass, and 1,759 partly cleared, and the farm is stocked with sheep and cattle, exceedingly good prices being secured during the year for wool and stock. The country is very light, and with the surrounding area being uncleared provides an harbourage for rabbits. The keeping of this pest in check presents a great difficulty. At Rangipo the country shows better promise than at Hautu, the grasses holding better. At this farm cattle are the only stock carried. There are 3,177 acres cleared and in cultivation and 163 acres partly cleared. When the new road to Taumarunui is completed this will afford a much better railhead than National Park, where the climatic conditions are particularly severe on stock for market. When the other local land-development schemes near to the above two farms have advanced sufficiently to justify the establishment of the necessary amenities, such as school, post-office, dairy factory, &c., it is hoped that considerable portions of these properties will be made available for settlement. The development-work has had a twofold advantage in that it provides healthful occupation for prisoners, and at the same time is converting waste land into productivity.

7

H.—20.

The isolation of these camps restricts voluntary visitation work, but the various Christian ministers regularly attend at considerable sacrifice. Each place has a well-stocked library and wireless equipment, and in addition any prisoner who desires to can take up an educational correspondence course. Recreational facilities are provided in the way of tennis, cricket, and open air sports. The activities of those confined at the Waikune Camp are in connection with road construction and maintenance, forty-five miles of road being under the Department's care. Advantage is taken of the lorries used in roadwork to provide the necessary transport facilities for the farm camps to and from National Park Railway, making this camp complementary to the Hautu and Rangipo farms. The diminished numbers of suitable men have necessitated a curtailment of activities, the roadwork at the Tokaanu end being taken over by the Public Works Department. The honour system prevails at these camps, it not being unusual for prisoners to be working at times miles from immediate supervision of a prison officer. Breaches of trust are rare, an instance being referred to in another section of the report. In addition to the healthy open-air work, prisoners acquire an experience in handling mechanized road-construction plant, and with a large fleet of motor-vehicles to maintain there is valuable experience vocationally for a number of men in a well-eququped garage. New Pymouth Prison. —At this institution prisoners manifesting abnormal sexual characteristics are segregated. The principal industrial activities are gardening, pig husbandry, and quarrying. The scope of activities are restricted because of the necessity for the exercise of vigilant supervision of the inmates. The medical officer attached to this prison is a psychiatrist, and he takes a close personal interest in the inmates with a view to helping them psychologically. The treatment is specially designed to develop self-esteem and self-control, and the comparatively small percentage who return to prison evidences a satisfactory degree of success in the work. In this connection the obiter dicta of the Honourable Mr. Justice Callan, when recently passing sentence on an offender, are of interest : — " I feel I do know something of the particular prison to which in New Zealand offenders of this kind go. I have seen how that place is conducted, and if the common-sense method of doing everything possible in a kindly and intelligent way to create new interests and to divert the attention of those unfortunates from the impulses that have very largely dominated them —if anything can be done in that way, which is psychological rather than physical, I know that it is being done very intelligently and in a very sympathetic manner in that place." The Department is fortunate in having a group of enthusiastic men and women visitors to this prison and a particularly active committee that interests itself in after-care work. Wellington Prison. —This prison is primarily a trial and remand prison and for the holding of prisoners for classification pending transfer to other suitable institutions. There are several minor industries carried on for occupational purposes. The prison printery has proved a means of considerable economy to the Department and has enabled a number of men to keep their hand in at their trade. In co-operation with the Wellington Beautifying Society, a native-plant nursery has been established and a considerable start has been made in remantling the peninsula with native flora. Several thousands of native shrubs have been planted in the valleys and around the foreshore, and many shrubs have been made available to the beautifying society. The interest taken in this work by the inmates is most marked, and the training has already proved the means of enabling several men to secure work on release. Wi Tako Prison is a prison farm conveniently located to Wellington, hence, through not having the disadvantage of distance like the camps, the short-sentence men can be sent out from Wellington. The farm comprises a fertile valley of peat land, and the prison itself nestles under the bush-clad hills. The picturesque surroundings of the prison are themselves inspiring. The industries carried on —viz., market gardening, sheep and dairy farming and pig-raising— provide profitable and healthy out-of-door work, of particular value to a type of prisoner from the city. Paparua Prison is a fairly modem institution at which are detained more or less trustworthy and promising inmates. Gravel quarrying is carried on, but the principal activity is farming. The farm comprises 1,405 acres, sheep and cropping being the main sections. At Paparua there is a high-grade Corriedale flock, but in addition to wool a feature is made of the early fat-lamb trade, the Department last year securing prizes at the Royal Agricultural Show. Gardening and poultry rearing are also carried on on a large scale, the Queen Mary Hospital at Hanmer being regularly supplied. Apart from the vocational training, for undoubtedly farming is the primary industry of the Dominion, and farm-work will be one of the main avenues of absorption after release, educational facilities are provided through the agency of special classes conducted regularly at the Institution. Voluntary helpers assist with periodic lectures and entertainments. Addington Prison is a reformatory for women offenders. This institution was completely renovated inside and out during this year, the construction of a lower ceiling giving the inside of the building a warmer and more pleasing appearance. The principal activities are domestic work, gardening, and laundering. The installation of a mechanical laundry plant has been effected and has enabled the work to be handled by the much diminished number of inmates. At the Wanganui Prison all the aged and feeble prisoners are segregated. Instead of the usual system of individual cells the prisoners are in association, just as in a hospital ward, and it enables the wants of those to be readily attended to who are able only to help themselves with difficulty. Little industrial activity is carried on, as the inmates are incapable of sustained effort. The soil is sandy and poor, but a valiant attempt is made to maintain a vegetable garden, and an exceedingly good showing is made with ornamental shrubs.

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The Napier, Gisborne, and Greymouth Prisons, in size, are little more than police gaols. The numbers detained are small, but it is necessary to maintain the small gaols on account of the long distances to transport men sentenced to short terms in some of the more remotely situated towns. With the steady improvement in road facilities this necessity diminishes. Clyde and Timaru Gaols were closed some time ago, and recently it has been decided to close the Greymouth Gaol. The Gisborne Gaol at times is empty, but owing to the influx of men to the railway works in the district it cannot be closed at present. Waikeria Borstal comprises a farm of 4,336 acres. Every phase of farming is carried on —sheep, cattle, dairying, cropping, horticulture, tobacco-growing, pig husbandry, poultry-farming, and gardening. Three of the dairies are equipped with mechanical milking-plant, and at one milking is done by hand. By this means lads obtain an opportunity of acquiring an all-round experience, and the fact that farmers round about eagerly seek the services of released lads is a tribute to the training they receive. In addition to the farm-work there is the carpenters' shop, where all builders' joinery and furniture is made, and the garage and blacksmithy. The allocation of the lads to the various activities is based, after careful observation, by experienced officers, on the particular aptitudes of the inmates. The laundry has just been equipped with modern mechanical plant. This will add to the interest of the work, relieve the drudgery, and release all but a minimum number of lads for more normal vocations for young men. As part of the plan for keeping down the cost of prison administration, as much as possible of each institution's requirements are produced by the Department, and Waikeria now supplies Mount Eden with meat, milk, and vegetables. Incidental to this arrangement it was found necessary to install a chilling-plant at Waikeria to ensure that the perishable foodstuffs would keep. Borstal training is a balanced round of work, education, and recreation. On the recreational side numerous sports activities are indulged in—cricket, tennis, and football. Outside teams visit the institution, and the institution teams go to outside playing-fields. The excellent deportment of the lads on these occasions has excited favourable comment and is evidence of the training in selfcontrol and their capacity to " play the game." It is of interest to mention that five Borstal lads were selected to play in the " curtain-raiser " to the recent Springbok match at Hamilton. Regular school classes are taken by a qualified teacher, who is original and enthusiastic in his work. He avails himself of modern technique, which involves the use of films. Debates and discussions are organized, and lecturers and others regularly visit to provide cultural entertainment. The inmates themselves have organized several concerts and given performances outside for charitable purposes and for the entertainment of the inmates of the Tokanui Mental Hospital. The Department is specially indebted to Mr. E. Finlay, of Hamilton, for his untiring assistance and interest in the inmates. The Invercargill Borstal is for younger lads than those detained at Waikeria—the ages being from fifteen to twenty. The purpose is identical —namely, the development of self-reliant and responsible units of society. The curriculum in the Invercargill Borstal embraces a wider range of cultural courses than is practicable at Waikeria, the nearness to the town making it easier to secure the services of people competent and willing to take special classes. Voluntary helpers can visit with more convenience. The customary school classes are regularly conducted by qualified teachers, and special subjects are taken by experts in wool classing, agriculture, singing, and music. Special instructors take classes and teach lads in the following artisan and other trades : Carpentering, blacksmithing, painting, signwriting, cooking, breadmaking, boot making and repairing, and butchering. It is of interest to mention that the Invercargill Borstal won the Bledisloe Cup for the best dressed pig from the Invercargill Royal Show at Smithfield. The blacksmith shop and the carpenters' shop have been recently equipped with modern plant, which should enable a number of lads who have an aptitude in this direction to obtain experience in handling up-to-date equipment. A large farm and vegetable garden also provide scope for vocational training. This embraces dairying, cropping, and pig husbandry and sheep. The institution library has been added to considerably during the year, and in addition a number of text-books on criminology and the treatment of delinquents have been obtained as a nucleus of a technical library for the staff. The Department is fortunate in the exceedingly helpful interest taken by a large number of Invercargill people in'the Borstal. The Rotary Club, the Official Visiting Committee, and the Ladies' Committee render a most valuable public service. The institution of a Ladies' Committee to visit lads, particularly when sick or in hospital and to co-operate in their after-care, has proved a great success, and recently an experiment was tried of having a matron on the staff. This will shortly be made a permanent institution. The Point Halswell Borstal Institution is for young women offenders. The underlying principles are the same as for the institutions for young men with the necessary adaptations for the difference in sex. The main industrial activities at Point Halswell are laundry work, domestic work, and gardening. An up-to-date machine laundry has been installed and has resulted in the elimination of much drudgery and has facilitated the handling of the work, besides providing useful training to the girls for employment on release. A balanced programme to equip inmates to take their place as useful and dependable members of the community is carried out at Point Halswell. In this work the Superintendent is helped in a generous manner by the Women's Borstal Association, who are unflagging in their interest in the inmates both in respect of their in-care and after-care. The successful results of Borstal training is evidenced by the fact that since the inception of the Borstals in 1924, of those released only 11 per cent, have again relapsed.

2—H. 20.

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Conclusion. I desire to place on record my appreciation of the generous help given by a very large number of voluntary helpers who have assisted the Department in connection with the in-care work by way of lectures, educational talks, cultural entertainment, and personal visitation, and in after-care work in finding released men employment and assisting them in other ways. In this connection I desire especially to mention the Women's Borstal Association, the Young Men's Borstal Association, the Visiting Committees, the Prisoners' Aid Societies, the Probation Committees, and the Justices' Association. The Department is also under a debt of gratitude to the clergymen and missioners of the various religious denominations, and the officers of the Salvation Army and others, who visit the institutions to minister to the spiritual wellbeing of the prisoners. Prisons should not be places of entertainment and comfort, nor should they be places of repression. When the interests of society or of the justice which it administers conflict with individual desires or liberty the latter must yield to the interests of the community as a whole, but it must be seen that the restriction of individual liberty, as far as practicable, is purposeful and constructive. Men become good socially by becoming good individually, and fundamental to individual goodness is the infusion of higher and nobler principles and ideals, the provision of educational facilities calculated to create an understanding and purposeful objective in life, and an opportunity so to function when released as to be relieved, as far as possible, of economic and physical hardships and anxieties. In administering a system dealing with human equations the personal touch is even of greater importance than the orderliness of the institutional regimen, and although in this respect the highest tribute can be paid to the loyal and sympathetic service rendered by the staffs of the various institutions, there is no doubt that the diffusion of interest among a wide section of voluntary workers is a vital and essential factor in securing the most effective administration of the prison system. Apart from the individual benefit to the prisoners through their contacts with outside visitors inspired with high ideals of social service, there is the further advantage that it is helpful to the administration to have the backing of an enlightened and sympathetic public opinion comprising people who have a knowledge and understanding of the problem, its complexities and difficulties, and an appreciation of the work that is being done. I therefore am grateful to all those voluntary workers who have assisted, and also to the members of the staff for the loyal service rendered during the year. B. L. Dallard, Controller-General of Prisons.

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PRISONS AND PENAL INSTITUTIONS: EPITOME OF REPORTS OF CONTROLLING OFFICERS. Auckland Prison. (Superintendent, Mr. W. T. Leggett.) I have the honour to submit my annual report on the working of this institution for the year ending 31st December, 1936. At the commencement of the year there were 266 males and 11 females in custody. During the year 1,004 males and 44 females were received, whilst 1,062 males and 47 females were discharged or otherwise disposed of, leaving in custody at the end of the year 208 males and 8 females. There was a small increase in receptions during the year, but a decided decrease in the number in custody here at the end of the year as against the previous year resultant of transferring all suitable prisoners to camps and farming institutions. Generally the health of the prisoners has been very good, sickness being mostly confined to colds and minor ailments. Taking into account the number of derelict and physically unfit individuals received here, the daily average sick of 3-03 must be considered low, and reflects credit on the attention given by the Medical Officer, Dr. Tewsley. There was one death occurred in the institutional infirmary, being a Chinese, who was an opium addict and who succumbed to the effects of chronic opium poisoning shortly after admission. It is pleasing to record no escapes during the year, but one individual twice unsuccessfully made attempts to escape by in one instance scaling the prison boundary wall and in a consequent fall received a severely sprained ankle, and on the other occasion this prisoner attempted to his escort whilst receiving out-patient attention at the public hospital for the result of his previous escapade. The institutional school under direction of Mr. Dale, M.A., Dip.Ed.(N.Z.), Ph.D.(Yale), and assisted by a member of the prison staff, has made steady progress. The drafting-out of many men to other centres means that only those with less ability or less able to make the most of opportunities for adjustment to a new point of view socially are left to attend school. As a consequence, the methods in use during the year have been changed considerably. To meet the change in the constitution of the class, and with the co-operation of the Superintendent, I have utilized films, records, and the newspaper to a much greater extent than formerly. By such means it has been possible to develop a wider concept of geography, history, and social life in other lands, as well as stimulating thought along lines of New Zealand's relationship to other parts of the globe. Much fruitful discussion and written work has come out of these more modern methods, which have been made possible through the courtesy of Kodak, the Visual Education Association, and Strong and Co., who have loaned material. In pursuance of a policy of transferring men, in their own interests, to camps and other centres the roll has fallen considerably. The school, however, is rather more involved for teaching purposes since many of the men require individual attention in both arithmetic and English. On the whole the men appear to accept the opportunities the school offers with a purposeful attitude. The Maoris, many of whom did not reach a very high grade at school,_ work with a will and appear to have a desire to read with facility. Their work, in many cases, involves the simplest elements of reading and writing. I would submit that the school is doing valuable work in making it possible for these men to have a reading readiness so that they are less likely to find themselves in conflict with society because of their inability to interpret English with a certain degree of facility. Some of the men have been encouraged to work along lines of interest to themselves. In this way they have branched out considerably beyond the usual elementary school requirements. A first-aid class conducted by St. John Ambulance Association has been continued, and lectures were given by Dr. Neil McDougall, assisted by Ambulance Officer Mr. J. Cummings, and Captain Caswell, of the Church Army, and again keen interest was taken by the class and a number of creditable passes obtained. The evening physical drill class, under direction of a member of the staff, has been continued twice weekly with beneficial results to some of the more youthful prisoners requiring physical development. Monthly entertainments, mostly vocal and instrumental, have been given, and such were arranged by interested social workers and visiting clergymen. Several social organizations, individual social workers, local Returned Soldiers Association, and business firms have again provided additional comforts to the inmates during the festive season, and such was much appreciated by the inmates. The Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society, which has been under the direction of Captain Banyard and Captain Caswell, of the Church Army, during the year has given every assistance to deserving discharged prisoners, both by financial assistance and providing avenues towards employment, also Major Perry, of the Salvation Army Men's Industrial Home, who is a regular visitor to this institution, is ever ready to give assistance and provide accommodation for suitable cases, and really good work has been carried out by both organizations. The spiritual welfare of the prisoners has been well looked after by ministers of the various denominations, who conduct weekly services and give individual visits to those requiring their help. During the year the prison library has received considerable attention, and all useful books have been thoroughly renovated and rebound and replacements made to bring the volumes in use up to 1,000. The various institutional industrial activities have been actively carried on, and the bootmaking and tailoring workshops have fully supplied boots and clothing requirements to the various prison and mental hospital institutions.

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The washing and repairing of mail-bags for the Post and Telegraph Department has been continued m conjunction with the tailoring shop, and the manufacture and repair of satchels has been under the supervision of the bootmaking shop, and all requirements have been met in this direction and good inter-departmental service given. The whole of the soap requirements for laundry and cleaning work has been manufactured here from waste kitchen fat and from supplies from Waikeria Borstal Institution. The tobacco-factory under advisory guidance of the Tobacco Instructor from the Department of Agriculture has been able to meet the tobacco requirements of all prison institutions. A considerable quantity of the leaf used was grown at Waikeria Borstal Farm and was of very good quality. The quarry industry has been continued during the year, but under more restricted conditions than previously owing to the diminished prison population here, but nevertheless satisfactory results were obtained. The quarry output was mainly disposed of to local bodies and Government Departments for road formation and maintenance work. The prison garden has been able to fully supply all vegetable requirements, including ample supplies of green vegetables. The food-supplies are good and ample. The meat is supplied from the Waikeria Borstal Farm and of excellent quality, and the bread is produced in the institutional bakery and has been of excellent quality and favourably commented on by visitors. Maintenance of prison buildings has been carried out, and interior renovations to cells and corridors is in progress. Modern cooking facilities by the instalment of a new oil-burning range in the institutional kitchen has so far proved both efficient and economical. I am pleased to report that the officers of the prison have performed their duties in a satisfactory manner and have taken a keen interest in the carrying-on of the various industries and work, and have evidenced tact and judgment in dealing with their charges, often under trying conditions. I regret to record the loss to the staff by the death of Principal Warder W. R. Childs, and the Department thereby has lost the services of a valuable and conscientious officer. The services of the Quarry-manager, Mr. W . J. Meehan, has also been lost to the Department by his retirement owing to ill health, and this officer likewise had given good service over a number of years. Gisborne Prison. (Gaoler, Mr. H. N. Richardson.) I beg to submit my annual report for the year ending 31st December, 1936. In custody at the beginning of the year 5 males, during the year 91 males and 3 females were received, and during the same period 88 males and 3 females were discharged or otherwise disposed of, leaving in custody on 31st December, 1936, 8 males. One prisoner had to be transferred to Cook Hospital suffering from epilepsy. The health of the prisoners generally has been satisfactory. The men have been employed at gardening, laundry work, and repairing clothing during the year. Divine service has been held regularly during the year, Mr. D. C. Morris and D. Hefferman, jun., conducting. (Plymouth Brethren.) Hautu Prison. (Officer in Charge, Mr. T. Banks.), At the commencement of the year there were 61 males in custody. During the year 33 males were received, whilst 62 males were released or otherwise disposed of, leaving in prison oil the night of the 31st December, 1936, 32 male prisoners. The greatest number in custody at any one time during the year was 61 ; the least 32 ; the daily average being 44-3. The health of the prisoners has been very good, sickness in most cases being restricted to colds and minor ailments. One prisoner was removed to public hospital for operative treatment, and after a short sojourn in hospital he was returned to prison fully recovered in health. The Prison Medical Officer, Dr. W. J. Feltham, visited the prison at regular intervals and gave every attention to inmates requiring medical treatment. The dentist was in attendance at intervals throughout the year and attended to those prisoners requiring dental treatment. The conduct of the prisoners generally has been satisfactory. Disciplinary correction by the Visiting Justices or myself for minor breaches of the regulations was required for 18 individuals. The food-supplies were of excellent quality, with a plentiful and varied supply of vegetables from the prison garden. Good-quality bread was manufactured in the institution bakery. The meatsupplies were obtained from the farm. Forty-nine head of cattle and sixteen sheep were slaughtered for ration purposes. The spiritual welfare of the men was well cared for by visiting chaplains from Waihi, Taupo, and Taumarunui. Ample reading-matter for all the men was available from the prison library. Our special thanks are due to the Rev. J. S. R. Carter, Presbyterian Minister, Taupo, the Chnstchurch Branch of the Howard League for Penal Reform, and Mr" C. Lowe for the supplies of cake, fruit, lollies, tobacco, and cigarettes for distribution amongst the inmates at Christmas-time; and to the President of the Mayoress's War Memorial Library League, Auckland, for the supplies of reading-matter received during the year. Owing to the marked decrease in the prison population some difficulty was experienced in keeping the farm gangs at No. 1 and No. 2 camps up to working - strength. Later it was found more economical to close down No. 2 camp, transfer the prisoners to the main camp, and manage all the labour gangs from the main camp. No. 2 camp was vacated on the 31st March last, and since then the huts have been removed to Waikune Prison.

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Regarding the industrial side of our activities, the main works performed were in connection with the general maintenance of the areas already under cultivation and duties attendant to the raising of live-stock. The restricted amount of prison labour now available prevented us from going ahead with the breaking-in of virgin country. The little work carried out during the year involving capital expenditure was in connection with subdivisional fencing in some of the larger paddocks and in other cases making existing fences sheep-proof. The farm is now carrying 2,490 sheep in addition to other live-stock. A draft of wethers from Hautu Prison was sold at Westfield in March last and realized an average price of £1 9s. per head. Some of the line reached the top price at the sale of £1 lis. 9d. per head. At the present time there is 775 head of cattle on the farm, but that number will be added to when a full count of the season's calvings has been recorded. Calvings for the current season are estimated at 180. About 200 acres of land was sown in turnips, 40 acres in oats, and about 8 acres of land was utilized in the planting-out of potatoes. The returns for the present season's harvesting are not yet available, but there is no reason for anticipating a reduction on last year's figures. Systematic steps were taken to eradicate rabbits from the property by means of poisoning, trapping, and the use of special carbon-monoxide appliance for the destruction of rabbits in their burrows. By these means the rabbit pest has been kept in hand. Working in co-operation with the Department of Internal Affairs, strips of land at Hautu were sown in maize to provide feeding-grounds for liberated pheasants. In conclusion, I desire to thank the staff for their co-operation during the year. Napier Prison. (Gaoler, Mr. C. J. McMullin.) I beg to submit my report on the Napier Prison for the year ended 31st December, 1936. At the beginning of the year there were 11 male prisoners in custody ; during the year 160 males and 12 females were received and 156 males and 12 females discharged or transferred, leaving 15 male prisoners in custody at the end of the year. The daily average number of prisoners in custody during the year was 16-01. Divine service was conducted by members of the various denominations, including the St. Vincent de Paul Society and the Gospel Hall Members. The Salvation Army, with their band, visited once a month, and their services and music were much appreciated. The Colenso Fund has been of considerable benefit in providing assistance to prisoners on release. This is a bequest fund for providing clothing and helping cases of necessity. The Napier Brotherhood, under the Rev. H. J. Odell, visited the prison in the evenings once a fortnight and conducted community sings, which was much appreciated. On Saturday afternoons, when circumstances permitted, the prisoners were entertained by me to a wireless programme in the exercise yard. As in former years, our main revenue was derived from the prison quarry, which continues to provide employment for the major portion of prison labour. Sufficient vegetables were grown to supply our needs all the year round, the main potato crop being very successful, while the onion crop is equally good and is estimated to last until next season. The prison buildings and grounds have been kept in a good state of repair with very little expense ; the yards have been repaired with cold-fix and are now in good condition. The conduct of the prisoners has been exceptionally good, no punishment of any nature having been found necessary. The thanks of the Department has been tendered to Mr. J. P. Thomson, Visiting Justice ; the St. Vincent de Paul Society ; Mr. Robert McGill, of the Gospel Hall; and to the Napier Brotherhood for their gifts of extra eatables and cigarettes to the prisoners at Christmas and New Year. In conclusion I desire to express my appreciation of the co-operation of the staff throughout the year. New Plymouth Prison. (Superintendent, Mr. W. Dineen.) At the beginning of the year 55 convicted prisoners were in custody. Of these, 20 were released by the Prisons Board, 20 were transferred to other prisons, and 14 were handed to the Police, and 41 were discharged on expiration, 88 were received, leaving a balance in custody of 48 at the end of the year. As in former years, the chief means of employing the prisoners has been the prison quarry and garden. The bulk of the quarry output has been sold to the New Plymouth Borough Council. The Fitzroy Quarry Co. has taken a quantity of boulders to be used for crushed metal. In the sale of the material from the quarry (as the competition is keen) the prices have been correspondingly low. However, the situation of the quarry lends itself particularly well for the purpose of giving the prisoners reasonable outdoor labour which leaves the men at all times under direct supervision. This latter requirement is especially necessary with the homo-sexual class of prisoner detained at New Plymouth Prison. The prison garden has again been successfully operated during the year, and a varied ancl plentiful supply of vegetables has been provided on the prison menu. It is safe to say that very few householders have as large a quantity or as varied an assortment of vegetables as is given at the midday meal to the prisoners here. The surplus supply grown is sold by public auction. To use up the waste vegetables from the garden and kitchen refuse breeding sows have been kept, and the litters from these have been sold by auction.

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The health of the prisoners has been good. There was one case of severe illness —a man suffered a stroke and was removed to the New Plymouth Public Hospital for treatment. The Medical Officer makes regular visits at least once a week, and special visits as often as he may be required. He devotes a lot of time in making psychological and psychiatrical investigation into each man's case. The general conduct of the prisoners has been good. There have been no escapes or attempted escapes during the year. The reformative value of permitting prisoners to give and receive uplifting entertainment from outside has been fully recognized and taken advantage of. The Rotary Club have paid fortnightly visits and have provided first-class entertainment. The fact that homo-sexual prisoners are allowed to see an audience from the outside world and listen to their effort to uplift and benefit them has a wonderful anti-depression effect. Men here are encouraged to take an active part in entertainments, and it is decidedly noticeable what a beneficial effect it has on their demeanour. At first they are shy, nervous, and backward, but this gradually wears of!, and in time they are able to stand before an audience and do their part in a manly way. This improvement has been particularly beneficial to some of the prisoners after their release. Cases are known of these men going after employment and openly telling their prospective employers that {hey have just been released after serving long sentences, and have used that fact as the reason why they would prove satisfactory if given employment. The attendance and taking part in these entertainments gives men who were troubled with inferiority complexes self-assurance and confidence in themselves. This is particularly noticeable in New Plymouth, where at least three ex-prisoners who served long sentences on release obtained employment here and have since set up in business on their own account, and are apparently making a success of their lives. Divine services are held each Sunday by clergymen of the various denominations. No prisoner is compelled to attend any service, except that of his own particular denomination. Mrs. Eason has continued her work of visiting and cheering the prisoners. With the aid of several willing helpers, she again provided splendid Christmas tea for all the prisoners. It is gratifying to be able to record the fact that many (some from other countries) wrote thanking her for past assistance and guidance, and enclosed contributions towards the cost of Christmas cheer. The physical-drill class under the leadership of one of the prisoners (a qualified instructor) has continued to practice weekly. They have given several displays to visitors at the prison. One of these displays was given in the presence of the Hon. the Minister of Justice and the Controller-General of Prisons. Both gentlemen addressed the class after the display and congratulated the men on the excellent performance they had given. To enable any prisoner who cared to take advantage of it, a class, under a prisoner who has eighteen years' teaching experience in secondary schools in New Zealand, has been conducted each week. The object of this class is to provide the assistance necessary to enable prisoners to obtain a proficiency pass. The baking of bread required for this and the Wanganui Prison has continued, and this industry has again provided means of teaching some prisoners the baking trade. The meat necessary for the prisoners' rations has ail been purchased on the hoof and slaughtered and dressed by prison labour. All stock slaughtered is subject to inspection by the Stock Department. I am indebted to the staff for its loyal support during the year. Paparua Prison. (Superintendent, Mr. C. E. Spittal.) I have the honour to submit the annual report on this institution for the year ended 31st December, 1936. On the first day of the year under review there were 128 males in custody. During the year 425 were received and 452 discharged or otherwise disposed of, leaving a total of 101 males in custody at the end of the year. The greatest number in custody at any one time was 157 and the least number 101, with a daily average of 127-139. Generally the health of the prisoners has been very good, sickness in most oases being confined to colds and minor complaints. Two inmates were admitted to the public hospital during the year. One of these was an advanced tubercular case and subsequently died in hospital. This was the only death during the year. With a daily average of 127-139 in custody and the reception of 425 individuals during the twelve months, the low rate of sickness demonstrates the attention which is given to the important matter of the health of the inmates during incarceration. There were 9 males received into prison suffering from venereal disease, and these cases required segregation, and in one case lengthy curative treatment. During the year 11 males were transferred to the Sunnyside Mental Hospital. I wish to express my appreciation of the co-operation of the Medical Superintendent of the Christchurch Mental Hospital in expeditiously dealing with mental defectives. The conduct of the prisoners generally has been very good. Breaches of the regulations numbered 39, and 21 were dealt with by Visiting Justices, while 18 were dealt with by myself. There were no escapes or attempted escapes during the year. I regret to record the death of Mr. G. Maginness, who for a number of years carried out the duties of a Visiting Justice at this institution. The food-supplies have been of an excellent quality, with a plentiful supply of vegetables from the prison garden. The bread produced in the institution bakery has also been of excellent quality and has been most favourably commented on by visitors. The industries of the prison and the farming operations have fully absorbed all available labour. The shingle industry continues to show good results, and large demands have continuously been made on our resources, but with our declining muster it is obvious that unless mechanized appliances are broirght to our aid the output must suffer considerably and be detrimental to cartage contractors.

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During the year nine miles of road were laid down in bitumen by the Neuchatel Asphalt Co., Ltd., the whole of the metal being obtained from our shingle-pit. The output of shingle and metal was disposed of to local bodies, Government Departments, and to cartage contractors. The manufacture of concrete paving-blocks and fencing-posts has been continued during the year. The prison garden continues to be a valuable asset, the institutional requirements, Queen Mary Hospital, and St. Helen Hospital being supplied from this source. Poultry production is also carried on, and 6,823 dozen eggs were produced during the year. The output of eggs and poultry is disposed of to Queen Mary Hospital, and the surplus disposed of at market rates. The farming section, under Mr. Wilson, farm-manager, has worked successfully. There has been an abnormal spring growth owing to the excessive rainfall and all the crops are very promising, but in some respects these have been damaged by the rain. Fair, average crops are, however, anticipated. In the sheep section there was 114 per cent, lambing, and one draft has been disposed of at schedule rates. The wool clip averaged 12| lb., and the top price secured was 20d. per pound. Three pens of fat lambs were entered at the recent Royal Show, and three first prizes were secured and also the Challenge Cup for most points. The whole of the maintenance of the prison buildings has been eSected with prison labour, while considerable renovations have been carried out to the prison cottages. Large sheds have been erected for the purpose of storing metal for sale for tarring purposes and for top-dressing tennis-courts. The existing water-supply to the institution has been supplemented by a further supply of 2,937 gallons, making a total continually in both tanks of 7,831 gallons. The institution school, directed by Mr. P. Schroeder, Headmaster of the Templeton School, is held on two nights weekly, the inmates taking a keen interest in their studies, which showed a marked progress by the majority. Concerts have been held at regular intervals throughout the year, and lectures have been held (monthly) during the winter months. Thanks are due to Mrs. Holmes and the Workers' Educational Association, who, in conjunction with the other social workers, maintain a sympathetic interest in the welfare of the inmates. I am pleased to report that the conduct of the staff has been excellent and a high standard of discipline has been maintained throughout the year, and in consequence the various industrial activities have been carried out smoothly and economically. The clerical work of the institution has been carried out efficiently by the office staff. Rangipo Prison. (Officer in Charge, Mr. A. Banks.) I have the honour to submit my report on this prison for the year ended 31st December, 1936. At the beginning of the year there were 29 males in custody. During the year 22 were received, 4 transferred to other institutions, and 20 discharged, leaving a total of 27 in custody on 31st December. The health of the prisoners has been good, there being no admittances to hospital. Divine services were conducted throughout the year by Rev. Father Van Beek, Rev. J. G. Laughton, and Mr. J. Moffatt. The following is a summary of work carried out during the year : 26 acres of virgin country cleared of fern and tutu, stumped of manuka, and made ready for ploughing ; 6 acres ploughed and harrowed ; 164 acres temporary pasture converted to permanent ; 50 acres turnips, 20 acres oats, and 3 acres of potatoes sown ; 2,878 acres top-dressed ; and 113 chains of fence erected. The vegetable garden has been successful, maintaining the prison with a good supply of vegetables during the year. The officers carried out their duties in a most satisfactory manner. Waikune Prison (Roadmaking Camp), Erua. (Officer in Charge, Mr. P. McGrath.) I have the honour to submit my annual report for the year ended 31st December, 1936. At the commencement of the year there were in custody 69 prisoners, and 61 were received during the year. The discharges were 15 on special remissions and 49 on probationary licenses. In all, 13 men were transferred to other institutions and 1 died, leaving 52 prisoners in custody at the end of the year. The greatest number of prisoners in detention at any one time was 69, the least 54, the daily average being 60-39. Two prisoners escaped during the year, one being promptly apprehended and transferred to the Auckland Prison, the other giving himself up to the police at Auckland. Three prisoners were removed to the Raetihi Hospital for minor complaints, and all returned to Waikune fully recovered from their illness. Apart from seasonal chills, the health of the men was very good. The Medical Officer and the dentist attended the prison regularly throughout the year. Our thanks are due to the Rev. Father McGlone and the Brethren for providing religious services at frequent intervals throughout the year. We once more record our special thanks to the Christchurch Branch of the Howard League for Penal Reform for their supply of Christmas cheer for the prisoners. Towards the end of the year a wireless set was obtained for this prison, and it was installed during the Christmas holidays. The programmes are carefully selected and are very much enjoyed by the men. Another handsome gift was a cricket set, and the, prisoners availed themselves of this to play a cricket match on Boxing Day.

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The past year saw many changes in the prison and its environs. All sub-camps were closed, some men being quartered at the Rangipo Prison, the remainder at Waikune. In order that the old cell range might be used as a store-room and common-room, the prisoners were located in single hutments obtained from the Hautu Prison. These hutments were arranged in the form of a square, and, although they have not as yet been finally arranged or painted, they are considered to be a great improvement on the cell house. As m previous years, the bulk of our vegetable ration was supplied from our own garden. The crops were not quite as forward as usual, and we called on Waikeria to supplement our rations for a few weeks. Our bread-supply was excellent throughout the year, and regular supplies were sent to Rangipo Prison. Beef of excellent quality was drawn weekly from Rangipo, and by way of a change m the meat ration we killed several of our own pigs. The Visiting Justice, Mr. W. H. Sandford, visited the prison 011 several occasions and inspected rations, clothing, and buildings, and pronounced that all were correct and in accordance with the regulations. As in former years, our industrial pursuits have been confined to road maintenance and construction and cartage. Early in the yea,r the Public Works Department made available aVB Ford power grader, and although this unit required heavy maintenance, nevertheless it was responsible for some great improvements to the loads, notably the W^aimanno—Ohakune Road, which covers a length from Raurimu in the north to the Tohunga Deviation in the south, some twentv-one miles. During the year we had several additions to our plant and our motor fleet, and we are now in possession of a number of new trucks, all of which are giving good service. In conclusion, I desire to thank the staff for their loyal co-operation. Wang-anui Pbison. (Gaoler, Mr. H. Robinson.) I respectfully beg to submit a report 011 the working of this prison for the year endino- 31st December, 1936. At the commencement of the year there were 26 males and 1 female in custody. Received during the year, 84 males and 3 females. Discharged during year, 95 males and 4 females, leaving in custodv at end of year 15 males. The health of the prisoners has been very good, there being no cases of sickness. There was one prisoner admitted to hospital for treatment who was suffering from a skin-disease. The conduct of the prisoners on the whole has been very good, there being four cases of minor prison offences against two prisoners, which were dealt with by the Visiting Justice. The prisoners have been employed keeping the prison grounds in order, growing vegetables for the prison, and laundry work for the prison and the Police Department. Prisoners who are not fit for outside labour have been employed keeping the inside of the prison clean. Repairs and painting of the prison and the two departmental cottages have been carried out. Divine service was held every Sunday during the year by the various denominations. The thanks of the Department were tendered to the members of the Church of Christ for their kindness 111 giving a Christmas tea to the prisoners on Christmas Day, and also the band of gentlemen who have organized and given concerts to the prisoners during the year. The members of the staff have performed their duties in an efficient manner and have been loyal and co-operative. Wellington Prison. (Superintendent, Mr. J. Down.) I have the honour to submit my annual report for the year ending 31st December, 1936, on the Wellington Prison. At the commencement of the year there were 100 males in custody. During the year 737 males were received and 721 discharged, leaving in custody on the 31st December 116 males. The discharges were as follows—On expiration of sentence : Hard labour or simple imprisonment 391, reformative detention nil ; on special remission : Hard labour 17, released 011 recommendation of the Prisons or Parole Board 7, reformative detention 11, habitual criminal 1, debtors discharged 31, transferred to mental hospital 6, acquitted after remand 5, transferred to another prison, to the police, or on probation 246, released on bail 5 : total, 721. The greatest number in confinement at any one time during the year was 116 males, and the least number 77. The daily average number in prison during was 97-7. The greatest number of cases of sickness at any one time was 14, and the number of admissions to the public hospital during the year was 7. The population of the prison has decreased somewhat from last year. The class of prisoner received of late is of an idle and irresponsible disposition. It is very difficult to find suitable men for the camps. The conduct of the prisoners, on the whole, has been good. The work carried out during the year in the different localities is as follows : For the Borstal, Point Halswell, a large quantity of firewood was cut and carted to the institution; a start has been made with the painting of the interior of the buildings and scaffolding erected for repair work ; other work included the overhaul of the septic tank, fixing water pipes and taps, removing the steps from the back of the Institution, cleaning out and repairing drains, fixing of new downpipes and spouting, erecting fences round the grounds, building a new chimney in the kitchen and fixing stove. I am pleased to state that the printing and bookbinding industry is still very satisfactory and is a good paying proposition.

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The following work has been carried on in the prison : Breadmaking for rations and for the Borstal, Point Halswell; the manufacture of soap, floor-polish, sandsoap, leadhead nails, and tinmaking has been carried on throughout the year. In the experimental orchard and nursery the trees are making good growth this year and fresh plantings have been made. It was found necessary to provide fresh housing for the pigs, so new and up-to-date pigsties have been erected. Some pedigree pigs have been purchased this year for the improvement of the stock. Throughout the year the various denominations have held their regular services. Our thanks are due to the ministers of the Presbyterian, Anglican, and other branches of the Protestant Churches for their attendances throughout the year. Also to the Roman Catholic Clergy and officers of the Salvation Army. . . During the year concerts were given by the Presbyterian Social Service, the Salvation Army, and the Justices of the Peace Association, which were greatly appreciated by all. We also thank the Controller-General of Prisons, Mr. W. P. Sommerville, Mr. N. Aitken, and Mr. Lowe for their contributions of Christmas cheer. Also to Mrs. Chatfield, who, unfortunately, was unable to attend, but sent her splendid contributions, where were much appreciated. Wi Tako Prison, Heretaunga. (Superintendent, Mr. T. E. Lowe.) The year under review has seen a further decline in the number of receptions —85 this year as against 121 for the previous twelve months—and the number in custody dropped from 50 at the commencement to 43 at the end of the year. Of the 92 prisoners discharged during the year, 25 were discharged on expiration of sentence, 17 discharged on remission, 43 released on recommendation of Prisons Board, and 7 transferred to other institutions. As usual, the health of the prisoners has been well looked after by the Medical Officer, Dr. F. W. Kemp, who visits the institution weekly, as well as in cases of emergency, and, with the exception of one prisoner who was sent to hospital with appendicitis, no serious cases have been reported. The conduct and industry of the prisoners have been satisfactory; four cases of minor prison offences were dealt with by Visiting Justices. With the reduced muster it has been fairly difficult to maintain the usual output from the farm, and the market garden area has been reduced considerably \ but all sections have been fairly successful and produced approximately £1,930 through sales in addition to maintaining the institution in vegetables, potatoes, meat, milk, and firewood. No new development work has been possible during the year, all available men being required for current work on the farm and the maintenance of fences and drains and the various rifle-ranges on the Defence leasehold. The building of a new range of pigsties with grazing paddocks and shelters has been practically completed. . . The spiritual welfare of the prisoners has been attended to throughout the year by ministers and laymen of various denominations, and thanks are due to these gentlemen for the interest displayed. During the year concerts have been provided by the Rev. Mr. Harding's party, Upper Hutt Male Voice Choir, Optimists' Club, and the Salvation Army, and these have been thoroughly appreciated by the inmates. Donations of Christmas cheer from the Salvation Army, Mr. W. P. Sommerville, and the Rev. Mr. Harding were very welcome, and, in addition, our thanks are due to the latter gentleman for a large donation of books, which made a welcome addition to the library. In conclusion, I would like to thank members of the stafl for their loyal co-operation. Addington Reformatory Prison (Women). (Superintendent, Miss M. Hewitt.) I have the honour to submit the annual report on this institution for the year ended 31st December, 1936. At the beginning of the year there were 15 females in custody, 38 were admitted during the year and 42 were discharged, leaving 11 females in custody at the end of the year. The greatest number in custody at any one time was 17 and the least 7, the daily average for the year being 11-541. The health of the inmates generally (with the exception of four who were suffering from alcoholism when admitted) has been good, and there were no admissions to the public hospital during the year. The conduct of the inmates throughout the year has been good and, with the exception of one or two individuals, all have risen to the occasion and have given of their best during the busy periods when we were often working under rather difficult conditions due to alterations and renovations in laundry and institution. During the year this institution has been completely renovated inside and out. The place is now looking very nice, bright, and cheerful, and is much more comfortable. The work has been carried out entirely by prison labour and reflects great credit on the workmen and the officers in charge of them. The spiritual and social welfare of the inmates has been well looked after by the chaplains (the Rev. P. Revell and the Rev. Father Joyce), Salvation Army officers, and the Ladies of Charity. Concert parties organized by Miss Nicholls and the Women's Christian Temperence Union visited regularly during the year, and have been much appreciated by the inmates. The Salvation Army

3—H. 20.

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and the Women's Christian Temperence Union provided tea parties for Christmas and New Year respectively, while numerous other friends contributed to our fund to provide cheer and recreation on other occasions during the year. In conclusion, I desire to state that at all times the staff have carried out their duties in a loyal and tactful manner. Inveecaegill Borstal Institution. (Superintendent, Mr. R. W. Arnold.) At the beginning of the year there were 108 Borstal inmates in custody. During the year 81 inmates were received into the institution, while in the same period 93 were discharged or otherwise disposed of, thus leaving 96 males in custody at 31st December, 1936. Of the 93 discharged, 85 were released on the recommendation of the Parole Board, 6 were discharged on the expiration of the term of detention, and 2 were transferred to a northern institution for health reasons. The greatest number of inmates in custody at one time was 130, the least number 95. The daily average number in custody during the year was 114. In the Reformatory Section there were 20 inmates (males) in custody at the beginning of the year. During the year, 69 males and 1 female were received, while 77 males and 1 female were discharged thus leaving 12 males in custody ,at 31st December, 1936. The greatest number in custody at one time was 20, the least 8, the daily average during the year being 14. With the exception of a few hospital cases, the general health of the inmates was good. Various ailments of a minor nature were treated in the institution hospital. Considerable attention is always given by the medical officer, Dr. J. Garfield Crawford. Dental treatment is given by the visiting dentist, Mr. Jas. G. Wade. Major cases are dealt with at his surgery. In order to inculcate a sense of tidiness, order, and good behaviour in the inmates, as well as a healthy spirit of rivalry, a house competition is carried out during the year, with an award of marks each quarter. The results for 1936 are as follows : Wakatipu House, 357 ; Monowai, 346 ; Te Anau 340; Manapouri, 327. Inmates are given the opportunity of learning the elements of certain trades, evening classes being conducted m carpentering, blacksmithing, butchering, painting, and signwriting. The singing, music, orchestra, and art classes attract quite a number of boys who have an aptitude in that direction! Actual experience is also obtained by inmates along these lines, as well as in cooking and breadmaking," bootmaking and repairing. One or two boys are, as a rule, engaged making coir matting from fibre supplied. Inmates also learn gardening, farm work, milking, stock work, &c. Reports on the year's work as submitted by the several instructors are quoted hereunder Mr. Clapp.—-" The average attendances for the last term were as follows : Juniors, 20; intermediate, 21 ; seniors, 40. The English course for the seniors provided a study of some of the standard authors, their works, and the characteristics of their writings. The aim here was to create a love of good literature and to encourage reading for the sake of the knowledge to be obtained. "In the lower school the course was necessarily more of the formal type. Letter writing, the wording of telegrams, the writing and answering of advertisements again received continuous treatment. " The arithmetic scheme covered problems likely to be met in the life of the community. An appreciable portion of the arithmetic belonged rather to the informational than to the computational field, and the modification of our curriculum accordingly did much to lighten the load of the duller boys. Mental calculations formed the major portion of this subject, and were graded according to the mentality level. " The interest of the seniors was maintained in algebra and geometry, while the study of French gave added interest to this division. "In geography modern teaching methods were used to deal with the countries of the world. In the lower divisions, New Zealand was made the basis of study. " The European history from 1815 onwards was studied by the seniors, who were also kept in touch with current historical events. The social progress of New Zealand was studied by the juniors. Great explorers and their explorations were dealt with in detail suited to the classes. " The Students' Digest, a monthly paper, has been used to advantage in all sections of the school. This change of reading matter has been appreciated by the boys. In conclusion, Mr. McFarlane and I wish to express our appreciation for the co-operation and the courtesy extended to us during the year." Mr. Beaker.— 1 There was an average attendance of about 30 at the classes, and the work covered not only League activities, but a wide range of current topics. Twenty-four boys sat the final examination, and the work was of such a standard that my Council decided to award six book prizes for those who scored the highest marks. lam quite sure that members of the Invercargill Branch will next year be quite willing to conduct a class should you be inclined to institute one." . Mr : Stobo.—" The local branch of the Workers' Educational Association conducted a session at the institution during the winter months of 1936. The opening night was a play-reading performance by Mr. Augusts literature class. The remaining evenings followed a syllabus made out by subcommittee of boys' class. This consisted for the most part of debates and lecturettes, also a gramophone evening and a concert on the final night. The interest shown by the lads and their willingness to take up any parts allotted to them was most praiseworthy." . Mr • Mathews. " of instruction in agriculture were carried on throughout the year and satisfactory progress was maintained. The instruction aims to be of direct value to those entering upon a farming career and embraces tuition in regard t„o soils and crops, seasonal work on the average farm, types and use of the several varieties of lime, artificial manures, crop rotation,' farm

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machinery, &c. I had hoped to introduce a course of instruction in farm-management, the keeping 0t SiSSd 0» M 1—1.», and W M progress was mad. bv practically every student. This year more time was devoted to the practical side of the course, P the iesultsTustified this change, although it is felt that the senior students require more thorough and the res ] , , ide of t h e work. Time, however, is once again the controlling factor. £r <« funds (£4) for the purchase of prizes for the agriculture and wool classes Suitable books relative fhp snbiect were bought and presented to the winners, three m each section. ; the those ? nmates who are housed at the farm ranch a class m general education is -etLrat. in receiving about two hundred booh for the i-itut.o» library The library now contains over one thousand five hundred books covering)many sub] ects of terarv technkaT and sporting nature. Fiction, of course, predominates, and the books donated, during the year are of a good type and in excellent condition. An endeavour is made to train a boy m librarian and to repair damaged volumes. The inmates receive from parents and friends a good supply of Strand ]Magazine, and the Auckland Weekly News. As an aid to students m the music class, Etude, a rather good American publication, is now received. Gratuitous issues include the Children s Newspaper and t some'interesting subject. The Ministers' Association Salvation Band Isite the institution on one Sunday afternoon a month and give, a select,on of music. t „ ioqa o aiipcial memorial service in connection with the death of King George V was Rev. opening remarks by the Superintendent. On the Sunday morning of that week a fuither special service was held by the Rev. John Chisholm (Knox Church). Anril a On Good Friday and on Anzac Day special services were held, and on Sunday, 12th p ,;, service was conducted by Pastor Moore, of Dunedm, known m radio circles as Big Brother tfil. Every effort is made to see that spare time in the evenings when there are no classes does + i o- iraainW rm thp hands of the boys. We were indebted throughout the past year for plentitude of entertainment provided by local musical, elocutionary and other artists. Visitors from elsewhere also were always willing to oblige in this direction. As in retan lie W powers of concentration, while the experience of entertaining others enlarges confidence and se rella Thêre is no doubt that some are gifted musically and vocally. The many visitors at the 1936 concert were well pleased with the result. Another occasion when the boys can try themselves out is on school break-up night when a private House Competitive Entertainment is held, each house, WW to entertain^the others for ten minutes. The Battalion Band, which provided music for us on many occasions during the year, requested the assistance of some inmates at a B wT w S' the Town Hall. This request was acceded to and the selected boys acquitted themse es y parties throughout the year. The InvcrcargiE Mule Choir with ow fo"y m™™.tte.ded ê ou one occasion. Several Church choirs ,«*} ahilitv Tn addition there were many wireless concerts, community sings, picture sno , band programmes. Talks, lectures, and addresses covered the following subjects : Eariy lnvercarg , TVip Rnval House of Windsor; A Trip to the United States of America; India (by a visiting ndssiOTLary) -The European Situation ; ? The Dunedm Air Pageant; We, cu^, mission yj • The White Cavalry of Bethune ; Prominent Cricketers , Native Life Plot For the undernoted addresses we are indebted to the local members of Toe H[. Lawrence of Arabia; Arms, Past and Present; Oceans; Thibet; Health and Diet, The Prince Waes, Italy; History of New Zealand; The Salvaging of the German Fleet at ScarpaJb. The Toe H group meets on the last Sunday evening in each_ month. On Thursday nights members of the Invercargill Rotary Club visit the Association Class which, m connection with Rotary,

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becomes the "Kiwi Club." Addresses covered the following topics : Rotorua and National Park • Zane Grey and New Zealand Fishing; Refrigeration; Klondyke Gold Rush; Reporting and ewspaper Work; Knots and Their Uses; Construction of Concrete Buildings ; Gliders' Whaling • The "Queen Marv » C°°f Funot r! ° f 5 American Motor-cars ; A Trip to America i • yueen Mary , Coal-mines; Motor-car Engines; Motor Racing; Feats of Suspended Oyster Canning; Flax Industry; The West Coast-Products, &c.; Manufacture of Clothing, Rules of Rugby ; Transport by Air ; Diesel Engines ; Manufacture of Bread • Gas in Warfare ; Submarines ; All Blacks Tour, by a Member ; Model Aeroplanes • Colonel T ē' P™ : oaT„d r U Clme r : $*7S? ' *>*»■*• Wa Trip Abroad, with lictures, Oil and its Uses Gold and How it Circulates; Insurance Companies; Activities of Rotary ; Boilers ; Wireless ; Music, Ancient and Modern. Activities ot Periodical lectures were delivered by the Institution Medical Officer ihe institution usually enters a team in the local Rugby third-grade competition. In 1936 eleven Thk v T Wer ®, l™ 1 and * OUI lost " Various inter-institutional matches S wet Saturdays! however, the weather seriously interfered with play ; there was a succession end tf fCTqs? ST* run b ? the Southland Cricket Association. At the in the New £ "^ Oll ' ° Up ' Wmning foUr out of SIX matches P la - Ved The 1936-37 season was opened with the annual fixture, Officers v. Boys. As has been the position fhrtbSl 7 The B ter i WOn ' ■ H i S orsMp tl i e Ma y° r B P° ke 011 this occasion and bowled the first ball The Battalion Band was m attendance, and also numbers of well-wishers. In the competition, so far eight matches have been played, our team winning seven and losing only one. pyprpit n + lS^ S g ® d and a game is secured now and again with an outside team. Fives gives wXtake oif verv°l i 6 T°" 166 COUrtS available ' lt is llkel 7 that the game of badminton will take on very well A swimming competition was held in January, and an exhibition of lifesaving by members of the Oreti Surf Life-saving Club. This club kindly conducted a class and at an SSHSSdby theboys. S6Ven intermediate certificates, and two elementary'certificates from^sltSi 11 rf T? alt ' of the institution, being conducted by the instructor from the Southland Boys High School. As it is not affected by seasons or weather conditions a marked improvement m the physique of the inmates results. Ist ai/Trfi gattermg for all classes of s P°rt, for those not at the Summer Camp, was held on the fixed for the AT 0n Lab ° Ur Da * in october - The meet ing usually fixed for the King s Birthday (June) had to be postponed owing to the inclemency of the weather. A general sports meeting was held on Boxmg Day, when eatables and prizes were distributed. nf ī e / ea A a uT S U1 I st - ai< ? WOT Jf WaS introduced for the first time, thanks to the assistance of the St. John Ambulance Brigade. Examinations for certificates from St. John Ambulance Association will not however, be conducted. Selected inmates took an interest in this class, and the knowledge gained should prove useful to them. 90 aimual summer camp for members of the Association Class was held at Otatara from -3rd December, 1936, to 4th January, 1937. The weather was excellent for practically the whole of tchiZ' oCCaSlon h wken Southland excelled the rest of the Dominion. Activities for the boys brnb + r g ' eelmg '. rabbitln g> ticket, tennis, volley-ball, treasure-hunts, bush-walks, and m the evenings there were sing-songs, moving-pictures, lectures, and concerts. nrnh»hW P vl 1011 i° r ltS and tents was Ver y keen > the standard set this year being was appredfted heretofore. Assistance rendered by the office staff in connection with camp Visitors Day was 2nd January. There was a full programme of field events, in which all boys took part. Prizes were distributed by Mr. W. M. C. Denham, M.P. for Invercargill. for rvr?r a i n UC £ eS ! ° f ? e annual Cam ? w ? are always mdeb ted to business firms for donations tor prizes, &c. Cash donations were received from the following: Rotary Club, Prisoners' Aid Invercamill B^ti*? f bo A utbland Jus tices of the Peace Association, members of nvercargiU Borstal Society (Sir Robert Anderson and Messrs. Pickard and Marshall), Dr. J. G. tlie Nationafy MC A & Baxter - A picture machine, films, and a marquee were lent by the Welfa if v inmates while in the institution and rehabilitation after discharge, there exist here the Invercargill Borstal Society, the Invercargill Borstal Visiting Committee, the mitteeT Voluntary Probation Committee, and the Invercargill Honorary Ladies' Borstal ComPnrWP, Bo s S f a T 1 Society, approved by the Minister of Justice in terms of section 18, Prevention of ITm p f Jtr Establishment) Act, 1924, consists of Sir Robert Anderson, C.M.G., Patron, and Messrs Pickard (Chairman), Miller, Watts, and Marshall, local business men. It is regretted to interested 6 - B on 2 6th July, 1936, of the Chairman, Mr. Wm. Macalister, who for years had been interested n Borstal work and was also a member of the Visiting Committee. A new member was appointed m the person of Mr. Jas. Ward, J.P. memoer was The Visiting Committee, appointed pursuant to regulations made on 20th July, 1925 under the '18 °TP° sed of Mr " W " H ' freeman, S.M., Chairman, and Messrs. Ott, Ward, Parole Board Strang. The members consider individual cases and make recommendations to the The Voluntary Probation Committee consists of Messrs. Chas. Gilbertson, J. D. Gilmore D J MrsTLnh 11 /r'p Comprising the Ladies' Borstal Committee are Mrs. Henderson, and i tte ™ selves visiting the sick, giving advice to the boys, and m other ways. They help considerably in collecting for the Christmas Cheer Fund.

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Bibliographic details

H-20 PRISONS (REPORT ON) FOR THE YEAR 1936-37., Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1 January 1937

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16,752

H-20 PRISONS (REPORT ON) FOR THE YEAR 1936-37. Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1 January 1937

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