Sess. 11.—1897. NEW ZEALAND.
EDUCATION: MANUAL TRAINING AND TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION. [In continuation of E.-1c, 1896.]
Presented to both Houses of the General Assembly by Command of His Excellency.
1. EXTRACT FROM TWENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF EDUCATION. Manual Tbaining and Technical Insteuction. Last year a report by Mr. J. Struthers, one of Her Majesty's Inspectors of Schools in Scotland, on " Sloyd and Kindergarten Occupations in the Elementary School," was reprinted by the Department and distributed to Education Boards, School Committees, and teachers, and subsequently laid on the tables of both Houses of the General Assembly.* The writer, using the term "sloyd" to mean " educational manual training," points out that it may be applied not only to that system of working in wood which is distinctively known as sloyd, but to any system of exercises in any material (wood, iron, cardboard, or clay), provided that such system can be clearly shown to be educational in its objects and methods. With regard to kindergarten occupations, he says that they are, if properly made use of, identical in purpose and effect with the sloyd occupations referred to; that the educational reasons which justify the introduction of either into schools are precisely the same, as are also the educational advantages to be reaped from them. Passing from an enumeration of the various kindergarten occupations suitable for children under eight, he refers to clay-modelling as being capable of refined and delicate manipulations such as will make sumcient demand on the capacities of even the most advanced scholars, and as being used in the schools of Paris as an exercise for the highest classes. Cardboardwork " is capable of or rather demands the utmost exactness, and yet is within the capacity of the average child in Standards 111., IV., and A r ." Woodwork, " as admitting of the greatest variety of form and manipulation, is probably the sloyd occupation par excellence. It is best calculated to secure the immediate result —viz., development of general dexterity." Ironwork, with or without the
• E.-le., Appendix to Journals of House of Representatives, 1896.
forge, he regards as an alternative with woodwork for the oldest pupils, and he has no doubt that other suitable sloyd occupations exist, or may be invented. Mr. Struthers lays it down that " the measure of the introduction of manual work into schools must be the measure in which it conduces to increased efficiency in the general work of the school, and especially in the standard subjects." Having regard to this general condition he is able to report that during the last four or five years the serious treatment of kindergarten occupations in the preparatory classes has spread from a very few schools to practically every school of any size in the district, not only without loss of efficiency in the ordinary subjects, but with positive gain. In the junior standards (1., 11., and III.) manual training has made considerable progress. It is to be found in some form or other in about half the Edinburgh board schools, and "from the favourable opinions expressed by the head-masters in their reports to the Board, a further rapid extension may be expected." Expense of equipment is not regarded as likely to stand in the way of the extension of manual training. " The expense," Mr. Struthers says, "except in the case of woodwork, is trifling; and even in the case of woodwork it is not likely to prove a serious difficulty if once the desirableness of the instruction is recognised." But in the question of staff he finds " a difficulty of the gravest and most real character." The following are some of his remarks upon this point: — " It goes without saying that, if manual instruction is to be successfully given, the teachers of the subject must possess the requisite technical skill. ... I believe that a very adequate preparation might be secured in the case of the majority of future teachers if provision were made in the schools of the large towns, where manual training has been to some extent developed, for some systematic instruction of the pupil-teachers both in the theory and practice of the subject. But, however the necessary skill may be acquired, it is of the last importance that teachers who undertake work of this kind should have a clear and abiding idea of what the object of it is. Hence it is desirable that some theoretical instruction —and discussion —should accompany the practical course. In the case of those who are teachers by profession there should be no great necessity for insisting on the educational aspect of the work. It is the requisite technical skill in which they are more likely to be lacking. Especially is this the case with woodwork (or ironwork) where the acquirement of the necessary skill in one previously destitute of it is a matter of months rather than of days or weeks. Yet it is simply indispensable that a teacher should himself be able to do reasonably well what he attempts to teach others. At first sight, the obvious thing to do would seem to be to employ a skilled artisan. But this in ordinary circumstances is an expedient of at least doubtful policy. Certainly there are artisans who are by nature teachers, or who quickly apprehend and adapt themselves to the educational aims of woodwork instruction in schools. To take a parallel case, I know of teachers of cookery, not trained teachers, whose grasp of educational objects and methods is as firm as that of those who are teachers by training and profession. But to employ any one to conduct a course of manual training simply on the ground of his skill as an artisan is a most hazardous proceeding." " The Manual and Technical Elementary Instruction Act, 1895," of this colony makes it lawful for any Education Board to order that manual instruction be given in any public school under its control as if manual instruction had been included in the list of subjects prescribed in the Education Act. The Education Board and Inspectors of the North Canterbury district have had this subject under consideration, and their views are set forth in their respective reports. The Inspectors say :— " Beyond the ordinary subjects of the syllabus, among which drawing, one of the most important instruments of manual training, is of course included, nothing has so far been done in the district in the desired direction except in a few isolated cases where the master, having himself some skill in a manual occupation, has interested himself in cultivating the taste among his pupils, and in a few large infant departments where a short period weekly has been devoted to the simplest forms of manual work—stick-laying, paper-folding, plaiting, colouring—to a certain extent in connection with lessons in drawing or counting. " In the infant department, where freer conditions of method and subject, due to the absence of a prescribed syllabus, exist, the beginnings are most easily made ; and little more difficulty should be found in adapting suitably graduated exercises to the First and Second Standard classes where the prescribed programme is limited to a few subjects, and much time must now be wasted in profitless repetitions. All this may be expected to be done during the usual school-hours, and in intimate relation with existing subjects; but when we approach the Third Standard the question of the time-table assumes a more serious aspect; and, although the occupations contemplated must, if they serve the chief purpose for which they are instituted, facilitate the ordinary standard progress, and therefore secure as good a result in less time than before, we are too conscious of the
possibility of futile effort, the result of limited experience, and too anxious not to burden teachers whose powers are already severely taxed, to urge the introduction of additional work. Perhaps the difficulty—which extends also to the Fourth Standard—may in time find its own solution, and in the meanwhile something may be done without undue pressure by an extension to these standards of card-modelling practice in connection with drawing-lessons. In the Fifth and Sixth Standards likewise we cannot see how appropriate manual practice can be wholly included in the usual five hours of instruction ; but the pupils have then arrived at an age when an hour or two extra time weekly spent in a workshop may prove an agreeable relaxation, and the physical and mental energy now expended in the cricket and football field may well find another scarcely less attractive field of exercise. " In the workshop, the schoolmaster who has received a proper training, and who in virtue of his profession understands the bearing of the manual exercises on general education, must in the end prove the most valuable kind of instructor, and probably a modification in the training of pupilteachers and students will in a few years supply the requisite skill ; but for the present dependence must be placed almost exclusively on the services of intelligent artisans. It is to the larger centres alone that we can look for such instructors, and in them alone will the number of pupils to be served justify the necessary initial expenditure. " While technical instruction is foreign to the purposes of the elementary school, and manual training in connection with elementary education is mainly to be valued as a means of mental discipline, there is one subject, eminently suited to the elementary school, which is in one view technical, in another manual, the purpose of which, however, is wholly one of direct practical utility. We refer to cooking and kindred occupations of housewifery. The subject has indeed quite as much claim to be recognised as a subject of elementary instruction as reading and writing, and is equally necessary for at least one-half of the community. At any rate, to be able to cook a dinner fairly is much more important for our girls, as a preparation for the business of life, than the skilful manipulation of vulgar and decimal fractions, or a knowledge of the operations of the bill-discounter and the stock-broker. Practice in cooking is indeed only the corollary of the bookish instruction in "domestic economy" which already forms a part of the usual school course, in larger schools at least, and facilities for the practice should, in our view, form an essential feature of a school's equipment. We do not even think it necessary that practice of the kind should be taken outside the usual school-hours. Where practical lessons in the subject are regularly given—that is, lessons in which the pupils contribute a share of the work—we are inclined to believe that the Inspector might fairly be permitted to make some allowance in other respects. A Sixth Standard girl, for instance, might well be permitted to qualify for the Sixth Standard in arithmetic by doing again a Fifth Standard test, and in the Fifth Standard a similar concession might be made by accepting the half of the Fifth Standard work in the subject. Below the Fifth Standard it would not be profitable to go. " Again, in this respect the school of substantial size could alone expect to be fully provided with the means of carrying out the work as completely as is desirable ; but even in outlying districts some attempt might be made with most imperfect appliances. We need not go very far out of our way to regard the gridiron and the saucepan as necessary parts of school furniture, and expect them to be made use of over the school-room fire as instruments of practical instruction." The Education Board reports as follows : — "In May, 1896, the Board held a conference with head-masters and delegates from School Committees, representing large and small schools alike, to consider the question of introducing manual instruction into the schools of this district, and of establishing classes for technical instruction. The evidence then taken, with that given by the Board's Inspectors at a special meeting held shortly afterwards, conclusively proved : (1.) That in connection with the lower standards and preparatory classes only, and that but in a modified degree, could manual instruction be introduced into the Board's schools during the ordinary school-hours without interfering with the present standard syllabus—a syllabus already sufficiently heavy to severely tax the powers of the teachers. (2.) That only in the larger centres would the Board be justified in establishing classes in manual instruction out of the ordinary school-hours. (3.) That, with but few exceptions, the teachers in the Board's service were not qualified to impart manual instruction. After further consideration, with the view of inaugurating the only scheme which appeared practicable, as well as ascertaining to what extent advantage of classes at hours not included in the ordinary school-time would be taken, the Board decided to apply to the Government for a grant of £200 for fitting up a work-room at the Normal School, and providing the tools and apparatus required for giving manual instruction. A favourable reply has been received from the Department, and operations will be commenced so soon as a qualified instructor has been secured and all other necessary arrangements completed. Provided the experiment prove a success, and the Government be willing to supply the funds, without which any extension of the scheme will be impossible, the Board will arrange for similar classes in other centres." Other references to this subject will be found in the reports of the Education Boards of Auckland and Southland, and in those of the Inspectors of Schools of Wellington, Hawke's Bay, Marlborough, and Grey. In the Wellington District illustrated guides for courses of modelling in clay and card-board have been issued to the teachers. Woodwork classes in connection with the public schools have been established, or are about to be established, at Devonport, Bemuera, Mauriceville, Paraparaumu, Cross Creek,
Wellington, Greymouth, Kumara, Milton, and Balclutha. The class for teachers in Christchurch, referred to in the Board's report, is in full operation; and a Saturday carpentry class, which is attended by both teachers and public-school pupils, has been established in Invercargill. At Cross Creek, where there is a railway workshop, the pupils learn ironwork as well as woodwork. There is a class for clay-modelling at the Wellington Technical School. Drawing is, of course, taught in all the public schools, throughout the standards, as part of the ordinary school course ; 961 per cent, of the children in attendance receive instruction in this subject. The Department has had lithographed for the guidance and instruction of students a set of thirty-eight exercises in woodwork in use at the Wellington Technical School. It may be observed that the City and Guilds of London Institute provides an examination in woodwork for public-school teachers, which the Department hopes will be made use of by the teachers that intend to qualify themselves for giving instruction in the subject. Besides the classes for purely manual work, of which mention has been made, associations for the promotion of various branches of technical education are in existence in different parts of the colony, and there are indications of a considerable increase in the demands for capitation under the Manual and Technical Elementary Instruction Act. The classes on which capitation was paid during the year 1896 are the following : — Auckland Technical Classes Association : Drawing, carpentry and joinery, staircasing and handrailing, wood-carving, plumbing, graining and marbling, mathematics, shorthand, cookery, dressmaking. Mr. W. I. Robinson's Classes, Auckland: Mechanical engineering, machine construction and drawing. Wanganui Technical School: Drawing, shading from models and from the round, painting still life in oils. Wellington Technical School: Clay-modelling, drawing, design, painting, mathematics, applied mechanics, carpentry, wood-carving, plumbing. Class at Cross Creek, Wellington : Woodwork and ironwork. Greymouth District High School: Carpentry. Christchurch School of Domestic Instruction : Cookery, dressmaking, laundry work. Messrs. Bickerton Brothers' Classes, Christchurch: Drawing, geometry, physics. Dunedin Technical Classes Association: Book-keeping, shorthand, mechanical engineering and drawing, plumbing, carpentry, wood-carving, chemistry, physics, cookery, dressmaking. Milton District High School: Carpentry, agricultural analysis. Balclutha Technical Classes: English, mechanical drawing, shorthand, carpentry, upholstery, chemistry, millinery, dressmaking. Manual or technical work, or both, is also being carried on, or about to be carried on, in classes at Gisborne, Napier, Hastings, Masterton, Palmerston North, Westport, Christchurch (the School of Art, the Young Men's Christian Association, the Gordon Hall, and three schools of shorthand), Ashburton, Kaitangata, Gore, Waiwera South, Warepa, and Invercargill. With the view of encouraging attendance at technical schools and classes, arrangements have been made with the Railway Department by which teachers of classes registered with the Minister of Education may give certificates to their pupils which will enable them to obtain railway tickets at special rates. During the year examinations were held upon papers supplied by the Science and Art Department (South Kensington), and the City and Guilds of London Institute, and a number of works were sent home by candidates desirous of qualifying for the Art Class Teacher's and Art Master's Certificates. There were 923 papers and 615 passes. The details are exhibited in the following table.
TABLE Y.—London Technical and Art Examinations, 1896.
The Science and Art Department has been good enough to give the colony permission to retain free of charge the casts used at its examinations. Upon the suggestion of the Director of the Wellington Technical School, who pointed out the advantage to be derived by colonial students in industrial and decorative art from a study of good examples of work in these subjects, an application was made to the Science and Art Department for a loan collection of prize works in connection with the national competition of 1896. This request the department w r as unable to comply with, but it has undertaken to lend for six months a collection of art students' works illustrative of the various stages of art instruction under the department. This collection, which will be exhibited at each of the principal centres, consists of works in the following subjects : Linear drawing by aid of instruments, 4 examples ; freehand outline drawing from the " round," 1; shading from the " round," or solid forms, 2 ; drawing the human figure or animal forms from the "round," or from nature, 7; anatomical studies of the human figure or of animal forms, 2; drawing flowers, foliage, landscape details, and objects of natural history, from nature, 1; painting ornament from the cast, &c, 1 ; painting direct from nature, 2 ; painting (from nature) groups of still-life, flowers, &c, as compositions of colour, 8; painting the human figure, or animals, in monochrome from casts, 1; painting
Auckland. Wanganui. Wellington. Dunedin. Subjects of Examination. Candidates. Passes. Candidates. Passes. Candidates. Passes. Candidates. Passes. Science and Art Department. Vni— Drawing in light and shade (elementary) Drawing in light and shade (advanced) Perspective (elementary) Model drawing (elementary) „ (advanced) Freehand drawing of ornament (elementary) Freehand drawing of ornament (advanced) Geometrical drawing (art) Design (elementary) „ (advanced) Painting from still life Drawing from the antique Painting ornament in monochrome Principles of ornament (elementary) Architecture Students'works science— Practical plane and solid geometry Mathematics, stages 1, 2, 3 Magnetism and electricity Machine construction and drawing Building construction Inorganic chemistry, including alternative elementary chemistry Human physiology Applied mechanics .. v Botany 1 1 5 9 1 "3 5 8 7 3 10 5 46 7 3 7 7 2 10 5 25 7 2 42* 21 21+ 78} 31 106§ 20 3 1 1 6 1 30 16 13 711 27 58 18 1 1 1 1 24 8 8 71 17 86 13 6 8 2 19 5 4 54 17 59 12 6 "a 1 1 ' 1 "1 6 25 13 "33 19 1 8 8 1 "l 17|| 9 2 5 3 7 6 5 5 15 9 7 1 16 14 7 7 8 6 5 6 ' 1 2 4 1 3 1 1 1 City Guilds Institute. Carpentry and joinery telegraphy and telephony 3rickwork and masonry Mechanical engineering (Part I.) .. (Part II.) Plumbing (written) „ (practical) 1 1 2 3 3 14 11 1 1 1 3 3 2 5 8 5 5 4 1 Totals ]'.) IK 115 79 46211 299; 297 219 * Includes one candidate from Westp port, both of whom failed. \ Include II Includes three candidates —one each fn "fair," which does not count as a pass. passed. >ort, who fai] is one eandic Din J'ahiatue If Include led. \ Includes tw< late from Westport. i, Masterton, and West eight candidates fn o candidt § Inch iport—twi om Pahis Ltes—one froi ides one cand > of whom fai .tua, Mastert< n Masterti lidate from iled, and oi on, and Vv on and one ft 1 Pahiatua, w ne (Westport; 'estport, one •om West'ho failed. ) obtained of whom
the human figure, or animals, in colour, 2; elementary design, 6 ; drawings from actual measurements of structures, machines, &c, applied designs, technical or miscellaneous studies, 14. The following is a statement of the payments made in the year 1896, on account of manual and technical education: Education Boards—Wanganui, £227 10s. Bd.; Wellington, £270 6s. 3d.; Grey, £6 16s. 9d. ; Otago, £5 ss. Technical Classes Associations —Auckland, £257 17s. 7d. ; Dunedin, £312 6s. 3d. ; Balclutha, £111 3s. lid. School of Domestic Instruction, Christchurch, £143 4s. 6d. Mr. W. I. Kobinson, £7 4s. 10d. Messrs. Bickerton Brothers, £9 3s. 10d. Expenses of Examinations—South Kensington, £31 6s. 10d. ; City and Guilds of London Institute, £16 14s. Bd. Translation and condensation of Belgian report (E.-ln of last year), £25. Total, £1,424 Is. Id. From an examination of the returns and statements made by the various classes that have obtained recognition under the Act up to the date of this report, it is estimated that the average attendance at these classes is about 2,690. No accurate statement of the number can be made, because in some cases formal returns have not yet been sent in; nor can the number of individual students be stated, for the reason that many students attend two or more classes. In this estimate, no account has been taken of attendance at classes which, for one reason or another, have not yet been recognised. In the administration of the Act a practical difficulty has been experienced in the provision which limits the periods for which claims for capitation may be made to the four regular calendar quarters. Greater latitude in this respect is required. In reviewing the field of technical education, reference must be made to the important work that is being carried on outside the operations of the Manual and Technical Elementary Instruction Act. The annual Eeport on the Goldfields of New Zealand (C.-3), issued by the Department of Mines, will contain information with respect to the Schools of Mines, two of which are maintained in districts in which mining is actively carried on, and another is a department of the Otago University (vide E.-6). The number of students in mining in 1896 was about 229. The Government gives two scholarships of £30 or £50 a year in this subject. The annual report of the Department of Agriculture will show what is being done in the way of technical instruction at agricultural experimental stations, fruit farms, and dairy schools. The number of students at dairy schools in 1896 was 128. The Canterbury Agricultural College had 43 students in 1896, and the School of Engineering and Technical Science, a department of the Canterbury College, had 87. Information respecting these two last-named institutions will be found in the report of the Canterbury College (E.-7).
2. BEPOBTS OF TECHNICAL AND ABT SCHOOLS. WANGANUI. Sir,— Technical School, 6th March, 1897. I have the honour to submit the following report of my work in connection with this school for 1896 :— Attendance.—The number of students who attended the different classes during the three terms, respectively, was as follows : Morning class for drawing and painting, 6, 5, 5 ; evening class, 29, 28, 27 ; Saturday art class for teachers and others, 39, 26, 26 ; science lectures (botany), Saturday afternoon, held during the first term only, 25; Girls' College—Drawing, 58, 51, 57; Girls' College —Painting, 7, 7, 6 : Total, 164, 117, 121. The courses of instruction have been the same as in former years, with the addition of an evening class for drawing from the living model. Science lectures were not delivered during the last two terms, as there was not six names given in, this number being the minimum attendance required. Moeninq Class.—The attendance at the morning class is lower than last year, owing to several private classes having been opened under conditions with which we were unable to comply. In my report of 1894 I referred to the fact that our students do not paint from flat examples, this being contrary to the proper course of training in art. I have considered the matter from several aspects, and I think it becomes a question whether we might not make such arrangements for work of this class that students who attend might eventually be induced, after two or three terms, to retrace their steps and begin at the right end of their studies. This is, however, I think, a matter for the Board to decide. Compared with the four large towns of the colony, we have here a very
small population from which to draw our students, and, together with the fact that the private classes commenced in Wauganui last year deal chiefly with this method of work, I would recommend that we attempt to deal with this matter on Wednesday for country students, and on Thursday afternoon, which is the town half-holiday, when the school is enlarged and the teaching power increased. Evening Class.—ln order to induce the more advanced students who attend in the evening to continue with us, I commenced a class for drawing and painting from the living model. We were only able to accommodate six students, and, although they had been unable formerly to take up figure drawing from the cast, as they should have done, owing to want of accommodation, the result, as shown at the exhibition of students' work in the school at the end of the year, must, I think, be considered fairly successful. In any case, these students, who would probably have discontinued their attendance, are still with us. In order to still further encourage these, I allow the class to meet in the school on the town holiday, Thursday afternoon, without additional fee, for the study of the figure in colour, as the evening work is necessarily confined to monochrome work. The other classes of work in the evening remained as in former years, want of accommodation and teaching power being felt as before. Satubday Art Class.—This class, which was formerly confined to teachers under the Board, was thrown open to the public on payment of a fee. As a result two of our old morning students, and another who intended to join that class at the fee of two guineas per term, attend this class at £1 per term. The course of work for teachers, all of whom are cadets and pupil-teachers, is, as formerly, that for the pupil-teachers' examination in June. The fact that the train from the north arrives in Wanganui three-quarters of an hour later, and the opening of the branch class at Palmerston, about to be noticed, have diminished the attendance at this class. Branch Class.—A branch Saturday class was commenced at Palmerston during the last term of the year, Mr. Watkin having been appointed by the Board as instructor under my direction. Although I have not visited the class, which numbered over forty students, I have supplied Mr. Watkin with a few advanced freehand examples and elementary casts. With reference to the attendance, I may say that it is quite impossible for one teacher, however competent, to instruct the large number that attended, when it is remembered that there are at least seven different kinds of drawing going on together. Ido not think, however, that this number will continue to attend. At the same time, it may be a question either for the Board or the residents of Palmerston to consider whether a properly-equipped branch school might not be opened in the future on similar lines to Masterton School, which is, I understand, a branch of the Wellington Technical School, under Mr. Rilsy as director. Girls' College Drawing and Painting Classes. —These have been continued as formerly. I would, however, refer the Board to the remarks concerning the work of these classes in my report for the year 1894, as they apply, especially as regards the more advanced girls, with more force now than in that year. Manual and Technical Elementary Instruction Act.—This Act has been in operation during the past year, and, although we have no manual instruction, we have obtained payment under the technical clause of the Bill. My opinion, and that of every other teacher with whom I have discussed the question, is that the payments are altogether too small to induce new classes to be commenced on the strength of the assistance derived from the present payments. And, as it may be some time before any alteration may be made in this direction, I would offer the following suggestion for the favourable consideration oi the Minister of Education : Now that the South Kensington examinations held in New Zealand are conducted through the Education Department, Wellington, payments on the results of these examinations might be made on the successful papers worked by the different schools, in addition to the present small payment now made under the Bill. There is no doubt that students value these South Kensington certificates highly, especially those who contemplate the teaching of art as a profession, and I think it would give teachers considerable encouragement if some such monetary recognition were made to the funds of their schools; besides, under our Manual and Technical Act, clause 5, schools must be five miles apart, otherwise they cannot claim payment under this Act. By adopting this suggestion a private teacher would probably be induced to adopt South Kensington work as a school course, and a healthy rivalry would ensue, instead of so much painting from flat examples, which, as I have pointed out, tends as a drawback to legitimate work. Scholarships.—According to the Supreme Court decree in connection with the Bees bequest by which this school is maintained, four "young persons" are nominated as free students for a term of two years. The Board supplemented these by three competitive scholarships for tho same period. As it is two years since these were commenced, I now wish to refer to their working. As the latter are the more important, I will notice these first. Candidates are examined in freehand, geometrical, and model for the art scholarship, while for the architectural and mechanical scholarships, arithmetic is substituted for model. A good deal of interest is taken by candidates during the term preceding the examination, and during the past two years those holding their scholarships have, with one exception, worked well. Although these examinations are open to any resident of Wanganui under twenty-one years of age, all the candidates except one have been former students of the school. I think that, if the regulations were printed and widely distributed, we would have a fair number of competitors who have not attended the school. As regards nominated scholars, they are nominated and appointed as required by the following extract from the Supreme Court decree —clause 7 : "It is proposed that every school in the Borough of Wanganui, whether a Board school or not, shall have the right to nominate one candidate for gratuitous instruction annually for every twenty-five scholars of ten years of age and upwards on average attendance at such school. Such candidate need not necessarily be in attendance at the nominating school. These nominations will be referred to and
decided upon by the Mayor of Wanganui, the Chairman of the Wanganui Education Board, and the Chairman of the Wanganui School Committee." As in the case of examinations for competitive scholarships, the want of printed regulations and information is responsible for the lack of interest or action in this matter, and as a consequence it has devolved on myself to see these appointments made. I have found, nevertheless, that of the eight nominated scholars attending last year, only two of these have justified their appointment as regards patient satisfactory work. In my opinion, an examination of some kind should be added to the simple nomination, in order that the appointment may be made to those who are most likely to do credit to the school. South Kensington Examination Results.—Of the school works for certificates sent to London last March, the following have been accepted:—For the Art Master's certificate: the following works by Caroline Blair—a sheet of linear perspective problems, diagrams illustrating the principles of foliated design, elementary design to fill a given space ; for the Art Class Teacher's certificate—sheet of geometrical problems, Leonard J. Watkin ; outline from the cast — Herbert Babbage, Gertrude E. Browne, Fortescue F. C. Huddleston, Florence Liffeton; group of models shaded in chalk—Gertrude B. Browne, Florence Liffeton; drawing from the cast, shaded in chalk—Gertrude E. Browne, Eitchings Grant, Leonard J. Watkin. Advanced Time Examination. —Papers taken, nineteen; all passed : — Freehand from the cast ... ... ... 5 first-class, 2 second-class Shading from models ... ... ... ... 2 „ 3 „ Light and shade from the cast ... ... ... 5 „ 2 „ Elementary Time Examination. —Papers taken, seventy-one; passed, forty-seven:— First Class. Second Class. Freehand from flat ... 46 candidates 12 13 21 failed. Model drawing ... ... 10 9 1 0 „ Perspective ... ... 3 „ 1 1 1 „ Light and shade ... ... 8 „ 5 2 1 „ Principles of ornament ... 1 „ 1 0 0 „ Geometrical drawing : 2 passed, and 1 failed. With reference to the large number of failures—2l out of 46—in elementary freehand, I would like to point out that, instead of using the well-known words " beside the ornament," the examiners say " flanking the ornament "in their printed instructions to candidates. This is quite a new instruction in art. The word " flank " is invariably used either in connection with the side of an animal, or as a military term in connection with troops. Many of our candidates did not know what the expression meant: as a consequence, they made their drawings too small, and they were failed. The use, or rather, misuse of the word " flank " here may be accounted for by the fact that the instructions were probably drafted by one of the many retired military officers who occupy appointments at South Kensington. It is, all the same, a very unfair word to use in connection with art, where young candidates are being examined. Another point I would like to mention in connection with the South Kensington examination. I have already said that it is most important our obtaining South Kensington certificates. I think, however, it will be admitted that six months is a very long time to wait for the results of the time examinations held here annually in June or July. With reference to the pass drawings for teachers' certificates, these were sent to London last March. We heard the result after waiting seven months, but the drawings themselves have not yet been returned, although twelve months have elapsed, and we are about to forward our next set of drawings for examination. I think, if the New Zealand Education Department represented to the South Kensington Department that the lengthy delay must necessarily have a prejudicial effect on students' work and attendance, a little more dispatch might result, for which we would all be grateful. I have, &c, The Chairman, Wanganui Education Board. David Blaib, Art Master. [Note. —The Wanganui Education Board states the cost of the school as follows: —Receipts: Government grant, £200; Government capitation, £27 10s. Bd.; school-fees, £69 18s.; Education Board, training of teachers, £100. Expenditure: Teachers' salaries, £269 19s. Bd.; furniture, £28 16s. 2d. ; scholarships, £7 10s.; general expenses, £94 2s. 6d.]
WELLINGTON. Sm,— Technical School, Wellington, 29th March, 1897. I have the honour to submit my report upon primary drawing, manual instruction, and the work of the Technical School for 1896, as follows: — Primary Work, Drawing, clay-modelling, flat-tinting, and kindred subjects have progressed Well during the past twelve months. Model drawing in particular has been very efficiently taught, and has also been taken up by a very considerable number of the smaller country schools. From an artisan's point of view the improvement in this subject is of great importance, for the faculty of ready sketching means a great saving of labour, time, and money. There is also marked improvement in the flat-tinting of freehand drawings ; heavy colouring is gradually disappearing. In exercises of this character Frank Jackson's Drawing-cards for the Standards, published by A. M. Holden, London, would be of great assistance, suggesting as they do very decorative treatments of freehand copies, and making the work more interesting.
The latest Science and Art Eeport of the English Department shows increased activity in the matter' of inspection of drawing and kindred subjects in primary schools, a staff of additional Inspectors properly qualified having been appointed for this purpose in order that advice and assistance may be readily available in such subjects as affect the system of technical education. We are not by any means equal in quality of work to the Home schools. Solid geometry, for instance, is one of the most important branches of work. In New Zealand it is unfortunately considered by the majority of School Inspectors unnecessary, as at the Conference of Inspectors a recommendation was carried to omit this subject. It is still, however, retained in the syllabus by the Education Department, and in the Wellington District is combined with model drawing. I trust, however, that this may soon be remedied, and that we may strengthen our position in primary results by every possible means in our power. Although a large number of schools were inspected during the past year, I hope to considerably extend my work in this direction with a view to still greater efficiency. First-grade Drawing Examination.—ln this examination the following were the results : The total number of papers issued was 6,109, and the number worked, 5.526 ; passed, 3,593 ; papers failed, 1,938. Freehand, 1,693 papers worked —937 passed, 756 failed; geometry, 1,736 papers worked—l,l22 passed, 614 failed; scale: 1,444 papers worked—l,o67 passed, 377 failed; model, 653 papers worked—467 passed, 186 failed. Number of papers " excellent," 207 ; number of papers " good," 666 ; individual candidates, 3,880; individual passes, 2,801; schools presenting candidates, 99. The number of papers applied for outside the Wellington District was 437, of which number 287 passed. Schools were represented from the following districts : Marlborough, Westland, Greymouth, Nelson, and the following schools unconnected with any Education Board: Bishopdale Sketching Club, Nelson; Wanganui Collegiate School; Convent of Mercy, Lyttelton ; Convent of Mercy, Christchurch; St. Patrick's College and St. Francis Xavier's, Wellington. The following shows the result of 1895-96 in the Wellington Educational District: 1895— Papers worked, 5,242 ; papers passed, 3,116 ; failed, 2,126. 1896 —Papers worked, 5,089 ; papers passed, 3,306 ; failed, 1,783. This is an increase of 19 individual candidates and 93 individual passes upon 1895. The total number of certificates issued in connection with this examination since its inauguration in 1884 is 22,588. The number of full first-grade certificates issued to date is 1,226. Manual Instruction. —I am much disappointed with the progress of this work. The first country manual instruction class was opened at Paraparaumu with a boys' class of fifteen held during the afternoon, and an adult class of twelve, held in the evening, under the instruction of Mr. Foster head teacher. Mr. Foster was unfortunately removed to Manakau at the latter part of the year. The next to follow was Cross Creek, under the instruction of Mr. W. Haywood, Chairman of the School Committee, who, with the active assistance of members of the School Committee, constructed benches, vices, and shop-fittings from timber supplied by Mr. W. Booth, of Carterton. The roll numbered eleven. The workshop being too small, Mr. Eonayne, at my request, very kindly provided the necessary timber and iron for increased accommodation, which has since been constructed by the Committee, assisted by the boys. I inspected the work of this class in November, and was much pleased with the good work and excellent management of the class. The interest of the boys may be shown in the fact of there being not a single absence during the quarter ending December. Mauriceville West established a class under the instruction of Mr. C. E. Joplin, the head teacher, on the 20th October, with a roll of twenty-one boys. At the time of my visit the class had received only one or two lessons. Great credit is due to the instructors named above for their earnest endeavours to promote this instruction, for I am afraid the tendency is to consider industrial employment as distinctly inferior to professional or mercantile occupation. It is the easiest possible thing to obtain clerical workers, but not so industrial; whilst the latter offer our young men far greater opportunities for success than any other calling. Locally, unfortunately, there is an utter want of sympathy shown. It may be of interest to know that the report of the Science and Art Department gives the figures relating to the progress of manual instruction in England as follows: 1894—Scholars taught, 30,096; grants paid, £8,041 4s. 3d. 1895—Scholars taught, 67,470 ; grants paid, £16,307 10s. The increase for 1896 is of similar importance, but the exact figures are not available,, thus showing the value attached to this subject as a means of ordinary education. " The Manual and Technical Instruction Act, 1895," requires that instruction in this subject shall be given out of school-hours, but this condition is held by the English authorities to be satisfied if twenty hours per week are given to other subjects prescribed by the codes. It is further stated that spelling, arithmetic, and formal grammar have hitherto received an amount of attention disproportionate to their educational benefit, especially if compared with the value of the subjects sought to be introduced. Surely it would be possible to relieve the pressure in ordinary subjects sufficiently to enable the boys of the Sixth and Seventh Standards to present themselves for manual instruction for two hours per week, and the girls to cookery, laundry-work, housewifery, or dairy-work Until some such arrangement is come to success is impossible. In Liverpool, Manchester, and other large centres, central schools are established for these subjects, and the children attend in classes during ordinary school-hours, accompanied by the teacher. By this means the instructors are constantly employed, one set of appliances serve, and the cost is reduced to a minimum. As a means of bridging the gap between the occupations of the primer classes and the upper Standards, cardboard-modelling will be found an effective study, cultivating habits of order and exactness, quickness and manual dexterity. A circular is now in print giving details and sugges-
* -*j m I »*w »—• 2—E. lc.
tions for the increased working of this subject. Circulars have also been prepared with reference to clay-modelling and model-drawing, which I trust will materially aid the primary work, as upon the success of this must depend the success of technical education. Scholarships (Primary).—The work of the sixty-two scholars holding scholarships has been satisfactory, the course including model, freehand, and elementary light and shade, and manual instruction in woodwork for boys, and clay-modelling for girls. In the latter subject some very excellent examples in ordinary modelling from the cast and incised work designs were produced. The amount of time available for freehand and elementary light and shade was, owing to the wood- and clay-work, considerably curtailed. The scholarships are enabling very useful work to be done, and act as a connecting link between the primary and Technical School. That they are appreciated is evident from the fact that again over two hundred competed for the fifty first-year vacancies. The competition produced work equal to second grade by a considerable number of scholars, and in such cases certificates were awarded. Instruction to Teachees and Pupil-teachers has been continued as usual, and I am glad to report that greater interest is manifest in all branches of work. The geometrical and perspective classes particularly have this year done good work. Appreciation is shown of the advantage offered to teachers of attending the classes after they have completed their full second-grade certificate. The efficiency of such teachers will thereby be increased, and should benefit the schools largely. Correspondence work is not altogether successful, but it is hoped to improve this branch during the present year. In many cases the work is not regularly sent; this causes a delay in return, for it is impossible to revise at once three months' work of any one student. In future only the work set will be revised. A programme will be issued for each month's work in geometry, perpective and model drawing. The following teachers were successful in the South Kensington examinations: Perspective —Winifred Stevens, Jessie Eobertson, Edith Seager ; light and shade from the cast (elementary)—W. Bountree, Alice Willis; in the third or higher grade—Laura Baird, Edith M. Evans, Clara Firth, Elizabeth Benbow ; science subjects—Edith Evans, Kate Lawson, William Eountree. lam glad to report considerable extension of subjects in the science work. Technical School. — Number of Students. First Second Third Fourth Day Classes— Quarter. Quarter. Quarter. Quarter. Design ... ... ... ... 22 18 17 14 Anatomy ... ... ... ... 15 14 12 6 Drawing and painting (whole-day students) 17 27 21 18 Drawing and painting (half-day students) 36 43 39 39 Geometry and perspective ... ... 14 16 15 15 Secondary-school scholars (drawing) 49 42 41 Secondary-school scholars (carpentry) 33 32 28 Primary-school scholars ... ... 52 48 47 50 Teachers and pupil-teachers ... ... 80 78 84 87 Wood-carving ... ... ... 8 12 14 10 Manual instruction ... ... ... 20 12 12 9 Evening classes— Architectutal and building construction 22 19 20 20 Mechanical drawing ... ... ... 35 38 37 29 Drawing ... ... ... ... 91 101 103 100 Life class ... ... ... ... 5 5 5 6 Practical plumbing ... ... ... 20 17 24 22 Theory of plumbing ... ... ... 13 10 12 14 Wood-carving, carpentry, and modelling ... 28 40 51 37 Applied mechanics ... ... ... 11 12 8 5 Mathematics ... ... ... ... 27 19 18 19 Joinery and hand railing ... ... ... 12 Shorthand ... ... ... ... ... 6 Totals ... ... ... 506 611 613 597 The following occupations are represented among the students of the evening classes: Engineers, 57 ; watchmakers, 5 ; joiners, 5 ; carpenters, 14 ; cabinetmaker, 1; plumbers, 29 ; clerks, 19 ; painters, 2 ; architects' assistants, 2 ; draughtsmen, 2 ; bricklayers, 3 ; dentists, 2 ; wood-carver, 1 ; teachers, 30; scholars, 28 ; Civil Service, 2 ; signwriter, 1; masons, 2; office-boy, 1; students, 30 ; ironmongers, 5; jeweller, 1 ; tailor, 1 ; engraver, 1 ; book-keeper, 1; surveyors, 3 ; carver and gilder, 1; linsmith, 1; storeman, 1; chemist, 1; carter, 1; grocer, 1 ; dressmaker, 1 ; plasterer, 1; japanner, 1. Classes. Deawing, Painting, and Elementaey Modelling (Day and Evening).—Mr. H. S. Wardell examined these sections, and expressed satisfaction with the results obtained, and the marked progress of the school since his previous examination in 1893. The numbers attending the classes have increased since 1895. Classes in design and anatomy have been regularly held, thus making with geometry and perspective a strong course of work. Occasional subjects for an afternoon, at which all students work, in addition to memory drawing, have proved efficient methods of instruction. The monthly competitions in subject sketches, still life, elementary and advanced design, and memory drawing have been regularly held. I would urge, however, that students should compete more freely, and consider this as part of their school-work. It is by such efforts that the student's
true knowledge is shown, and, further, the comparisons shown are of great advantage to students in all stages. Machine Construction and Drawing.—This class has steadily increased in number. The work was examined by Mr. Fulton, C.E., theoretically and practically. After reporting the results as exceedingly satisfactory, he states that " the value of this class cannot be too highly praised for the excellent opportunity given to engineers, machinists, and others for acquiring a thorough knowledge of mechanical drawing." Applied Mechanics.—l can only regret that this class has not met with the success it deserves, evidently the young mechanics, with a few exceptions, do not understand the value of this portion of their studies. Irregular attendance has no doubt something to do with the result, but it is lamentable that out of the very large number of young men engaged in mechanical occupations only eight are anxious to continue the study of this very necessary work. Architectural Drawing and Building Construction.—The class has maintained its average of last year in attendances. Mr. Crichton, who examined the work, expressed satisfaction with the excellent results obtained, but remarks that, " considering the population of Wellington, and the opportunities given, the class falls far short of the possible roll-number." Plumbing (Theory and Practice). —The numbers in attendance continue satisfactory. The examinations have been held as usual locally, and under the City and Guilds of London. lam pleased to report an increased number of candidates in connection with the latter, many presenting themselves in the higher stages. Many students, although they have passed the necessary examinations, have returned to the classes to continue their studies. The necessity of studing practical geometry and model-drawing has been recognised by many, who found themselves unable to deal with the simplest problem of construction. The City Council have contributed this year £62 Os. 9d. towards the working-expenses of these classes. Carpentry, Wood-carving, and Modelling.—The day classes have somewhat reduced in number, but the evening classes have considerably increased. Good work has been done throughout, particularly in wood-carving and clay-modelling, as shown by the exhibits displayed in the exhibition of the Academy of Fine Arts, and the Industrial Exhibition. These classes are in great need of " good examples," which I hope to obtain from private sources at an early date. The carpentry class has made satisfactory progress, and has been very well attended throughout the year. Practical Plane and Solid Geometry and Perspective.—These classes have been fairly well attended, but I am anxious to see the junior students, especially of the evening classes, make greater use of the facilities offered in this direction for obtaining a thorough grounding in the principles of their work. It is all very well to shirk this as drudgery in the first year's course, but the want of this knowledge, especially in mechanical pursuits, is a bar to satisfactory progress. I would urge all students joining the school to master these essential principles first, and so save themselves a considerable amount of time in after-work. Advanced Joinery, Staircasing, and Handrailing.—This class was opened at the fourth quarter with twelve students under the instruction of Mr. Corbett. The following is the course of instruction : The making of general and detail drawings to scale or full size of staircase-work, handrail ramps, wreaths, swan-necks, &c. ; and spiral and circular joinery generally, together with the principles of staircase work. The use of tools used by the carpenter and joiner, together with the setting, sharpening, and keeping in repair of same ; the making and the use of the bench. Setting out and making from scale, or full-sized drawings, all joints used in carpentry and joinery—parts of staircases, handrails, &c. ; the making of complete models of staircases, roofs, &c, to scale, from drawings ; the making of doors and windows, and frames for same ; the hanging of doors with the various descriptions of hinges ; the making of domestic, school, and office furniture and fittings. The steaming and bending of woods. Veneering, staining, varnishing, and French polishing. Shorthand. —This class was commenced during the fourth quarter at the request of a number of students, Miss K. Williams being appointed instructor. The sections of instruction are elementary, corresponding, and reporting. Wellington College and Girls' High School. — The numbers in attendance at the College have been respectively, thirty-six, thirty, and thirty-one in the three terms, the work being confined to second-grade freehand, model, perspective and elementary design. The classes were divided into upper and lower divisions, thus enabling the instruction to be more efficient than in previous years. The classes in manual instruction in woodwork have also been conducted by Mr. Barrett, Instuctor of the Technical School. The numbers under instruction were thirty-three for the first term, thirty-two for the second term, and twenty-eight for the third term. The Girls' High School class numbered seven, seven and six respectively for the three terms ; the subjects of instruction being freehand, model, and light and shade from the cast. It is to be regretted that with the excellent instruction provided the Girl's High School class has fallen in numbers. I have perforce to recommend that the class be discontinued. The reason, I suppose, is that the literary subjects are considered as being of greater importance. In this we are considerably behind the times, for there is scarcely any secondary school of importance in Great Britain or the Continent that does not devote a considerable amount of time to drawing, and in many cases to manual instruction, throughout their schools. This has been found essential to their success, how much more should it be so in a new country. Examinations. The number of papers examined during the year was 6,991. The number of certificates issued was 4,244, exclusive of over 300 full certificates in the various grades. The number of certificates issued in all grades since the school was established in 1886 is 28,506, subdivided as follows : Primary or first grade, 22,875 ; intermediate or second grade, 3,019 ; higher or third grade, 1,053 ; South Kensington, 1,496 ; and City and Guilds of London, 63.
Second Gbade (Local). —Total number of papers taken, 382, subdivided as follows : Freehand, 115 candidates —100 passed, 15 failed; geometry, 64 candidates —24 passed, 40 failed; perspective, 39 candidates—2s passed, 14 failed; model, 112 candidates—6B passed, 44 failed; memory, blackboard, 52 candidates —20 passed, 32 failed. Outside districts, 119 papers — 85 passes, 34 failures. Number of individual candidates examined, 298; passed, 136. The perspective papers were " very fair." Practical geometry was unsatisfactory, the paper set requiring a knowledge of the principles of the work. Those condidates who merely worked through the text-book without applying the principles would find the paper difficult. In the majority of failures the two problems in solid geometry were not attempted, particularly so in the case of candidates outside Wellington. As solid geometry is of the utmost importance from an industrial and constructive point of view, one of the two problems should be answered. Freehand was exceptionally good, and model very fair to good. Third Grade (Local). —Number of papers worked, 250 : number of passes, 148 ; failures, 102. Number of individual candidates, 94; passes, 72 ; 12 papers were excellent and 26 good. The results call for no special mention, with the exception of those in the theory of plumbing ; in this case the questions in hydrostatics, hydraulics, ventilation, and water-supply were particularly well answered by the candidates. Science and Act Department, South Kensington.—The results in connection with the examinations of the above department are of a satisfactory nature. 45,220 works were submitted from 279 schools throughout the United Kingdom and the colonies, and of these only 4,398 were selected for national competition. A national book-prize for design was awarded to Millicent Igglesden. Four students obtained sufficient marks in the competition to entitle them under the department's regulations to free studentships for one year —viz., Millicent Igglesden, design; Ethel Whittem, drawing ; Florence Broome, designs ; Mary Lingard, life and still-life work. Wellington having no art collection, either industrial or artistic, our students labour under exceptional disadvantages as compared with other towns, and especially the English schools, where loans of the most artistic and valuable objects are constantly obtained on behalf of the schools. A collection of works selected from the national competition lias, I believe, been promised the Education Department for six months. We shall thus be able to compare our work with those of the English schools ; it is the want of this comparison, which the Home students have yearly, which tends to lessen the aims of our students, who have only local examples. Act Class Teachees' Certificates.—The following have this year completed this certificate : Mary Lingard, Florence Broome, Evelyn Dasent, Ethel Whittem. Elementary Drawing Certificates, First Class. —The following have obtained the full certificate : Noeline Baker, Margaret Beecroft, Ethel Whittem, Edith Evans. Students are again reminded of the requirements of the elementary drawing certificate, the subjects are as follows : (a) Freehand drawing (subject 2b) —a first-class pass; (b) model-drawing (subject 3a)—a first-class pass; (c) shading from casts (subject 5b) —a first-class pass; (d) a pass in the elementary stage of science, subject I. (geometry). Second-grade Art.—Number of papers taken, 250; passed, 173 ; failed, 77. Freehand: 106 candidates; 27 first class, 31 second class, 48 failed. Model :75 candidates ;45 first class, 26 second class, 7 failed. Perspective: 21 candidates ; 6 first class, 7 second class, 8 failed. Light and shade :42 candidates ;12 first class, 18 second class, 12 failed. Geometrical: 3 candidates ; 1 first class, 2 failed. Third-grade Act.—Number of papers submitted, 81; passed, 64; failed, 17. Outline from cast: 20 candidates; 2 excellent, 11 first class, 5 second class, 2 failed. Light and shade from cast: 21 candidates; 9 first class, 7 second class, 5 failed. Drawing from models :31 candidates; 15 first class, 12 second class, 4 failed. Design (advanced) : 2 candidates ; 1 second class, 1 failed. Still life : 6 candidates ; 1 second class, 5 failed. Antique : 1 candidate ; 1 second class. Science. —Number of papers submitted, 63 ; passed, 26; fair, 17 ; failed, 20. Plane and solid geometry :17 candidates ; 5 passed, 3 fair, 9 failed. Machine construction : 16 candidates ; 8 passed, 2 fair, 6 failed. Building construction :14 candidates; 7 passed, 5 fair, 2 failed. Mathematics (1, 2, and 3) : 9 candidates ; 3 passed, 4 fair, 2 failed. Applied mechanics : 3 candidates; 2 passed, 1 fair. Magnetism and electricity : 2 candidates ; 2 fair. Human physiology : 1 candidate ; 1 passed. Botany : 1 candidate ; 1 failed. External papers numbered 18 : passed, 3 ; fair, 4 ; failed, 6. The number of works accepted towards the Art Class and Art Masters' certificates was nineteen. The following now hold the Art Masters' and Art Class Teachers' certificates of the Science and Art Department, South Kensington : Art Masters—Mary E. Richardson. Art Class Teachers —Mary E. Richardson, Marion Bronsdon, R. Norman Anderson, Mary Allan, Mabel Hill, Elizabeth Benbow, Mary Lawson, Mary Lingard, Florence Broome, Evelyn Dasent, Ethel Whittem. It is satisfactory to report that advantage is now being taken of the examinations in science subjects, especially by the teachers in the Board's service. The science subjects in which candidates may be examined are again stated for information, and are as follows : Practical, plane, and solid geometry ; machine construction and drawing, building construction, naval architecture, mathematics, theoretical mathematics— (a) solids, (6) fluids ; applied mechanics ; sound, light, and heat (elementary stages) — (a) sound (advanced stage arid honours), (b) light (advanced stage and honours), (c) heat (advanced stage and honours); magnetism and electricity, inorganic chemistry (theoretical), inorganic chemistry (practical), organic chemistry (theoretical), organic chemistry (practical), geology, mineralogy, human physiology, general biology, zoology, botany, principles of mining, metallurgy (theoretical), metallurgy (practical), navigation, nautical astronomy, steam, physiography, principles of agriculture, hygiene. City and Guilds of London Institute for the Advancement of Technical Education.— The examinations under this department have been conducted as usual. The number of candidates examined was 35 ; passed, 18 ; and failed, 17. Plumbing, theory : 14 candidates; 5 passed, 9 failed.
Plumbing, practice :11 candidates ; 8 passed, 3 failed. Mechanical engineering (Part I.) : 3 candidates ; 3 failed. Mechanical engineering (Part II.) : 3 candidates ; 2 passed, 1 failed. Telegraphy and telephony : 1 candidate ; 1 passed. Carpentry and joinery : 1 candidate ; 1 passed. Brickwork and masonry : 2 candidates ; 1 passed, 1 failed. Candidates may now present themselves for any of the under-mentioned sections. The examinations are in two grades—(l) Ordinary; (2) honours. The ordinary examination is intended principally for apprentices and journeymen; the honours examination for foremen, masters, managers, and teachers. Candidates may enter themselves in either grade, except in certain subjects, in which they are required to obtain the ordinary grade first. Candidates may obtain a first- or second-class in either grade. If a second-class is obtained, they may sit again for the higher classification. In plumbers' work no certificate will be given to candidates who pass in the practice but fail in the theory. The examinations are held in May. Application for permission to sit is required to be made on or before the 20th December. A registration-fee of 2s. 6d. per section is charged for this examination ; candidates for practical work paying the cost of material also. The subjects of examination are as follows : Salt manufacture, alkali manufacture, soap manufacture, bread-making, brewing, spirit manufacture, coal-tar products, sugar manufacture, painters' colours, oils, and varnishes ; oils and fats, including candle manufacture ; gas manufacture, iron and steel manufacture, paper manufacture, photography, pottery and porcelain, glass-making, dressing of skins, leather tanning, boot and shoe manufacture, silk dyeing, wool dyeing, cotton dyeing, cotton and linen bleaching, calico and linen printing, wool and worsted spinning, cloth weaving, cotton spinning, flax spinning, linen weaving, silk throwing and spinning, silk weaving, jute spinning, jute weaving, lace manufacture, framework-knitting and hosiery, hat manufacture, telegraphy and telephony, electric lighting and power distribution, electro-metallurgy, metal-plate work, plumbers' work, silversmiths' work and plated wares, goldsmiths' work and plated wares, watch- and clockmaking, mechanical engineering, road-carriage building, rail-carriage building, typography, lithography, raising and preparation of ores, mine surveying, milling (flour manufacture), carpentry and joinery, ship's carpentry, ship's joinery, brickwork and masonry, plasterers' work, dressmaking, woodwork (for teachers of elementary schools), cotton weaving. I hope that advantage may be taken of these examinations by the various trades, and especially by the apprentices. Prize List. The following prizes were awarded in the various classes for the year's work ending December :— 1. Day classes, for the best progress—Ethel Evans : Awarded by Lady Glasgow. 2. Evening drawing-class, for the best progress—Daisy Tonks : Awarded by His Excellency the Governor. 3. Day-scholarship prize—Ethel Whittem: Awarded by Mrs. Ehodes. 4. Evening scholarship prize—Arthur Moginie: Awarded by Messrs. Winsor and Newton. 5. Students in connection with the building trade, for the best general progress advanced section —William Wearne : Awarded by Builders' Association. 6. Students in connection with the building trade, for the best progress elementary section—Alfred Seamer : Awarded by Builders' Association. 7. Mechanical students, for the best mechanical drawing—D. Eobertson : Awarded by the Ironfounders. 8. Mechanical students, for the best progress in first year's work —A. C. Carman : Awarded by the Ironfounders. 9. For the best set of subject sketches—Florence Broome : Awarded by Messrs. McGregor Wright and Co. 10. The best set of still-life studies —Florence Broome : Awarded by A. de B. Brandon, Esq. 11. The best set of designs, advanced—Millicent Igglesden : Awarded by Dr. Martin. 12. The best set of designs, elementary—Sylvia Speedy : Awarded by Technical School. 13. The best set of memory drawings —Myrtle Lee: Awarded by Dr. Martin. 14. Second-best set of memory drawings—Ethel Evans; Awarded by Technical School. 15. Teachers' classes, for the best progress —Mary Player : Awarded by Messrs. Whitcombe and Tombs (Limited). 16. Primary-scholarship holders, for the best progress—D. Maudsley, M. Atkins, and N. Newall: Awarded by H. D. Bell, Esq. 17. Wood-carving, evening classes, best progress—Mary Young: Awarded by Dr. Fell. 18. Mathematics, the best paper—William E. McKenzie : Awarded by Technical School. 19. Second mathematical prize—Charles Hickey: Awarded by Technical School. 20. Boys' manual instruction classes, best progress —Joseph Morling : Awarded by H. D. Bell, Esq. Scholarships. The four scholarships available for two years were competed for at the December examination, the competition, especially in the day class, being very spirited. The results are as follows : —Day Class Scholarship, and Mrs. Ehodes's Prize of £2 2s. : Ethel Whittem ; Laura Caverhill being next in order of merit. Evening Class Scholarship, and Messrs. Winsor and Newton's Prize of £2 2s. : Arthur Moginie; Charles Jeffreys being next in order of merit. Mechanical Class Scholarship, and the Ironfounders' Prize of £1 4s. : David Eobertson. Architectural Class Scholarship : The examiner recommends an extension of one year to Joseph Eoe. Library. The library now consists of 421 volumes upon technical, science, and art subjects. Over two hundred volumes have been circulated amongst the students in connection with their special requirements and trades. The additions to the library during the year have been as follows : Mechanical section. —Class-book of Elementary Mechanics (Hewitt), The Wonders of Modern Mechanism (Cochrane), The Electrician (2 vols., 1895), Modern Workshop Practice (J. G. Winton), Locomotive-engine Driving (M. Eeynolds), Carpentry and Joinery (Tredgold), Model of a Horizontal Steam-engine. Architectural section.—-Building Construction (Longman, 3 vols.),
Building Construction (Part IV.), Standard Practical Plumbing (P. J. Davies), History of Ancient and Medieval Architecture (Ferguson), Architectural Perspective (Ferguson). General and art section.—How to Teach Drawing in Elementary Schools (T. E. Ablett), Directions for Chipcarving (J. B. Bury), Domestic Economy (Paul), Solid or Descriptive Geometry (Dobbie), The Teaching of Drawing (Morris), Elementary Principles of Ornament (Ward), New Zealand Official Year-book (1895), Wood-carving (Leland), A Manual of Cardboard Modelling (Heaton), Analysis of Ornament (Wornum), Course of Practical Lessons in Hand and Eye Training (3 vols., Bevis), Science and Art Drawing, Complete Geometry Course (Spanton), Woodwork (Barter), Geometry (2 vols., Morris), Bent iron Work (Erskine), Drawing and Design for Beginners (Taylor), Magazine of Art (1895), Studio (1895), Decorative Art (1895), Art Journal (1894-95), Work (1894-95), Decoration of Metals (Harrison), Leather-work (Leland 1 ), Manual Instruction (Barter), Sketch (1895), Wood-carving for Amateurs (Denning). Objects of art and plant form have been kindly lent by His Excellency the Governor, the Colonial Museum, Mr. Edward Anderson, and the Dresden Company during the year, which have proved very acceptable. Periodicals. — The following contributions have been received : The Engineer, from the publishers; Work, from Messrs. Cassell and Company; The Decorator, from Messrs. Baillie Brothers; The Electrician, from Lad}' Glasgow ; Engineering, from the Education Board; The Idler, from J. A. Tripe, Esq. ; The Artist, from G. B. Irvine, Esq.; The Art Journal, from J. Pearson, Esq. ; Magazine of Art, from Dr. Grace ; Education, from the publishers ; Building News, from W. Crichton, Esq.; The Studio, from J. M. Nairn, Esq. The above are placed for the use of the students, and at the end of the year are bound and added to the library. General. Industrial Exhibition.—Exhibits of work in primary first-grade class and examination examples, second or intermediate grade, and in all the higher branches of art and industrial work were shown as a progressive exhibit, and received very favourable commendation from the public and educational authorities. Pbize Designs.—Prizes of £15 and £10 10s. were offered for competition amongst the art and technical schools of New Zealand by the Government for designs for a medal and certificate as a distinction to be conferred upon persons distinguishing themselves by saving, or attempting to save, human life. Both prizes were secured by the Wellington school, Florence Broome obtaining first place for both certificate and medal, and Millicent Igglesden the second place in the same. In the award offered for the best design for a seal for the Industrial Association of Wellington, Florence Broome was again successful. New Zealand Timber. —At my request specimens of New Zealand timber were presented by the Hon. the Minister for Public Works, and form a very valuable addition to the illustrations provided for the information of the building construction and architectural sections of the school. Library and Apparatus Private Fund.—The Wellington Dramatic Students, many of whom are interested in the work of the school, very generously gave a performance of " The Magistrate," with the result that the substantial sum of £43 Bs. 2d. was placed to the credit of the fund. This has enabled me to add considerably to the appliances of the various classes, with very beneficial effect, and I desire to again thank the Students for their generous action. Geneeal. —The year's work has naturally been an increase upon that of 1895, and the general progress must be considered satisfactory. The whole of the clerical work and registration, &c, is now under my personal direction, Lilian Leslie having been appointed Registrar to the school. With reference to the technical classes, it is disappointing to find the employers, with the exception of the Ironfounders and the Builders' Association, who contribute to the prize fund on behalf of their respective trades, do not sufficiently interest themselves in the matter of this education, for undoubtedly they reap the greater advantage. The success of the movement would, I believe, be almost doubled if the employers would show that they valued it, and would take a practical interest in the work of the school in connection with their employes. Finance.—The total cost for the year is £2,525 7s. 2d., but of this amount £500 is charged on account of the building debt, leaving the actual cost of the school at £2,025 7s. 2d. The total receipts amount to £],320 Is. 7d., leaving a balance of £705 ss. 7d. ; as against this sum the following items are chargeable : Instruction to 82 teachers at 15s. per quarter, £246 ; instruction to 62 scholarship-holders at 10s. per quarter, £124 ; instruction to 19 teachers in evening classes at 7s. 6d. per quarter, £28 10s. ; cost of primary examinations, £110; inspection of schools and correspondence class work, £143 175.; amounts due from City Council, Education Department, and sundry amounts unpaid to the 31st December, £142 17s. 10d : total, £795 4s. 10d. My thanks are due to all those whom I have named, and who have so generously contributed to the successful year's working, either by loans or contributions of prizes, books, periodicals, or appliances. To Messrs. J. Fulton, C.E., W. Criehton, H. S. Wardell, and T. Fleming, M.A., LL.B., who acted as honorary examiners. To the supervisors, and to my staff, of whom, for their energy and very sincere interest in the welfare of the school, I cannot speak too highly. I have, &c, The Chairman, Wellington Education Board. Arthur D. Eiley.
CANTERBURY. The present building was originally erected in the year 1877 for the purpose of being used as a Girls' High School ; subsequently it was arranged to establish therein the School of Art, and to remove the Girls' High School to a more commodious site. In 1893 it was found necessary to add two more class-rooms. The table annexed will show the number of students in attendance at the school during the first term of each year, since its opening in 1882 : — Morning Evening Saturday Morning Evening Saturday Class. Class. Class. Class. Class. Class. 1882 ... ... 28 63 Nil. I 1890 ... 28 69 Nil. 1883 ... ... 45 ■ 67 „ 1891 ... 30 75 66 1884 ... ... 51 49 „■ 1892 ... 31 69 81 1885 ... ... 28 62 „ 1893 .... 28 85 80 1886 ... ... 19 51 „ 1894 ... 32 115 95 1887 ... ... 18 58 „ 1895 ... 38 102 75 1888 ... ... 21 60 „ 1896 ... 38 98 77 1889 ... ... 31 75 „ 1897 ... 32 101 97 During the present year correspondence has taken place between the Board and the Department of Education with a view to obtaining financial assistance for the school, under "The Manual and Technical Elementary Instruction Act, 1895." The report of the Art Master is as follows:— " As regards the attendance of students and the result of the work the past year has been one of the most successful iij the history of the school. " Morning Class. —This class has again made a further advance. Compared with the two previous years the numbers are as follows : — First Term. Second Term. Third Term. 1894 ... ... ... ... ... 32 35 32 1895 ... ... ... ... ... 38 32 38 1896 ... ... ... ... ... 38 34 37 "In 1887, the year in which I took the headmastership of the school, the numbers were : First term, 18; second term, 9; third term, 17. " The work has been based on the same principles as during the last three or four years—viz., division into four branches. In the first, or elementary, stress is laid more particularly on the study of form by means of outline, both pencil and brush being employed for this purpose. In the next two gradually the study of tone and colour is introduced combined with form ; and in the fourth more advanced work is given from the cast, still life, and life. Various modes of expression are employed, the point, ' stump,' and brush, both in water-colour and oil-colour, being used for representing objects on aflat surface, whilst the modelling tool and fingers are mainly used for representation in concrete form. The medium in and with which he shall work is largely left to a student's own choice, as it is found that a preference is soon shown for that one in which by nature he is best fitted to excel. For instance, a student whose object it is to preuare himself for illustration work naturally chooses the point, both pen and pencil, and also occasionally the water-colour brush. The modelling class, under Mr. Kidson, has been held on Wednesdays from 11.30 a.m. to 1 p.m. The work so far has been of an elementary nature, the copies being simple casts of ornament and portions of the figure. The class for painting landscapes from nature, under Mr. Walsh, has gone out every Tuesday during the first and third terms, while Miss Munnmgs has had charge of an elementary class in the same subject, going out on the same day as the others. Life classes, for the study of the draped model, have been held on Mondays and Fridays from 10 to 1, and for the study of the nude on Thursday. These have been under the charge of the headmaster, and have been more largely attended than ever before, excellent work having been produced both in black and white and colour. Entrance into the life classes is by competition, held at the end of every term. As only an average of two can be admitted each term, the competition is severe, and, considering this, the result is very satisfactory and encouraging. The faculty for memorising forms, as well as the imitative faculty, has been cultivated with good results. The benefit of this system is beginning to show itself in the more advanced work. A series of drawings was shown in the annual exhibition illustrating the extent to which memory drawing can be carried. " Evening Class. —Compared with the two previous years the numbers attending have been as follows : — First Term. Second Term. Third Term. 1894 ... ... ... ... ... 115 108 93 1895 102 105 102 1896 ... ... ... ... 98 98 104 "In 1887 the numbers were as follows: First term, 58 ; second term, 73 ; third term, 72. " The students in this class are mainly drawn from trades and industries associated in any way with art, and so the instruction is more specially arranged to meet the wants of these. Besides elementary drawing it has comprised architecture, decorative design, modelling from the cast and from life, light and shade from the cast and still life, and drawing and painting from the human figure both nude and draped. Although the attendance of the night class of students is much more satisfactory and encouraging than formerly, there is still much to be desired in this respect, and until the employers more effectively co-operate in securing the attendance of their apprentices by realising the benefit accruing to themselves as well as to the community in general by the increased skill and taste of the workman we fear that the influence such an institution as the School of Art should exert on the industrial well-being of the district will not be what it might and should. Whilst referring generally to the work of this class I would again emphasize the necessity for a,
students' technical museum of objects of industrial art. The progress of the students is being severely retarded for lack of this ; for, after a student has gone through a certain amount of training and learnt the principles applicable to all design, the best means of developing his further education is by surrounding him with examples showing how these principles have been applied by various peoples and at various times. Life classes have been held on Mondays and Fridays for the study of the draped model, and on Wednesdays for the nude. These, similarly to the morning, have been attended by a larger number than at any former period, and the results have also been better and of a more advanced character. Students deserving mention are S. L. Thompson for having gained first place and the free studentship in drawing and painting from the life, and C. Brassington for his admirable set of bas-reliefs and marble bust from life, W. Thompson for some good decorative designs founded on native flora, and G. Hart for architectural drawing. The two latter reflect great credit upon their teacher, Mr. S. Hurst Seager. " The class for modelling in clay has been held on Mondays, and has been attended by an average of about twenty students, under the charge of Mr. Kidson. Good progress was visible, and a larger and better display was made at the annual exhibition than at any previous time. " Saturday Students. —The teachers and pupil-teachers under the North Canterbury Board of Education have attended on Saturday mornings from 9.30 to 12.30, and have been taught freehand, model, geometry, perspective, drawing on the black-board from memory and elementary light and shade. Two of them have this year completed their full second-grade certificate—viz., T. Doudsand I. Newton. Compared with the two previous years the numbers have been as follows : — First Term. Second Term. Third Term. 1894 ... ... ... ... ... 95 86 98 1895 ... ... ... ... ... 75 79 84 1896 ... ... ... ... ... 77 100 106 " Wood-carving and Sloyd. —The classes for wood-carving and sloyd have been held under Mr. Hurst Seager, from 10 to 11.30 and 11.30 to 1 p.m. on Saturdays. They are increasing in attendance and interest, especially in the former one, where there are now this term fifteen students. "Boys' High School. —The boys from the High School have attended in two divisions, the junior on Mondays from 3.20 to 4, and the senior on Thursdays at the same time. Both have been taught model-drawing. " Free Studentships. —The six free studentships offered by the Board for annual competition on the past year's work were won by the following students : Landscape from nature, A. McLean ; painting from still life, M. H. Aitken; painting from life (colour), S. L. Thompson; drawing from life (monochrome), S. L. Thompson; drawing from the antique, S. L. Thompson; architectural work, G. Hart. The annual free studentships offered to the head boy in drawing in each of ten district State schools were competed for and awarded in February. No prizes were given this year by the Board, owing to necessity for economy. Two were given privately. Owing to this there was no prize distribution as in former years. " Industrial Association Scholarships. —The Canterbury Industrial Association has decided to devote the interest accruing from the Government grant of £500 for the Industrial Exhibition to the founding of scholarships, tenable at the School of Art, for apprentices in certain industries associated with and founded on art. We have been for years past impressing the necessity for a closer connection between the art trades and the school founded on their mutual dependence for wellbeing and advancement, and this is the first direct recognition of this principle, a principle long ago recognised and acted on in older countries. The Industrial Association, as well as the Board of Governors and the community generally, are to be congratulated on the step now being taken. Arrangements are being made as to the conditions under which these shall be awarded and held, and the first competition will probably take place at the end of this year. " Affiliation with South Kensington, London. —The school has now become affiliated with South Kensington for the purposes of examination and competition for prizes. Students will thus now have the opportunity of gaining South Kensington certificates, which are recognised the world over, whereas our own local ones are only recognised locally. We have hesitated hitherto taking this step, as there is a danger in the anxiety to obtain awards of students being compelled to work in certain grooves, which is detrimental to individual development and freedom of individual experiment. If this freedom for experiment and work could be arranged for and allowed, then the advantage of affiliation would be entirely without drawback. " Annual Examinations. —The annual examinations were held in December, with results aa already published. One student, Miss H. Gibson, has successfully completed her art class teacher's certificate, this being the first one awarded since the new regulations in 1894. One student, W. Thompson, has completed the work for the first year decorative design, and several have only one or two subjects to pass before completing both the first and second years' architecture and decorative design. "Annual Exhibition. —-The annual exhibition of students' works, held in February, was one of the most successful we have ever had, both as to quality of work and the number of exhibits, the life and still-life work and modelling in clay showing out especially well. At the request of a large number of people it was kept open for two days longer than usual, being open for a week altogether. Instead of holding the usual prize distribution the exhibition was this year opened publicly by the Chairman of the Board, Mr. H. B. Webb, addresses being given by Mr. J. B. Triggs, the President of the Industrial Association, Messrs. T. S. Weston, a member of the Board, and F. Waymouth, Mayor of St. Albans. The headmaster gave a report on the past year's work. " Judges and Examiners. —The following gentlemen kindly acted as judges and examiners in the various competitions and examinations : Mr. Woodhouse, Sydney, in decorative design, Mr, Mouutfort in architecture and perspective, and Mr. J. Gibb in drawing and painting.
DUNEDIN. Sir,— I have the honour to submit my annual report on the School of Art and Design for the year 1896. The total number of students who attended the school during the past session was 394, showing an increase of thirty-four as compared with the preceding year. This total includes 116 teachers and pupil-teachers, twenty-two students, ninety-six students who attended the day classes, and 160 who attended the evening classes. Though the general total has increased, the total number of students attending the evening classes for mechanical work is comparatively small. This is much to be regretted, for, though it cannot perhaps be expected that these classes will ever be as popular as the sketching and light and shade classes, still, with the abundant opportunities for study and the advantages the Board has placed at the disposal of the young men engaged in the mechanic arts, these classes, which have a most direct bearing on their industrial pursuits, ought to attract more students than they do. On the other hand, a large number (thirty) of teachers and pupil-teachers of country schools availed themselves of the reduced railway-fares, and travelled long distances, from Palmerston, Lawrence, Milton, &c, with the utmost regularity to attend the classes on Saturdays. During the year incandescent burners were introduced, instead of the ordinary burners, thus providing a clearer and better light, enabling the students to work under more favourable conditions. A room was fitted up and set apart for lady students. This supplied a long-felt want, and is highly appreciated. The arrangement of the classes is the same as previously reported. The progress of these classes has been on the whole satisfactory. The antique and life classes have made most progress, not as shown by examination results, but as shown by their ordinary studies. The painting class made considerable progress, but the earnestness so characteristic of the other classes was lacking. The mechanical classes, including practical, plane, and solid geometry, machine construction, and building construction, did very good practical work. The work done by the teachers and pupilteachers has been of a satisfactory character.
Local Examinations. At the December examinations the total number of students and pupil-teachers examined in the second grade was as follows: —
" The past year has been one of the most successful in the history of the school, and this has been largely due to the efficient help rendered by my staff. After serving the Board for the last six years, Miss Munnings is, at the end of this term, severing her connection with the school. Praise is due to her for the efficient way in which she has always discharged her duties, and her loss will be appreciably felt. It has been decided to appoint two assistants in her place. Thanks to the liberality of the Board, the school is now in thorough repair, having been repainted and distempered throughout, in addition to various improvements having been effected.—G. H. Elliott, Art Master." School of Art Account. 1896. Receipts. £ s. d. I Expenditure. £ s. d. To Students' fees .. .. .. 560 13 0j By Balance, Ist January, 1896 .. .. 263 19 8 Grant from Museum, Library, and School Salaries .. .. .. .. 932 17 1 of Technical Science Endowment .. 600 0 0 ; Bonuses to life classes .. .. 41 10 0 Grant from Boys' High School for in- Insurance .. .. .. .. 10 0 8 struction in drawing .. .. 50 0 0 Prizes .. .. .. .. 15 15 0 Examination-fees .. .. .. 5 0 0 Incidental expenses .. .. .. 98 6 6 Cheque drawn in 1895 (cancelled) .. 2 2 0 Contribution towards expenses of RegisBalance .. .. .. .. 272 15 1 trar's office .. .. .. 30 0 0 Gas .. .. .. .. 41 16 9 Repairs .. .. .. .. 10 8 0 Repairs to skylight .. .. .. 34 5 6 Grant to Miss Crooke for long service .. 5 0 0 Interest .. .. .. .. 6 10 11 £1,490 10 1 £1,490 10 1
Passed. Subjects. Number examined. Failed. Excellent. Good. Fair. Freehand drawing ... Model drawing Geometrical drawing Perspective Drawing in light and shade ... 28 18 31 5 25 3 9 13 2 5 1(3 6 J2 1 8 4 2 4 1 12 1 2 1 Totals ... 102 32 43 23
A large number of pupil-teachers are competing annually in the South Kensington examinations with excellent results. Students from the School of Mines :—
London Science and Art Department's Examinations. The South Kensington Science and Art Department's examinations took place on the 17th, 18th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th, and 25th July, with the following results:—
The interest in these examinations is increasing. The above returns show the nature and value of the work done. The following works were forwarded to the Science and Art Department, and were accepted towards the completion of Art-class Teachers' Third-grade Certificates : D. E. Hutton—Outline of ornament from the cast, shading from the cast, group of models shaded, and practical geometry ; Elsie Napier Bell —Practical geometry ; Nellie L. D. Jdutton—Outline of ornament from the cast. The prizes offered by James Hislop, Esq., the Builders' Association, and "a friend," were awarded as follows : J. Hislop—Silver medal for the best drawing in outline from the cast and from nature: Oswald Trochon. The Builders' Association Scholarship—Owing to W. Marshall and D. Patterson being equal, the value of the scholarship was divided between them. " A friend " —Silver medal for the best drawing in light and shade from the antique ; W, Wakelin,
Subjects. Number examined. Pasi ied Failed. Model drawing ... Practical geometry Solid geometry Machine drawing ... 8 11 4 3 6 first class 8 3 2 2 second class 3 1 1 Totals ... 26 19 first class 7 second class
Subject. Stage. Number examined. Pai ised. Failed. Freehand drawing Elementary 86 22 first class 1 excellent 7 first class 18 13 8 4 37 second class 27 Freehand drawing Advanced 13 ( }* . 36 4 11 1 6 1 1 Model drawing Model drawing Drawing in light and shade Drawing in light and shade Geometrical drawingsPerspective ... Architecture... Painting in monochrome Painting from still life Elementary Advanced Elementary Advanced 71 17 24 8 6 8 1 2 8 3 first class 1 1 17 "fi 3 4 Elementary 5 second class i 3 Totals 244 78 first class 105 second class 61 * There were twenty-six candidates difficult subject practical plane and solid for them. They, however, attempted thi pass in the easier. It would not be fair I counted in this table. for geometrical geometry (scien 3 harder paper, t ;o reckon the ren drawing (i :e), so thai ,nd the wo laining tw< art). By mistake thi t the easier art geoin irk of six of them ws enty as having failed 3y were entered for fc etry papers were not ] ts deemed good enou , and therefore they he more provided igh for a are not
Subject. Stage. Number examined. Success. Failed. 'ractical plane and solid geometry iuilding construction... iuilding construction... 7 5 passed 2 fair Elementary Advanced 3 2 3 „ 2 second class iuilding construction... Honours 1 ( \ 1 first class Bronze medal 4 passed 1 first class lachine construction... fachine construction... Elementary Advanced 7 1 2 fair 1 Totals 2] M
The Otago Art Society offered a silver medal for the best study of a head from life, painted in either water or oil colours. The competition for this medal was confined entirely to Signor Nerli's class for painting. Mr. Charles W. Foster, who was recommended by the secretary of the Otago Art Society, kindly acted as examiner. Owing to Mr. Foster's unfavourable report (with which I agreed) the medal was not awarded. Only four students competed. The prizes and certificates were presented by the Hon. J. MacGregor in the presence of a large number of people. The works of the students were exhibited at the close of the year, and attracted numerous visitors, who were highly pleased with the number aud the excellence of the works. The staff worked hard and earnestly. One member, without any apparent reason, unexpectedly left us in the month of October; this, however, did not materially interfere with the work of the school, though it made my work more arduous for the remainder of the year. I have, &c, David C. Hutton, Art Master, Principal. The Secretary, Otago Education Board.
The following list shows the occupations of the students who attended the evening classes: Artist, 1 ; bank clerks, 4 ; blacksmiths, 3 ; bookbinder, 1 ; brass-finisher, 1 ; butcher, 1; cabinetmakers, 2 ; carpenters, 17 ; clerks, 6 ; clicker, 1; coachbuilder, 1; coach-painter, 1; compositors, 2 ; draughtsman, 1; drapers, 5; dressmakers, 5; engineers, 16 ; framemaker, 1; iron-turner, 1 ; labourers, 2 ; lithographers, 4 ; message-boy, 1; milliners, 6; mining engineer, 1; photographic artist, 1; painters, 11; patternmakers, 2; plumbers, 3; retouchers, 4; saleswomen, 5; shopassistant 1 ; surveyor, 1; students, 32 ; tailor, 1 ; teachers, 7; tinsmith, 1; warehouseman, 1; wood-carver, 1; no occupation or home duties, 5 : total, 160.
3. EEPORTS OF TECHNICAL CLASSES ASSOCIATIONS. AUCKLAND. Second Annual Eepoet for Year ending 30th November, 1896. To the Subscribers, Auckland Technical School Association. Youb Council begs to place before you the following report, covering the second year's working of the school. As provided in the constitution of the Association, the following appointments were made to the Council by the public bodies named : namely, Mr. Kobert Farrell, Auckland City Council; Mr. Gerald L. Peacocke, University College Council ; Mr. R. Udy, College and Grammar School; Rev. Canon Bates, Board of Education; Mr. R. S. Abel, Employers' Association; Mr. J. Fawcus, Trades and Labour Council. Mr. Thomas Thompson, M.H.R., was reappointed Treasurer, and Mr. J. H. Mackie, Secretary to the Association. Twelve Council meetings and eight Executive meetings have been held during the year. The year's work comprised four terms of ten weeks each, commencing in February and concluding in November. The removal from Auckland of certain instructors necessitated some changes in the personnel of the staff in the early part of the year, and the following new appointments were made: Mr. E. W. Payton, practical plane and solid geometry ; Mr. J. T. Knight, mechanical drawing; Mr. W. A. Cumming, architectural drawing; and Mr. W. Bruce, carpentry and joinery. The other classes have been conducted by the instructors who were engaged last year. The syllabus this year contained two additional subjects: namely, graining and marbling, and staircasing and handrailing; Mr. Charles Bloomfield being appointed in charge of the former, and Mr. Bruce the latter class. Mr. Bruce has made a thorough study of the subjects he teaches, and holds a gold medal from the Melbourne Working-men's College for proficiency in staircasing and handrailing, besides first-class certificates for other branches. Much interest has been taken in both classes by the artisans, but much more might reasonably be expected. The enrolments of the several terms were as follows : First term, 99 ; second term, 170; third term, 158 ; and fourth term, 126 : the average being 138 per term. The work in the various classes was of a much improved character, a fact which has been the subject of very favourable comment of visitors to the school. This result is in a very large measure due to the instructors in the various departments, who take a great deal of personal interest in the students. Last year the progress of the students in some of the drawing-classes was hindered by the absence of suitable drawing-copies, models, &c. This has been remedied since by the importation from the Sydney Technical College of sixty-five pieces plaster casts and models. The institution named acted very generously in the matter of the order, which was limited to £10. A supply of wicker, wire, and wood models have also been obtained from local firms. We are indebted to the Railway Department, Wellington, for a series of valuable large plate-drawings in wood- and ironwork, and to Messrs. John Chambers and Son for a number of photographs of English machinery. Since "The Manual and Technical Elementary Instruction Act, 1895," came into force the school has been conducted under its provisions, one of which is the payment to technical schools and classes of capitation upon average attendance. Whilst approving of the Act generally, your Council cannot refrain from expressing its regret at the total inadequacy of the rate of capitation provided for. For the three terms ending 11th September the sum of £29 ss. Id. only has been earned and received. The capitation for the last term just ended (20th instant) is £19 11s. 10d.,
making in all £78 16s. lid. We are given to understand that some more liberal assistance may be obtained from the Government, and steps are now being taken with that object in view. In the meantime, and because, probably, of the altered system of Government aid, the public have not this year subscribed to the same extent as last. This may be accounted for to some extent, too, by the fact that canvassing for this purpose means a great sacrifice of time, which few can spare or feel called upon to devote to the work. Certainly some more active and systematic means of increasing the revenue will have to be undertaken to successfully carry on the work of the school. With a view of securing the permanency of the school, and possibly extending the scope of its operations, a deputation consisting of the members of this Council waited on the Education Board, and laid before that body the position of the school, and urged the Board to take it over in order that it might be worked by the Board in conjunction with the public schools. It was pointed out to the Board that, if it so desired, the present Council would act in the capacity of a managing or advisory committee. The various members of the deputation expressed their views upon the question, and thanked the Board for the opportunity afforded them of placing the matter before the Board. The Chairman intimated that a committee would be set up for the purpose of further investigation. At the Board's request, full particulars have been supplied by the secretary. Owing to the absence at Wellington of a prominent member of the committee, the meeting has only recently been held, and your Council awaits the results. Having regard to the future growth of the school, a request was made to the Auckland City Council asking for the free gift of the allotments in Wellesley Street Bast above the school, as a site for a new and larger building. We were prompted to make this request more particularly because a sympathizer and supporter of the cause of technical education had spontaneously offered to advance, upon reasonable security, an amount sufficient to build substantial school premises. So far no reply has been received from the Council, further than that the matter had been referred to the Reserves Committee for consideration. In January last the balance of subsidy, due upon subscription amounting to £79 Os. Bd., was received from the Government. A further sum of £100 was also obtained by way of subsidy upon the Taranaki Fund. This amount was secured as a result of the secretary's visit to Wellington in October, 1895, for this purpose. The receipt of this money enabled the Council, in January last, to place the sum of £200 upon fixed deposit at the National Bank. The Council desires to emphasize the fact that, but for the receipt of the Taranaki Fund, which was £357 19s. 5d., it would have been absolutely impossible to have provided the necessary appliances for the school, or carried out its work. As a similar handsome donation cannot be relied upon in the near future, the question of ways will require the serious consideration of the incoming Council. At the suggestion of some of the instructors, overtures were made to the promoters of the Auckland Industrial Exhibition with a view of exhibiting there some of the work of the students. The management have generously offered a stall free of charge, and arrangements will be made for it to be duly fitted up. The Council expressly desires that all subscribers to the association, parents and friends of students, and others generally interested in technical school work should visit the school periodically and judge for themselves of the character of the instruction provided. This request refers particularly to masters and journeymen tradesmen. We are sure it would dispel the erroneous idea, unfortunately very prevalent, that the school affords no real or practical benefit to the artisan class. One instance, at least, has come to the knowledge of our secretary. A young man, a former student of the school, left for America to extend his trade-knowledge. He met with no success until happening by chance to come across some of his school-drawings, which he submitted with his application at a second interview, the work done therein being considered very satisfactory, led to his immediate engagement. It has since been learnt that the same technical knowledge has secured ready employment to our old student which he states would not have been received without it. As the balance on hand at the end of the financial year is £220 15s. 6d., there has been a deficit during the year of £42 10s., the balance at the end of the previous year being £263 6s. 3d. There are accounts outstanding to the amount of about £30, so that the real deficiency for the year is about £72. The income for next year may be estimated as under : — £ s. d. Government grant ... ... ... ... ~, ... 80 0 0 Fees ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 246 0 0 £326 0 0 The expenditure is as follows : — £ s. d. Secretary and caretaker .-.. ... ~. ... ... 100 0 0 Instructors' salaries ... ... ... .. ... ~. 316 0 0 Printing and advertising ... ~, ... ~. ... 27 0 0 Eent ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 90 0 0 Taxes ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 0 0 Sundries ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 35 0 0 £570 0 0 This would leave a deficiency of £244, and as less than £200 will be available, it is evident that the financial position of the association demands the most serious consideration.
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E-01c EDUCATION: MANUAL TRAINING AND TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION. [In continuation of E.-1c, 1896.], Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1 January 1897
E-01c EDUCATION: MANUAL TRAINING AND TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION. [In continuation of E.-1c, 1896.] Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1 January 1897
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