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Sess. 11.—1897. NEW ZEALAND.

THE GOLDFIELDS OF NEW ZEALAND: REPORT ON ROADS, WATER-RACES, MINING MACHINERY, AND OTHER WORKS IN CONNECTION WITH MINING.

Presented to both Houses of the General Assembly by Command of His Excellency.

OOJSTTE^TTS.

Page Goldfields, Roads, Water-races, Mining Machinery, and other Works in connection with Mining, Report on, by George Wilson, Inspecting Engineer .. .. .. •• 1-237 Subsidised Roads and Tracks .. .. 1 Roads constructed by Direct Grants .. .. 2 Prospecting for Gold .. .. .. 2 Schools of Mines .. .. .. 3-21 Thames School of Mines .. .. 3-12 Reefton School of Mines .. .. 12-14 Otago School of Mines .. .. .. 14-19 Nelson School of Mines .. .. .. 19-20 Expenditure on Schools .. .. .. 21 Water-races .. .. .. . ■ 21-28 Waimea Water-race .. .. .. 21-22 Callaghan's .. .. .. -. 22 Kumara Water-race .. .. .. 22-23 Waimea-Kumara Water-races .. .. 23-24 Mount Ida Water-race .. .. .. 24-27 Summary showing Results of Working the Kumara Water-races for Fourteen Years, from Ist April, 1883, to 31st March, 1897 .. 21 Blackstone Hill Water-race .. .. 27 Summary of Water-races —Statement of Profits and Losses on the Working of the Water-races for the last Nineteen Years .. .. 28 Gold- and Silver-mining .. .. .. 28-152 Quartz-workings .. .. ■ ■ 29-124 List of Companies outside the Colony interested in Mining in New Zealand .. .. 29-31 North Island .. .. .. .. 31-108 Puhipuhi .. .. .. .. 31-32 Abstract of Special Claims, Whangarei .. 31 Ohaeawai .. .. • • 32 Great Barrier Island .. .. .. 32-34 Abstract of Special Claims, Great Barrier Island .. .. .. • • 33 Coromandel District .. .. .. 34-53 Abstract of Special Claims, Coromandel .. 34-38 Abstract of Special Claims, Kuaotunu .. 38-39 Port Charles District .. .. 40 Cabbage Bay District .. .. 40 Kennedy Bay District .. .. 40 Paul's Creek District .. .. 40 Tokatea District .. .. •. 40-43 Waikoromiko District .. .. 43 Kapanga District .. .. .. 43-46 Kauri Block .. .. .. 46-49 Cadman'sGully, Karaka, and Pukemaukuku District .. .. I 49 Castle Rock District .. .. 49 Manaia District .. .. .. 49 Whangapoua District .. .. 49 Matarangi District .. .. .. 49 Kuaotunu District .. .. .. 49-52 Opito and Kuaotunu No. 3 District .. 52 Mahakirau .. .. .. 52

Page Quartz-workings (North Island) — continued. Moewai.. .. .. .. 52 Hahei .. .. .. .. 52 Boat Harbour .. .. .. 52 Kauri Gold Estates Company .. .. 52 Thames District .. .. .. 53-76 Abstract of Special Claims, Thames .. 53-59 Mata District .. .. .. 60 Tapu District .. .. .. 60 Waiomo District .. .. .. 60 Puru District .. .. .. 60 Tararu District .. .. .. 60-61 Kuranui District .. .. .. 61-66 Grahamstown District .. .. 66 Thames Big Pump .. .. .. 66 Waiotahi District .. .. .. 66-67 Waiokaraka District .. .. 67-72 Block XVII. District .. .. 72 Shortland District .. .. .. 72 Karaka District .. .. .. 73 Una Hill and Te Papa District .. 73 Hape Creek District .. .. 73-74 Otunui District .. .. .. 74 Matatoki District .. .. .. 74 Kirikiri District .. .. .. 74 Puriri District .. .. .. 74 Neavesville District.. .. .. 74 Tairua River District .. .. 75 Ohui Distriot .. .. .. 75 Whangamata District .. .. 75 Ohinemuri District .. .. .. 76-97 Abstract of Special Claims, &c, Ohinemuri 76-84 Maratoto District .. .. .. 85 Komata District .. .. .. 85-87 Karangahake District .. .. 87-90 Waihi District .. .. .. 90-93 Wharekiraupunga District .. .. 93-94 Waitekauri • .. .. .. 94-97 Te Aroha District .. .. .. 97-99 Abstract of Special Claims, &c, Te Aroha.. 98 Waiorongomai District .. .. 98-99 Tui District .. .. ... 99 Tauranga County .. .. .. 99 Te Puke District .. .. .. 99 Kaimai Valley and Katikati Districts .. 99 Accidents in Gold-mines .. .. 99-100 List of Machinery supplied .. .. 100 Return of Stone crushed, Auckland District.. 101 Return of Quartz-crushing Machines, Auckland District .. .. ..102-103 Return of Quartz crushed and Gold obtained, Auckland District .. .. .. 103-106 Comparative Statement showing Increase or Decrease for Years 1896-97 and 1895-96 .. 106 Comparative Statement of Returns for Haurairi Mining District for Years ending 31st March, 1897 and 1896 .. :. 107

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Page Quartz-workings (North Island) — continued. Waihi Gold-mining Company's Returns .. 108 Middle Island .. .. ..108-124 Abstract of Licenses for Special Claims, &c. 108-111 Collingwood District .. .. ..111-112 Lyell District .. .. .. 112 Maruia District .. .. ..112-113 Reefton District .. .. ..113-116 Murray Creek District .. ..116-117 Painkiller District .. .. .. 116 Merrijigs .. .. .. ..116-117 Grey District .. .. .. 117 Blackball District .. .. 117 Ross District .. .. .. 117 Cedar Creek .. .. .. 117 Battery Returns, West Coast Districts . .117-118 Otago District .. .. ..118-124 Abstract of Special Claims, &o. . .118-120 Macetown District .. .. ..120-123 Nenthorn .. .. .. 123 Preservation Inlet .. .. ..123-124 Returns from Quartz-mines for Year ending 31st March, 1897 .. .. .. 124 Alluvial Mining .. .. .. 124-136 Nelson District .. .. ..124-125 Collingwood .. .. ..124-125 Takaka.. .. .. .. 125 Motueka .. .. ..125 Marlborough .. .. .. 125 West Coast .. .. ..125-130 Westport .. .. .. 125 Bradsbaw's Terrace .. .. 125 Addison's Flat .. .. ..125-126 Charleston .. .. ..126-127 Grey Valley .. .. .. 127 Arahura.. .. .. ..127-128 Kumara .. .. .. .. 128 Waimea .. .. .. 128 Rimu, Back Creek, and Seddon's Terrace .. 129 Ross .. .. ~ ..129 Dredging .. .. .. 129 Otago District .. .. ..130-135 Marewhenua .. .. .. 130 Naseby .. .. .. ..130-131 Welshman's Gully .. .. .. 131 St. Bathan's .. .. ..131-132 Vinegar Hill and Cambrian's .. .. 132 Matakanui .. .. .. 132 Queenstown and Lake Wakatipu .. 133 Alexandra South .. .. .. 133 Bald Hill Flat .. .. 133 Roxburgh .. .. .. 134 Island Block .. .. .. 134 Tuapeka .. .. .. 134 Weatherstone's .. .. .. 134 Waipori .. .. .. ..134-135 Waikaia .. .. .. .. 135 Nokomai.. .. .. .. 135 Southland District .. .. ..135-136 Round Hill .. .. ..135-136 Dredging .. .. .. ..136-141 Abstract of Licenses for Dredging-claims in Otago and Southland .. .. ..136-137 Cardrona River .. .. .. 137 Upper Shotover .. .. ..138-139 Shotover River, Queenstown .. .. 139 Victoria Bridge, Kawarau River .. .. 139 Kawarau-Cromwell .. .. .. 139 Clyde .. .. .. ..140 Alexandra .. .. .. .. 140 Ophir .. .. .. ..140 Roxburgh, Clutha .. .. 140 Miller's Flat, Clutha .. .. .. 140 Island Block, Clutha River .. ..140-141 Lowburn, Clutha River .. .. 141 Bowman's Flat, Clutha River .. .. 141 Earnscleugh Flat .. .. .. 141 Waipori .. .. .. ■. 141 Statement of Affairs of Mining Companies, as published in accordance with the Mining Companies Acts, 1891 and 1894 .. .. 142-151 Water-conservation .. .. ..152-154 Special Conditions and Reservations . .152-154 Precious Stones .. .. .. 154 North Island.. .. .. 154 Middle Island .. .. ..154 Manganese- and Sulphur-mining .. .. 155 Petroleum .. .. .. .. 155 Coal-mining .. .. .. .. 155-162 North Island .. .. .. 155 Middle Island .. .. .. 155-156 Collingwood .. .. .. 155

Page Coal-mining (Middle Island) — continued. Nelson .. .. .. .. 155 Westport .. .. .. .. 156 Grey River and Grey Valley .. .. 156 Canterbury and Otago.. .. .. 156 Phenomena of Colliery Explosions : Paper by Mr. Donald M. D. Stewart .. . .156-160 Timbering in Coal-mines: Report of a Lecture by Mr. H. W. Halbaum .. .. 161-162 Hydraulics: Paper by Mr. Alexander Aitken, Manager, Government Water-races at Kumara 162-170 Notes on Blasting with No. 1 Dynamite, Ammonite, &c, in Chota Nagpur, Bengal, India: Paper by Mr. A. Mervyn Smith .. . .170-171 A New Current Motor .. .. .. 171 The Accumulation of Amalgam on Copper Plates: Paper by Mr. R. T. Bayliss .. .. 172-173 Classifying Tailings before Concentration .. 174 Gold-extraction from Refractory Ores: Paper by Mr. Hiram S. Maxim .. .. .. 174 Concerning Tellurides: Paper from Mining Journal, Railway and Commercial Gazette .. ..175-176 Cyanide Patent: Paper by Mr. William Skey .. 176-177 Patent Rights granted .. .. ..177-205 Improvement in Cyanide Process, by E. Holland and G. W. Horn .. .. .. 177 Improvements in Recovery of Gold and Silver from their Solutions, by C. Gopner and L. Diehl .. .. .. 178 An Improved Process for the Extraction of Gold and Silver from their Ores, by Kate A. May. .178-179 An Improved Machine for use in the Extraction of Gold from Auriferous Material by the Aid of Chemical Solvents, by J. J. Deeble . .179-180 An Improved Regenerative Process for the Treatment of Argentiferous Sulphide Ores, by E. F. Turner .. .. .. ..180-183 A Process for extracting Precious Metals from Refractory Ores by Means of Antimony, and for Recovery of Antimony omployed, by James Woolford .. .. " .. .. 183 Improvements in Apparatus for the Recovery of Precious Metals from their Solutions, by H. L. Sulman.. .. .. ..183-185 An Improved Process for the Treatment of Metalliferous Ores and Products, by E. A. Ashcroft .. .. .. ..185-187 Improvement in the Treatment of Compounds or Ores containing Zinc, by E. A. Ashcroft . .187-189 Improvement in the Treatment of Zinc- and Copper-ores, by W. E. Hughes .. . .189-190 Improvements in the Extraction of Precious Metals from their Ores or from Compounds containing the same, by James Mactear . .190-191 Process of and Apparatus for extracting Gold from its Ores, by J. G. Murphy .. .. 191-194 An Improved Process for the Treatment of Zinciferous Ores .. .. .. 195 An Improved Dredge, by G. Poll .. ..195-197 An Improved Machine for Concentrating and Amalgamating the Precious Metals .. 197-198 Improvements in Mechanical Ore-separators, by J. W. Carter .. .. ..198-199 An Improved Machine for breaking or crushing Ore, Rock, and the like, by W. E. Hughes . .199-201 Improvements in Pulverising-mills, by A. V. Young .. .. .. ..201-202 Improvements in Stamping Apparatus for crushing Ores and other Analogous Stamping Purposes, by D. B. Morison .. ..202-205 Mine-managers' Examination Papers.. . .205-214 List of Mining Managers, Battery Superintendents, and Engine-drivers who have obtained Certificates under the Mining and Coal-mines Acts of 1886, 1891, and 1894 .. .. ..215-218 Summary of Works constructed .. .. 218-221 Concluding Remarks .. .. .. 221 List of Works on Goldfields undertaken wholly by the Mines Department, or by Subsidies to County Councils, Local Bodies, and Prospecting Associations, in progress on the 31st March, 1897 . .222-226 List of Works on Goldfields constructed wholly by the Mines Department, or by Subsidies to County Councils, Local Bodies, and Prospecting Associations, and completed prior to the 31st March, 1897 .. .. .. ..226-236 Return showing the Value of the Sales of Water, and Expenditure on and Collateral Advantages derived from the Working of the Water-races constructed and maintained by Government, during the Year ending the 31st March, 1897 .. 237

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MAP OF THE NORTH ISLAND NEW ZEALAND. SHEWING THE MINING DISTRICTS.

MAP OF THE MIDDLE ISLAND NEW ZEALAND. SHEWING THE MINING DISTRICTS.

3

Sess. 11.—1897. NEW ZEALAND.

Presented to both Houses of the General Assembly by Command of His Excellency.

Mr. Geobge Wilson, Inspecting Engineer, to the Hon. A. J. Cadman, Minister of Mines. Sic, — Mines Department, Wellington, 29th June, 1897. I have the honour to submit my annual report, for the year ending the 31st March last, on the progress of the mining industry, and on different works in connection with the same having a tendency to promote a further development of the mineral wealth of the colony. The subjects are classified under the following heads: "Subsidised Eoads and Tracks," "Eoads constructed by Direct Grants," "Prospecting Works," "Schools of Mines," "Waterraces," "Gold-mining," "Quartz Workings," "Alluvial Mining," "Dredging," "Water-conser-vation," " Precious Stones," " Manganese and Sulphur Mining," " Petroleum," " Coal-mining, "Hydraulics," "The Cyanide Process of Treatment in connection with Gold-saving," "Milling Gold-ores," " Patents applied for in connection with Gold-mining," "Examination-papers recently used in the Mine-managers' and Battery Superintendents' Examinations," and " Statistical Tables showing the Class and Value of Works constructed."

SUBSIDISED ROADS AND TRACKS. The following statement will show the expenditure on subsidy principle authorised for the construction of roads and tracks in the different counties for the year ending the 31st March last, and the liabilities on outstanding authorities on that date: —

I—C. 3.

THE GOLDFIELDS OF NEW ZEALAND: EEPOET ON EOADS, WATEE-EACES, MINING MACHINEEY, AND OTHEE WOEKS IN CONNECTION WITH MINING.

Name of Local Body. Expenditure for the Year ending 31st March, 1897. Liabilities on Authorities on 31st March, 1897, Matamata Eoad Board Piako County Bay of Islands County Coromandel County ... Te Aroha Town Board Thames County Thames Borough Ohinemuri County Tauranga County Katikati Highway Board Waimea County Collingwood County ... Pelorus Eoad Board Wairau Eoad Board ... Buller County Inangahua County ... Grey County Westland County Eoss Borough Council Tuapeka County Vincent County Southland County ... Wallace County Contingencies £ s. 250 0 1,866 5 524 i 92 12 1,106 2 100 0 11 13 70 0 25 0 183 10 365 0 250 0 57 11 70 0 141 3 29 13 34 9 a. o o 9 0 1 0 4 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 6 0 3 £ s. d. 100 0 0 20 0 0 595 0 0 650 0 0 75 0 0 643 14 8 707 8 0 945 19 3 150 0 0 88 6 8 50 0 0 16 9 8 510 0 0 278 9 0 300 0 0 100 0 0 58 16 6 50 0 0 Totals £5,177 4 3 5,339 3 9

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ROADS CONSTRUCTED BY DIRECT GRANTS. The following statement will show the expenditure and liabilities on authorities issued on roads from direct grants to the several local bodies during the year ending the 31st March, 1897: —

PROSPECTING FOR GOLD. The following statement will show the expenditure and liabilities on authorities issued in subsidies to Prospecting Associations and parties of miners recommended by the local bodies in the different counties for the year ending the 31st March last: —

Name of Local Body. expenditure for tin Year ending 31st March, 1897. le Liabilities on Authorities on 31st March, 1897 Tauranga County ... Coromandel County Thames County Ohinemuri County Piako County Pelorus Eoad Board Collingwood County Wairau Eoad Board Waimea County ... Buller County Inangahua County Grey County Westland County ... Eoss Borough Council Lake County Southland County Tuapeka County ... Vincent County ... Land and Survey Department Public Works Department ... £ - s. d. 4,250 0 0 1,044 13 3 891 13 4 924 5 10 £ s. d. 250 0 0 200 0 0 2,725 6 9 2,150 0 0 1,625 16 11 900 0 0 1,590 0 0 516 15 0 560 0 0 233 5 0 250 0 0 2,901 16 1 1,185 12 6 1,585 0 0 234 8 0 100 0 0 130 0 0 150 0 0 744 17 5 450 0 0 10,085 4 1 1,581 19 3 2,300 0 0 2,212 8 5 3,375 0 0 2,865 4 3 2,200 0 0 200 0 0 1,255 2 7 1,350 0 0 6,829 15 9 1,818 0 1 Totals ... 27,302 14 9 34,363 9 9

Name of County. Expenditure for Year ending 31st March, 1897. liabilities on Authoriti •on 31st March, 1897. lies Piako County Bay of Islands County Whangarei County ... Manukau County Doromandel County ... Dhinemuri County ... rhames County rauranga County Waipa County Sounds County Waimea County Marlborough County Dollingwood County... 3-rey County Buller County [nangahua County ... vVestland County Selwyn County Cuapeka County Lake County Southland County ... Vincent County Mackenzie County ... Caieri County Bruce County Wallace County £ s. 103 3 d. 0 £ s. d. 94 11 3 200 3 10 52 2 121 18 6 0 22 17 6 410 19 0 35 0 0 128 8 4 16 0 0 26 0 0 39 0 0 13 17 47 8 98 4 40 4 683 3 15 0 36 2 30 0 7 0 107 9 6 0 6 3 1 0 3 0 0 9 34 7 6 36 2 6 100 0 0 20 17 0 470 1 4 281 2 0 617 5 8 6 0 0 53 4 1 10 0 0 53 10 0 184 10 3 20 0 0 25 0 0 79 13 24 0 9 0 104 14 0 Totals 1,533 6 7 2,915 14 3

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SCHOOLS OF MINES. The beneficial results attendant on the establishment of these schools continue to be felt in the mining centres. Opportunity is afforded enabling advanced students as well as working miners to acquire knowledge of the various subjects necessary to those desiring to follow up the profession of mining engineers and managers, and also of other subjects required in carrying out all successful mining enterprises. The long-felt need of a higher technical education, combined with practical knowledge of everyday work, in connection with the development of the mineral wealth of the colony has in a marked degree been met, and the interest evinced in the classes is shown by the increased number of students attending the principal schools, and by the desire expressed by the miners for the establishment of schools in districts at a distance from the present centres. The large number of students coming forward clearly shows it to be a recognised fact that, unless those engaged in mining pursuits wish to be left behind, they must avail themselves of the opportunity for acquiring the scientific knowledge now so necessary to all who desire to become leaders in the conduct of mining enterprises. Well-equipped schools at the chief places, in which a continuous course of instruction is carried on, are infinitely preferable to smaller schools, where the time devoted to teaching is intermittent, and less opportunity afforded for obtaining a thorough knowledge of the subjects forming the groundwork of the necessary studies. THAMES SCHOOL. The attendance at this school continued to increase during the year, the average being 103» as against 56-5 for the preceding year. The number of assays made —viz., 1,796, as against 1,103 for the preceding year—shows a large increase, whilst seventy-four parcels of ore were treated at the experimental plant, as against forty-five for last year. There are many advantages consequent on having the school in a central position like the Thames, where all branches of gold-mining are carried on. The scientific treatment of ores by different processes can be readily witnessed, and the Director is in a position to at all times explain matters which otherwise, in the absence of practical illustration, would be more difficult. The experimental plant in connection with the school is shortly to receive an addition which will place it in a position to be more readily used in treating parcels of ore. The two stamps are to be removed, and a battery of three stamps, suitable either for wet or dry crushing, with a rockbreaker and all the most modern appliances for the scientific treatment of different kinds of ore, is to be erected. The advantages named in a great measure tend to insure this school maintaining the foremost position in point of attendance and practical results. Mr. F. B. Allen, M.A., B.Sc, was appointed Director of the school as successor to Mr. James Park, F.G.S., who resigned his appointment during the year. Mr. Allen's position as assistant to Mr. Park enabled him to enter on the duties and follow up the system hitherto adopted in the successful conduct of the school. The following is the report furnished by Mr. Allen on the progress made at the Thames School for the past year:— I have the honour to report that the year 1896-97 has been an extremely busy and a successful one for the school, which has made exceptional strides, and is now in a flourishing condition. Consequent on the revival in mining on the peninsula the school has been busily and constantly employed assaying and treating parcels of ore for the public, and has afforded a ready means of ascertaining the value of the numerous new finds which have been made during the past year. Besides this, large numbers of new students, both young men just entering the field of mining and also working miners, have taken advantage of the courses of study at the school, and have been qualifying themselves for the various public examinations, as well as for work in the mines and batteries. The mining students are becoming thoroughly alive to the fact that scientific training will materially assist them in their daily avocations, and enable them, when in charge of works, to develop their mines and carry on the operations connected with the winning of gold to better advantage. That the amount of public work performed by the school during the past year, as well as the attendance, have practically increased twofold shows that the school has kept pace with the mining revival, and is thoroughly appreciated. An inspection of the tables accompanying this report will show that the public work and the attendance at the classes rapidly increased from May, 1896, onwards; and, as Mr. James Park, F.G.S., who had so ably directed the school for some seven years, and brought it into an efficient condition, severed his connection with the institution at the end of April, 1896, I was left single-handed to carry on the whole work of the school, just at the time when public assays and battery-work were rapidly increasing, and when new students were entering every week. This entailed very long hours on my part to keep everything in working-order, but after four months an assistant, Mr. P. G. Morgan, M.A., was appointed as Assistant Lecturer and Assayer. This was in September, and since that time he has ably discharged his duties, and has relieved me in great measure from the excessive amount of work entailed by increase in every department of the school. The average attendance of registered students has increased from 565 in 1895-96 to 103 for the year 1896-97, and, as the attendance has continued to progressively increase from the beginning of 1896 up to the present time, it is now far in excess of that of any previous period in the history of the Institution. The assaying classes are, as usual, largely attended, but it is a pleasing and noteworthy fact that in the mining and surveying classes, which are in great part made up of practical miners who attend after their daily work in the mines is over, the increase has also been large. The surveying-class roll shows an increase from twenty-six in 1896 to fifty-three for the first term of 1897, and the mining class an increase from twenty-five to fifty, in each case double that of the preceding year. The school is now taxed to its utmost capacity in finding accommodation for these students.

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There has been a corresponding advance in the amount of work performed for the public in the shape of assays and analyses and the treatment of ton parcels of ore by the plant, showing that the school retains the confidence of the mining community as an accurate and reliable institution for the valuation of ores. The following table gives a comparative view of the number of assays performed during the last two years : — 1895-96. 1896-97. Number of public assays ... ... ... ... 743 1,204 Number of assays in connection with ton parcels ... ... 360 592 Total ... ... ... ... ... 1,103 1,796 This increase to 1,796 in 1896-97 from the already large number of 1,103 in 1895-96 has been largely in consequence of the widespread prospecting which has been going on throughout the peninsula, and in the very nature of things it is reasonable to suppose there will be a falling-off again in the number of assays after a time. When the mining properties are more developed the companies will employ assayers of their own, and already a number of our students have left to take up positions of assayers at various up-country mines. The plant for the experimental treatment of ton parcels of ore has been, with the exception of one week's stoppage for repairs, continuously employed throughout the year, and during several weeks it was necessary to work double shifts in order to cope with the sometimes sudden influx of several separate tons of ore at one and the same time. During 1896-97 the plant treated seventyfour parcels of ore, of an aggregate weight of 122,9411b. dry weight, as against forty-five parcels, aggregating 80,4571b., in 1895-96. Of these seventy-four parcels, a table of which is given below, sixty-two were treated by pan-amalgamation and twelve by the cyanide process, and in the case of seven of the parcels it was necessary to chloridize roast the ore before amalgamation. The percentage saving on the average was, by cyanide, 64-75 per cent., and, by amalgamation, 82-9 per cent. It should be noted that most of the parcels were treated by cyanide at the request of the owners as experimental tests to ascertain to what extent the bullion could be successfully extracted by this process, but the results show that few of the parcels contained gold in a fine enough state of division for successful cyanide treatment direct. In most cases the bullion can be better extracted by amalgamation, followed by cyanide or other treatment of the tailings. The chief alterations to the plant during the last twelve months have been the erection of a larger percolation-vat in connection with the cyanide process, a second zinc-extractor, and a centrifugal pump for cyanide solutions. The vat is 7 ft. in diameter, is fitted with all necessary appliances, and has proved very suitable to our requirements. During the year it has been necessary to re-bed the mortar-block, and to make repairs to the amalgamating-pan and the furnace, while the Council now contemplate extensive alterations during the coming year. It is proposed to remove the present two stamps and erect a three-stamp battery instead, on a solid concrete foundation. This will necessitate the laying of a 9 in. main to drive the stamps, and the total cost, including the erection of a separate public assay-room, will amount to something like £800. Students are, subject to permission granted by the Director, allowed to work with the experimental plant, and many have taken advantage of this, and have derived considerable useful practical experience thereby in the metallurgical treatment of ores. In order to insure accuracy, as well as to keep the results from becoming public property, I have, during the last year, arranged that all public assays are performed by the Laboratory Assistant after the students have had their instruction in the classes ; so that when these assays are made no students are present and the public work goes on without interruption. This was a necessary alteration, and the very large number of assays performed for the public shows that reliance is placed in the methods adopted. Still, it has meant keeping the school working late and early, and the Laboratory Assistant has had an exceptionally busy year. My thanks are due to Mr. George Nicks, Mr. A. Jones, and Mr. F. Woolcock, who have in turn occupied this position creditably to themselves. They have each had their rewards, however, in that the large amount of practical experience gained by them as Laboratory Assistants has enabled each of them to secure a lucrative appointment with mining companies. The Mines Department has very kindly donated to the school a series of models imported from Germany, illustrative of the action of a plunger pump and man-engine and of the mode of contraction of various kinds of dams and sinking of shafts —all very useful models for practical demonstration of the lectures. The Government, through the courtesy of Sir James Hector and Mr. Alexander McKay, has made a gift of the past Geological Eeports, which will form a welcome and valuable addition to the library; while the thanks of the school are due to Mr. George Wilson, Inspecting Engineer of Mines, Mr. T. P. Moody, of Hikurangi, and others for various collections of rocks, coal, and minerals. I myself have made a collection of several hundred samples of auriferous quartz, which, as illustrating the different appearances assumed by the gangue of the precious metals mined on these fields, will, I trust, prove useful to the mining community. So many students enrolled themselves this present year in the drawing class that it was found necessary to obtain a special instructor for this important subject, and in March, 1897, Mr. John Parr, B.Sc, M.E., mechanical engineer, of Christchurch, was appointed drawing master, and is giving every satisfaction. The field geology class has been well attended throughout the year. Many trips, some of them necessitating hiring horses, have been made across country to illustrate the relation of the beds one to another, and excursions underground into the mines have also been made to give students the benefit of actual observation of the details of mining operations and the occurrence of mineral deposits. Excursions to one place or another are made weekly, and are invaluable as affording practical illustration of the subjects discussed in the lectures. My thanks are due to the members of the Council, who have given me their assistance throughout the year, and have shown that, all along, they are greatly interested in all that concerns the wel-

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fare of the school. I have much pleasure in acknowledging the services of Mr. P. G. Morgan, M.A., the Assistant Lecturer, and also the valuable work done in the plant by Mr. Eichard Vercoe, who has proved himself most reliable and painstaking in the discharge of his duties. The following is a table of the attendances at th c several classes : —

Table of Attendances for Year ending 31st March, 1897.

The annual examinations were held in December, 1896, the papers being set, as formerly, by examiners in Wellington appointed by the Government, viz.: Mr. H. A. Gordon, F.G.S.; Mr. William Skey, Government Analyst; Mr. Alexander McKay, F.G.S. ; and Mr. C. H. Pierard. Keeping pace with the increase in the attendances at the school, the number of candidates who presented themselves was more than double that of the preceding year. The results of the examination are shown in the following table. The President's medal for the best aggregate was awarded to Mr. K. M. Barrance, who also won the gold medal for surveying, presented by Mr. Ehodes, of the Kauri Estates Company. Mr. Barrance and Mr. Fleming sat for the School of Mines scholarship examination, but no award was made.

Results of Annual Examinations, 1896.

The following tables show the separate parcels of ore treated during the past year in the experimental plant and the returns therefrom. The total bullion recovered from the several parcels amounts to about £340 : —

1896. 1897. Name of Subject. First Term. Second Term. Third Term. First Term. Begistered Students. General and mining geology Mineralogy and blowpipe Land-and mine-surveying Mathematics Mining and applied mechanics ... Metallurgy of gold and silver ... Practical chemistry Theoretical chemistry... Practical assaying Mechanical drawing ... 9 10 26 13 25 10 14 39 12 35 9 11 36 27 41 32 40 38 64 11 15 15 53 17 50 30 30 42 9 42 38 63 10 42 40 62 22 Total Saturday science class 194 23 263 33 309 45 316 29 Total attendance at classes ... 217 296 354 345 Individual registered students 64 97 114 117 Total individual students 87 130 159 146

Subject of Examination. First Class. Second Class. Third Class. Failed. Total. General and mining geology Pumping and winding ... Ventilation and explosives Mining and applied mechanics Theoretical chemistry (senior) Theoretical chemistry (junior) Practical chemistry (senior) Practical chemistry (junior) Practical assaying (senior, dry) ... Practical assaying (junior, dry) ... Practical assaying (senior, wet) ... Practical assaying (junior, wet) ... Surveying (land and mine) Map-drawing ... Mineralogy Metallurgy 3 1 2 4 2 2 1 3 2 6 5 4 7 7 3 4 2 25 9 18 5 8 5 4 6 2 5 2 4 "3 12 3 9 3 2 7 2 6 1 1 4 4 2 1 7 4 1 2 2 1 1 3 3 "i Saturday science 46 2 36 33 3 118 2 Totals 48 36 33 3 120

G.—S.

Tabulated Statement showing Parcels of Ore treated at Thames School of Mines Experimental Plant during 1896-97.

6

Name of Mine and District. Description of Ore. Weight of j— Ore. Assa; Gold. Assay-value of Ore per Ton. y-val ,lue of Ore Silver. per Ton. Value. 1 1 1 Bullion saved. Value pt Ounce. ier Percentage saved. Gold. Silver. Value. By Pan-amalgam. lTION. A. Kummert, Whangamata Waihi Dredging B. Murray, Kennedy's Bay Hard rusty-coloured quartz Tailings containing roots Eubbly quartz, with ferruginous veins Hard dark quartz Eusty-brown glassy quartz Eusty quartz ... Free-milling quartz Densely mineralised ... Cement sand Quartz, with much manganese ... Light-brown quartz Banded quartz, with much red oxide of iron Clean white quartz Compact grey quartz ... Dark slaty country Slaty country containing loose rubbly dirt Eubbly quartz containing iron and manganese oxides White glassy quartz ... White glassy quartz ... Grey quartz, with blue veins Hard grey quartz White splintery quartz White splintery quartz Hard white quartz Earthy and ferruginous Grey quartz, with sulphides Grey quartz, with sulphides Grey quartz, with sulphides Grey quartz, with sulphides Lb. Oz. dwt. gr. 1,200 0 18 21 3,360 0 6 7 560 0 10 2 Oz. dwt. gr. 0 17 16 19 0 1 11 3 £ s. d. 3 17 0 17 9 2 3 6 Oz. dwt. gr. £ s. d. Dry 1 1 6 1 14 2 0 6 16 1 3 7 Dry 0 3 1 2 10 1 1 6 16 2 16 1 ' 0 3 0 2 2 0 0 3 8 1 12 2 1 8 19 2 16 1\ 1 10 22 2 3 2 3 18 0 Dry 0 10 6 2 1 5 0 6 12 1 16 4 0 2 10 2 5 6 88-4 20-0 74-5 84-8 86-7 82-8 94-1 44-9 93-7 73-5 90-3 91-3 78-9 11-2 15-0 88-4 18-75 70-3 Tiki, Coromandel Carnage, Coromandel Carnage, Coromandel, second parcel Moa, Tokatea ... Young New-Zealander, Waitekauri Westport Conservative, Thames Midas, Kuaotunu Eoyal Mail, Puru 2,050 1 3 22 1,800 0 2 5 2,000 0 1 18 830 2 17 23 2,750 1 10 6 60 0 11 7 2,100 0 7 13 2,560 0 2 18 1,050 0 3 4 0 12 9 0 2 12 0 3 3 1 7 18 2 14 4 4 16 9 0 9 1 0 7 3 11 14 4 6 5 9 2 4 0 1 11 11 0 11 4 0 13 0 69-4 72-9 73-1 80-0 22-3 83-9 86-1 82-3 93-9 44-0 93-7 70-8 89-7 900 10 5 0 3 18 0 3 3 25-9 800 72-0 A. Smith, Bluff J. Teddy, Puriri Maraetai No. 1 Maraetai No. 2 1,280 0 2 12 1,500 0 8 4 1,400 1,600 0 2 6 0 2 12 0 8 19 Nil 0 16 0 10 3 1 13 5 0 2 16 1 16 9 0 10 0 2 1 5 Nil 0 1 21 2 12 10 84-0 92-8 76-2 85-2 75-6 84-2 92-5 0 9 1 70-0 76-0 Grace Darling, Waitekauri 310 0 15 3 3 4 7 3 6 2 0 5 15 1 6 10 86-5 40-2 82-5 Waiorongomai No. 2 Waiorongomai No. 4 Maratoto Sapphire, Mercury Bay ... Proprietary, Taitapu Proprietary No. 2, Taitapu Proprietary No. 3, Taitapu Proprietary No. 3j, Taitapu Great Barrier No. 1 Great Barrier No. 2 Great Barrier No. 3 Great Barrier No. 4 1,200 0 5 1 1,200 0 2 12 2,700 3 13 3 1,250 0 0 10 225 12 9 13 4,300 3 15 15 2,500 2 2 22 106 4 18 7 1,300 0 5 1 1,400 0 2 6 1,300 I 0.5 1 1,450 ! 0 3 18 0 6 23 0 15 3 93 1 4 0 7 13 1 11 13 0 15 3 0 7 18 0 10 2 21 4 16 12 17 8 54 12 15 39 10 5 -10 9 0 11 3 22 15 4 0 2 4 50 0 11 15 3 10 8 12 4 19 14 0 2 17 4 1 11 6 5 15 9 4 4 1 0 4 2 1 18 6 0 4 19 0 17 6 78 19 19 0 5 10 0 3 22 0 5 5 17 7 3 9 8 8 4 14 3 5 11 2 15 15 3 7 10 0 4 22 3 10 10 6 13 18 3 8 8 0 2 8 20 10 4 0 1 8 I 17 3 3 0 1 11|! 71-1 72-4 94-5 75-5 95-1 92-9 98-0 93-4 60-2 33-6 45-2 53-9 45-4 65-7 88-9 94-2 94-5 96-0 94-0 70-7 69-1 84-1 78-6 950 93-0 98-0 93-5 40-5 54-0 65-9 46-3 50-5 62-2

7

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Bay View, Kennedy's Bay E. B. McGregor, Thames Leading Wind, Manaia ... Hauraki Anchor, Thames V. Eeed, Kawakawa Golden Spark*... Forest Queen, Tokatea ... Hauraki Anchor, Thames Anchor, new leader, Thames Great Barrier ... Great Barrier ... Seven Eeefs, Thames Eangatira, Thames Progress, Castle Eock ... Whangaruru ... Temple Bar, Thames Eobt. Kelly, Tapu Eusty-coloured quartz Hard glassy quartz Mullocky and ferruginous Earthy red and grey quartz Flinty grey quartz Light-grey quartz Grey quartz ... Earthy red and grey quartz Earthy red and grey quartz White quartz, with blue veins ... White quartz, with blue veins ... Highly-mineralised quartz Mullock}' clayey ore ... Eusty quartz Brittle brownish country Light-brown and grey Bluish quartz, with much andesite country Bluish quartz, with much andesite country Glassy quartz, coloured red with oxides of iron Grey splintery quartz ... Eubbly ore, containing white quartz Eeddish-brown and rubbly Densely mineralised quartz Blue and white quartz Grey and rusty-coloured Small black band in red rubble ... White crystalline quartz Eusty-coloured crystalline quartz Splintery blue quartz ... Blue quartz, showing free gold ... Eusty friable quartz ... Brown friable quartz Bluish-grey splintery quartz 1,900 1,200 2,400 2,000 2,000 2,700 1,120 2,300 2,600 500 2,100 1,900 1,800 2,150 1,300 1,300 1,900 0 7 13 1 19 1 15 5 0 11 8 0 1 21 1 14 1 10 10 4 0 3 18 0 5 16 1 10 6 1 12 12 0 2 12 0 6 7 4 18 7 0 1 12 0 3 3 5 3 18 0 6 7 35 15 20 10 4 0 16 9 0 5 1 0 16 9 4 12 0 0 3 9 0 3 12 83 3 10 84 9 12 2 1 16 0 11 18 2 17 23 0 16 0 4 9 2 0 8 1 10 8 10 18 9 5 2 7 2 6 9 0 7 11 6 17 6 .42 8 8 0 15 3 13 0 14 7 4 14 19 10 0 13 8 16 2 19 18 2 0 6 1 0 12 11 20 16 10 Dry II II II 0 11 11 11 0 0 1 14 4 1 3 18 0 5 0 2 19 11 7 13 0 0 6 21 0 10 6 11 7 0 69 16 0 1 11 18 0 17 17 7 0 20 0 19 0 4 0 5 13 13 2 2 111 0 8 2 2 7 7 1 14 3 14 2 2 13 3i 2 13 9 2 3 9 2 9 9 0 4 0 0 3 6 0 5 3 0 18 4| 2 11 10 2 2 9 1 12 11 2 17 7+ 94-1 88-7 64-4 97-8 85-8 93-9 96-9 95-6 94-1 88-7 90-4 68-0 78-5 95-6 82-8 88-2 92-7 88-6 47-7 74-5 90-5 77-5 93-9 92-0 85-8 84-6 56-0 81-1 82-1 72-3 85-1 81-7 82-4 83-3 93-8 76-2 64-6 97-5 85-5 93-9 96-8 95-5 93-8 69-8 85-2 71-6 77-9 95-4 82-6 87-7 92-5 II II II II Shannon, Tapu 2,900 5 2 2 2 0 8 20 11 10 II 8 12 18 2 17 4 930 85-1 929 Vulcan, Tararu 2,550 0 16 0 0 15 0 5 0 0 2 0 2 10 6i 87-5 88-0 87-5 Phoenix, Whangamata ... Eyan's, Great Barrier ... 1,000 2,160 2 10 9 1 3 23 18 13 1 70 0 20 11 14 1 11 16 0 7 16 16 51 3 8 0 11 11 0 3 7 91-5 83-7 75-8 75-6 89-3 78-8 II Cadman, Coromandel Fraser, Eaukokore Bell Eock, Thames Braund, Wellington Home, Tokatea Shamrock, Coromandel ... Kaiser, Thames Purdie, Bombay Progress, Castle Eock ... Southern Cross 1, Blenheim Southern Cross 2, Blenheim Southern Cross 3, Blenheim • 4,500 700 1,900 380 1,900 400 2,060 2,300 ■ 550 3,700 2,200 2,260 0 8 19 0 16 0 7 13 0 0 20 2 0 8 0 7 13 1 8 23 0 5 16 78 7 19 0 6 13 0 8 10 0 3 3 0 17 13 0 16 0 6 7 15 5 0 17 15 0 6 7 1 7 17 0 3 18 40 11 15 0 3 0 0 4 6 0 1 10 1 16 8 0 5 1 1 10 9 0 5 7 8 2 10 1 10 8 5 18 3 13 0 317 2 2 16 5 1 14 0i 0 12 7 II II 2 8 18 0 10 15 0 3 19 2 3 0 0 2 2 2 7 7 0 8 5 28 6 21 0 14 4 0 11 6 0 4 2 1 6 4i Not 2 4 5 0 4 5 2 16 8 2 7 2 2 2 9 2 9 11 2 13 4 2 16 6i 2 15 0 2 16 7 87-2 cleaned 90-4 92-2 88-5 89-8 93-2 86-7 970 91-8 92-6 90-7 82-4 up. 86-1 84-9 85-9 75-8 83-2 80-4 94-9 84-3 84-7 83-8 87-0 90-0 88-5 88-2 89-7 93-0 86-2 97-0 91-7 92-5 90-6 it H * 411b. of picked stone from the Golden Spark gave 4oz. 7d't. 3gr. of bullion e x fcn ,, and worth £12 17s., an extraction of 98-8 per ci int. of the value.

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The following were treated by the cyanide process, and the tailings subsequently treated by pan-amalgamation so as to recover the value left in them:—

Tabulated Statement showing Parcels of Ore treated at Thames School of Mines Experimental Plant during 1896-97— continued.

Name of Mine and District. Description of Ore. Weight of Ore. Assay-value of Ore per Ton. Gold. Silver. Value. So Bullion saved. Value pe Ounce. lei Percentage saved. Gold. Silver. Value. Maratoto ... Lb. ... | Grey quartz, with blue veins ... 400 Oz. dwt. gr. i Oz. dwt. gr. i £ s. d. 3 15 15 | 87 14 7 \ 22 16 0 Dry Oz. dwt. gr. £ s. d. j By cyanide Extra, by pan 12 8 8 0 12 12 P 2 3 3 4 84-1 44-8 49-8 62-0 1-7 50-6 33-3 Total extraction per cent. - I 94-6 63-7 83-9 E. E. McGregor, Thames ... | Hard glassy crystalline quartz ... | 1,200 1 17 19 35 18 8 | 10 14 0 | Dry By cyanide Extra, by pan 7 12 12 3 7 22 0 0 6 8 2 4 46-4 28-5 30-8 15-7 41-8 26-7 Total extraction per cent. I ... 74-9 46-5 68-5

Name of Mine and District. Description of Ore. Weight of — Ore. Assi Gold. Assay-value of Ore per Ton. say r-val ,lue of Ore Silver. per 1 Ton. Value. ■O.S So Bullion saved. Pe Value per i Ounce. Gold. Percentage saved. ercentage saved. Silver. Value. By Cyanide Peoi IESS. Lb. Oz. dwt. gr. A. Kummert, Whangamata ... | Hard rusty-coloured quartz ... ' 600 0 16 9 Waihi Dredging ... ... : Tailings containing roots ... ' 3,640 0 7 13 Young New-Zealander, Waitekauri Densely mineralised ... ... 1,220 1 10 6 Waiorongomai No. 2 ... ... White glassy quartz ... ... 1,950 0 5 1 Waiorongomai No. 4 ... ... White glassy quartz . ... 1,800 0 2 0 Sapphire, Mercury Bay... ... Hard grey quartz ... ... 600 0 0 10 Eangatira, Thames ... ... Mullocky clayey ore ... ... 560 049 Captain Farquhar, Whangaruru ... Brittle brownish country ... 1,000 016 Temple Bar, Thames ... ... Light-brown and grey- ... 900 0121 Phoenix, Whangamata ... ... Splintery grey quartz, with wavy 1,100 1 12 8 blue lines Oz. dwt. gr. 0 16 9 1 7 13 2 14 4 0 7 13 0 15 15 0 7 13 0 6 7 0 16 0 3 18 11 13 2 £ s. d. 3 6 10 1 12 7 6 5 9 1 0 10 0 9 4 0 2 4 0 18 0 0 5 1 0 7 10 7 9 8 Dry Dry II II II II " i Oz. dwt. gr. £ s. d. 0 11 16 1 5 8 2 9 20 10 19 1 10 5 12 4 0 7 0 1 13 5 1 0 0 |0 5 2 3 14 9 0 8 Hi 84-5 93-5 33-1 64-3 70-0 900 57-1 73-1 85-3 44-4 77-0 45-8 31-2 62-1 68-6 67-2 40-4 83-2 75-6 46-9 84-0 90-0 33-0 64-1 70-0 82-1 56-6 73-7 85-0 44-8 ! I

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Eemaeks on the Parcels treated. The tailings from Waihi, which gave a poor extraction on pan treatment, had already been treated in pans before they were received at the school, and the second treatment, made at the request of the owner, showed that little could be extracted from the tailings by pan-amalgamation. A test on about 2 tons of the tailings by the cyanide process showed that 90 per cent, of the value could be extracted by this method. The parcels of ore sent to the plant this last year have been on the whole unsuitable for cyanide treatment, owing to the condition of the gold particles. Several parcels were treated by cyanide at the request of the owners, but the results were generally not high. The majority of the new finds are thus shown to be unsuited to treatment by this process. Nevertheless, I consider that the cyanide process can be successfully combined with wet-crushing and amalgamation for the economical treatment of many of the ores of the peninsula, and mine-managers would do well to experiment in this direction with a view to obviating the dry-crushing methods. Syllabus op Instruction. The following is the syllabus of instruction followed during 1896-97 : — General and Mining Geology. —(Lecturer, the Director, Mr. F. B. Allen, M.A.B.Sc.) Physical Geology. —The earth as a planet, its form and motions; geological climate; the atmosphere ; ocean; solid crust; the interior of the earth. Dynamical Geology. —Metamorphism ; agencies modifying the crust of the earth—atmospheric, aqueous, chemical; weathering; sedimentation ; classification of deposits —mechanical, aqueous, organic, and chemical; denudation and erosion. Structural Geology. —Stratification ; jointage ; contortion; faults; conformity ; unconformity ; dip and strike ; cleavage ; metamorphic rocks ; intrusive sheets, bosses, dykes, fissures ; formation of quartz veins, lodes, and metallic deposits ; dynamics of lodes; recovery of lost lodes. Geological Surveying. —The practice of running natural sections; noting dip, strike, and inclination of strata and lodes; mapping geological formations ; collection of mineral and rock specimens. Stratigraphical Geology. — Classification of plants and animals ; fossils; blending of species; geological record; the study of characteristic life, and distribution of formations from archsean to recent times, with special reference to the geology of New Zealand. Mineralogy and Bloivpipe Determination. —(Lecturer and Instructor, the Director.) Systematic Mineralogy. —(l.) Physical properties of minerals, their hardness, specific gravity, &c. (2.) Optical properties —refraction, reflection, polarisation, lustre, phosphorescence. (3.) Chemical properties. (4.) The application of the blowpipe, colour-tests, &c. (5.) Isomorphism, pseudomorphism, and allotropy. (6.) Distribution and paragenesis of minerals. (7.) Classification of minerals—chemical, economic. Descriptive Mineralogy. —(l.) Non-metallic division—carbon group, &c. (2.) Metallic division —a description of the principal ores of the common metals, and their New Zealand localities and modes of occurrence. Crystallography. —(l.) The six systems, their axes, typical forms, modified forms, &c. (2.) Holohedral and hemihedral forms. (3.) Eeading of faces. Mathematics. —(Lecturer and Instructor, Mr. P. G. Morgan, M.A.) Arithmetic (including the simple rules). —Weights and measures (those bearing on mining and assaying), greatest common measure, least common multiple, vulgar fractions, decimal fractions, proportion, problems. Algebra (Hall and Knight's Algebra).—The meaning and use of the various signs and symbols, the simple rules, greatest common measure, least common multiple, fractions, factors, symmetry, problems containing one unknown, simultaneous equations, quadratic equations, simultaneous equations with more than one unknown, problems involving quadratics and the use of several unknowns, practice in the use of formulae and their transposition. Euclid. —The first four books (Todhunter), including the definitions and axioms. Land- and Mine-surveying. —(Lecturer and Instructor, the Director.) Adjustments of theodolite, dial, level; chain and steel tapes; traversing with theodolite and dial; connecting survey with standard meridian ; ranging lines ; division of land ; computation of areas by latitudes and departures ; reduction of slope measurements; off-sets; chaining, computation of co-ordinates; balancing survey ; plotting survey and off-sets ; obstacles to alignment. Mine-surveying. —Different methods of connecting underground with surface meridian ; magnetic variation; to reduce magnetic meridian to true meridian ; conducting underground traverse with theodolite and dial; correcting magnetic survey by method of back- and fore-sights ; holing. Mathematics. —Equations; logarithms; plane trigonometry ; solution of triangles ; calculation of last or connecting line; of distance from working-face to nearest point on boundary of lease. Levelling. —Eecording levels; practice with level and staff; grading roads, tramways, and water-races ; plotting and striking grades ; calculation of contents of earthworks by prismoidal formula ; grading with Abney or reflecting level. Mining, Applied Mechanics, and Hydraulics. —(Lecturer, the Director.) Mining. —Shafts—selection of site, size; modes of excavation in dry and wet rock, wet sand and swamp; timbering of shafts; ladders; chambers—size, excavation, timbering; levels and 2—C. 3.

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drives—size, excavation, timbering; securing sets on inclines ; modes 01 stoping, height, and timbering of stopes ; main passes—size, timbering, division ; mullock passes—size, timbering, distance apart. Pumping and Pit-work. —Pumps and engines used in metal-mining, force-pumps, plungerpump, draw-lift, fixing pump-pieces, bearers, friction-rollers, V-bobs, balance-bobs, main rods, flat rods, clacks, buckets, bucket-rod, catches, staples, and glands; thickness of pipes; capacity of pumps. Ventilation. —Atmospheric pressure, vapour density; ventilation of drives and underground workings by natural and artificial means; furnaces, water-blasts, fans; division of air-courses; noxious gases met with in metal and coal-mines, their composition and detection. Explosives. —Their use in quarries and mines, relative strengths, action, gases evolved, composition ; charging bore-holes ; firing explosives ; quantity to be used. Hauling and Winding. —Safety-cages; man-engines; strength of rope; strength of timbers. Water-power. —Turbines, Pelton-wheels, calculation of horse-power and flow of water from boxes and nozzles. Text-book used : Gordon's " Mining and Engineering," 10s., Government Printer. Practical Assaying. —(Lecturers and Instructors, the Director and Assistant.) Dry Assaying. —(l.) The furnaces and appliances used in fire-assaying, with sketches. (2.) The fluxes, their properties and uses. (3.) The reducers and their reducing-powers. (4.) Euels and other reagents, as salt, iron, sheet and granulated lead, glass-powder, &c. (5.) Preparation of pure silver for parting gold and silver. (6.) Preparation of nitric-acid solutions for parting. (7.) Preliminary assays of ores and bullion, their use and application. (8.) Volatility of gold and silver — The influence of different temperatures in different parts of muffle ; also of time in muffle. (9.) The operation in fire-assaying— a, powdering the ore ;b, sampling the dry pulp ;c, preparing the charge; d, fusing the charge, and extracting the lead-button; c, cupelling the lead-button; /, weighing the bullion ; g, parting and calculating the value of the bullion. (10.) Probable sources of error in fireassaying. (11.) Keeping note-books and proper record of results. (12.) The assay of litharge and red-lead. (13.) The assay of gold- and silver-ores— a, in clean quartz ; b, in pyritous quartz; c, in concentrates and tailings; d, in roasted ores; c, by amalgamation assay ;/, by scorification assay. (11.) The retorting and melting of bullion. (15.) The refining of base bullion. (16.) The assay of bullion — a, weighing the assay ;b, cupelling for base; c, adding pure silver for parting ;d, rolling the "cornet"; c, parting the "cornet"; /, calculating the value. (17.) The calculation of results obtained in batteries from treatment of gold- and silver-ores. (18.) The assay of galena and cerussite; the valuation of lead, gold, and silver. (19.) The valuation of lead bullion. (20.) The assay of tin-ore (cassiterite). Text-book : Park's " Laboratory Instructions in Assaying and Practical Chemistry," 7s. 6d. Wet Assaying. —(21.) Operations — a, solution ; b, crystallization; c, precipitation ; d, filtration; c, decantation ;/, washing; g, evaporation ; h, distillation ; i, ignition ; j, sublimation ;k, fusion ; I, use of blowpipe; to, the use of spirit- and gas-lamps ;n, the preparation of reagents and tests of purity, &c.; o, the preparation of fluxes; p, test-papers; q, the balance, weights, operations of weighing; r, preservation of platinum crucibles. (22.) The assay of iron-ores— a, gravimetric; b, volumetric. (23.) The assay of copper-ores —a, as oxide; b, as metal by electrolysis ; c, volumetric ; d, colorimetric. (21.) The assay of antimonite. (25.) The assay of bismuth glance. (26.) The assay of cinnabar. (27.) The assay of galena. (28.) The. assay of zinc-ores. (29.) The assay of manganese-ores. (30.) The assay of nickel-ores. (31.) The assay of cobalt-ores. (32.) The assay of chromite of iron. (33.) The assay of arsenic-ores. (31.) The assay of silverores — a, volumetric; b, gravimetric. (35.) The valuation of specimens. Text-book : Park's " Assaying and Practical Chemistry," 7s. 6d. Practical Chemistry. —(Lecturer and Instructor, Mr. P. G. Morgan, M.A.) Junior Glass. —(1.) Operations (these are the same as for wet assaying). (2.) The separation of the metals into groups. (3.) Qualitative tests for the different metals. (4.) The separation of silver, lead, mercury. (5.) The separation of copper, bismuth, arsenic, and antimony. (6.) The separation of iron and alumina, iron and zinc, iron and manganese, iron and chromium. (7.) The separation of calcium and magnesium. (8.) The separation of barium, strontium, and calcium. (9.) The separation of potassium and sodium. (10.) Qualitative tests for the acid-radicals (inorganic)—a, H 2 S, HCI, HBr, HI; b, HN0 3 , HCI0 3 ; c, HB0 2 , H 2 C0 3 , H 2 Cr0 4 , HP, H 3 P0 4 , H 4 Si0 4 , H 2 S0 4 , H 3 As0 4 . (Lecturer and Instructor, the Director.) Senior Glass. —(1.) The estimation of chlorine. (2.) The estimation of sulphuric acid and sulphur. (3.) The estimation of phosphoric acid. (4.) The analysis of limestones and calcareous freestone. (5.) The analysis of coals, coke, charcoal, and shales. (6.) The analysis of barytes. (7.) The analysis of fluor-spar. (8.) The analysis of scheelite and wolfram. (9.) The analysis of rocks (including estimation of K 2 O and Na 2 0). (10.) The analysis of fireclays. (11.) The analysis of soils. (12.) The analysis of complex sulphide ores. (13.) The analysis of milk. (14.) The analysis of waters. (15.) The analysis of bone-dust and bone-ash, with estimation of nitrogen. (16.) The analysis of guanos and apatite. (17.) The analysis of superphosphates. (18.) The estimation of alcohol—a, by weight; b, by volume. (19.) Volumetric analysis : The estimation of — alkaline hydrates ; alkaline carbonates, acids, HCi, H 2 S0 4 , HN0 3 , HC 2 H 3 0 2 , H 2 C 4 H 4 0 6 ; haloid salts, HCN, KCN, I, As 2 0 3 , S0 2 . (Na 2 S 2 O 3 + 5H 2 0). Text-book : Park's "Laboratory Instructions in Assaying and Practical Chemistry," 7s, 6d.

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Theoretical Chemistry. —(Lecturer, Mr. P. G. Morgan, M.A.) Principles of Chemistry and Chemical Philosophy. —Atoms, molecules, vapour-density, quantivalence, chemical formulae. The Elements. —(l.) Their history, occurrence, preparation, properties, uses. (2.) Compounds of the elements, their history, preparation, properties, uses, &c. Metallurgy of Gold and Silver. —(Lecturer, the Director.) (1.) Ore-crushing and -pulverising machinery— a, rock-breakers; b, stamps; c, mills, rolls, &c. (2.) Metallurgy of gold— a, amalgamation on copper-plates, in pans, &c.; b, chlorination processes and operations; c, leaching processes (Cassels', &c.) (3.) Metallurgy of silver— a, smelting and amalgamating ores ; b, smelting—reduction with lead and fluxes ; c, amalgamation in pans with mercury—use of chemicals; d, leaching with solvents—sea-water or brine, ammonia, sodium hyposulphite, alkaline cyanides ; c, oxidizing and chloridizing roasting. Text-books: Eissler's " Metallurgy of Gold and Silver; " Gordon's "Mining and Engineering." Physics. —(Lecturer, the Director.) Eundamental ideas of matter and energy; conditions of matter; gravitation; mechanical powers ; sound ; light; heat; magnetism ; electricity ; chemistry ; physiology and health. Practical Astronomy. —(Lecturer and Instructor, the Director.) The ecliptic; equinoxes ; meridians; longitude ; latitude ; altitude ; declination ; right ascension ; azimuth ; use of Nautical Almanac ; polar distance ; zenith distance ; hour-angle ; sidereal time ; mean time ; solar time ; parallax ; refraction ; retardation ; acceleration ; convergency of meridian; determination of meridian by star and sun observations, by single altitudes and greatest elongation of circumpolar stars; use of star-charts ; calculation of hour-angle, azimuth, and altitude of celestial bodies for any time and place ; determination of latitude by meridian altitudes ; determination of time by star transits and sun observations. Mechanical Drawing. —(lnstructor, Mr. John Parr, B.Sc, M.E.) Use of scales; printing and lettering: outline drawing; shading; colouring; drawing to scale from copies and objects, portions of machinery and woodwork, showing plans, elevation, and sections. Special Glasses are held for the instruction of candidates for the Government mine-managers', battery superintendents', and engine-drivers' certificates. Eirst term —Eirst Monday in February to 30th April; second term —9th May to 20th August ; third term —9th September to 20th December. Eegistration of membership—los. per annum ; class fees—ss. per term for each subject taken up. Scale of Charges for Public Assays and Analyses. & s. d. Bullion assays ... ... ... ... ... ... 0 5 0 Assays of quartz, tailings, or concentrates ... ... .... 0 5 0 Examination and determination of rocks and minerals ... ... 0 5 0 Assay of lead-and tin-ores, each ... ... ... ...050 „ iron- and manganese-ores ... ... ... ..: 010 0 „ copper- and antimony-ores ... ... ... ... 0 10 0 „ zinc-, mercury-, and bismuth-ores ... ... ... 0 10 0 „ gold- and silver-ores, with parting assay ... ... ... 050 Analysis of limestone and calcareous freestone ,* , '" „ -,„ „ J (partial ... ... 010 0 „ coals and fuels, each ... ... ... ... 0 10 0 , ~ ~ (complete ... ... ... ...200 rocks and sons \_^J &l ± Q Q „ fireclays and slags ... ... ... ... ... 100 „ manures ... ... ... ... ... ...200 . (complete ... ... ... ... ...300 ~ waters ] ,+ , 0 n „ " (partial ... ... ... ... ...200 „ nickel-, cobalt-, and chrome-ores ... ... ... 0 10 0 „ concentrates ... ... ... ... ... 110 0 „ complex sulphide-ores, &c. ... ... ... ... 110 0 Experimental Plant. Eeports of working tests of parcels of gold- and silver-ores, concentrates, and tailings, from 1 to 3 tons: — (1.) By Cassel cyanide process : Wet- or dry-crushing — a, by percolation; b, by agitation. (2.) By amalgamated copper-plates. (3.) By amalgamation in pans : Wet- or dry-crushing— a, by raw amalgamation in charges; b, by Washoe process with chemicals (a, hot pan-amalgamation ; b, after chloridizing roasting.) (4.) Chlorination : Small barrel tests. Cost of treatment (minimum charge) : £5 per parcel not exceeding 1 ton ; £3 per ton for tailings. During the year I have supervised two Government examinations for mining managers and battery superintendents. At the first one, in May, 1896, one Thames student sat for first-class mining manager's certificate and two for the battery superintendent's certificate, and all three were

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successful in passing their examinations. In January, 1897, another examination was held, at which eleven Thames students sat for the first-class mining manager's papers and five for those of battery superintendents, but the results have not yet been made known. A feature of the Thames School is the practical nature of the instruction. The mines being in close proximity to the school afford exceptional opportunities for observing and illustrating the modes of development of mines and the different kinds and modes of occurrence of oredeposits. An examination is made every week of one of the mines or of the surrounding country, and besides this practical work in mining and geology there is a class for field-work in surveying both above and under ground. Moreover, as the school plant is constantly treating varied and complex ores from all parts of the field, students have regular practical work in assaying and metallurgy, and are enabled in a short time to obtain as much general information concerning ore treatment as they could obtain in a much longer time by actual work in a battery where usually only one process is in operation and only one class of ore treated at a time. Distribution of Prizes and Certificates. The annual distribution of prizes and certificates was performed in the school-building on the 9th February, 1897, by the President, Mr. J. McGowan, M.H.E., a large number of students being present. Governing Body. At the annual general meeting the following officers and members of the Council were elected for the ensuing year: President, Mr. J. McGowan, M.H.E. ; Vice-President, Mr. T. A. Dunlop ; members, Messrs. G. S. Clark, J. H. Smith, E. F. Adams, W. Burch, L. Melhose, M. Paul, G, Denby, P. C. Hansen; Treasurer, Mr. J. Hague Smith; Secretary, Mr. A. Bruce. EEEFTON SCHOOL. The falling-off in the number attending the school, due to the depression that prevailed for some years past, has not continued during the present year, the number of individuals having increased from twenty-five to thirty-three, and the work in the school in the matter of assaying and analysis is also greater, 973 assays and analyses being performed, as against 229 for the previous year. The Boatman's class, which was commenced with eleven members, was not successful, as the attendance fell off to five members, and it was then diseontinned. The classes at Brunnerton and at Denniston were not visited by the Directer during the year. The following is Mr. Aitken's report on the progress made at the Eeefton School during the year : — I have the honour to report on the work and progress of the Eeefton School of Mines during the past year ending 31st March, 1897, which I am pleased to say has been very successful, and a great improvement on that of the previous year. The classes were attended more regularly by the students, and the number of individuals attending increased from twenty-five to thirty-three. The membership to each class and the average attendance also show an improvement on that of the previous year. lam quite sure that as the district goes ahead the numbers attending the classes will increase; and when the committee are able to furnish the school with better appliances and stock it will induce many more to attend. Up to the end of 1896 no less than twenty-four students from this school have successfully passed the Government examinations for first-class mine managers, sixteen under the Mining Act and eight under the Coal-mines Act; besides these, a great many have been successfully prepared for the engine-drivers' and other examinations. In the laboratory we have been exceptionally busy, and, with our limited stock of chemicals and appliances, have been almost unable to overtake the work. During the past year we have performed 973 assays and analyses, as against 229 for the previous year, showing the large increase of 744. In the performance of this work I have to thank two of the students—Mr. J. Sutherland, who has lately received a position under the New Zealand Consolidated Company, and Mr. T. 0. Bishop, now attending the Otago University and School of Mines —for their able and willing assistance. In the early part of the year the laboratory was also being used by the assayer for the Consolidated Goldfields of New Zealand, when over 220 fire-assays were made in addition to those made for the school. The classes and laboratory work in connection with the Eeefton School have given me so much work that I have had but little time to attend to the outside schools. Brunnerton and Denniston were therefore not visited during the year ; and the class at Boatman's had to be discontinued early, owing to the small average attendance. The following tabulated statement will show the attendance at the classes during the past year:— Sub J eot ' Members. A^dance. Mining and mathematics... ... ... ... ... 18 12 Surveying ... ... ... ... ... ... 18 12 Assaying and metallurgy... ... ... ... ... 20 14 Theoretical chemistry ... ... ... ... ... 12 8 - Practical chemistry ... ... ... ... ... 12 8 Boatman's class... ... ... ... ... ... 11 5 The total number of individuals attending classes would be thirty-three. In the surveying class very little practical work could be done, as the school is without the necessary instruments. The practical work in the assaying, metallurgy, and chemistry classes was carried on under difficulties, owing to the poor appliances and insufficient supply of chemicals. The instruction given at the classes has been very much the same as that given in previous years.

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Practical Assaying and Metallurgy. —The students were instructed in the wet and dry methods of assaying, use and composition of fluxes, fuels, reagents, &c, smelting, valuing, and refining of gold and silver bullion, amalgamation, retorting, &c. ; also in the various methods of extracting gold and silver from their ores, such as battery-work, amalgamation, concentration, cyaniding, and chlorination. This class has been very popular, and the instruction given is of great importance to those who wish to qualify as assayers or battery superintendents. Up to the present there has not been a great demand for assayers here, although some of the students have obtained good positions. Practical and Theoretical Chemistry. —As in the previous year, these two subjects were taken together, and the classes were fairly well attended. The theoretical chemistry was mostly confined to the non-metallic elements, and the chemistry of gold* silver, and mercury. Instruction was given in the preparation of reagents and salts, testing for acids and metals, separation and detection of metals and mineral substances, besides assays and analyses by gravimetric and volumetric methods. Land- and Mine-surveying. — This work was nearly all theoretical, owing to the want of instruments. Some practical work was done in levelling, forming, and grading ; also in planwork and drawing working sections. Instruction was given in chaining, tabulation of traverses, calculation of areas, heights, and distances, plotting, levelling, and laying out roads and races. With a good theodolite, level, and staff the attendances to this class would be greatly increased, and proper instruction cannot be given without the instruments. Mining and Mathematics. —The instruction given includes mining geology, logarithms, plane trigonometry, strength of materials, timbering, pumping, and pit-work, hauling and winding, ventilation, explosives, water-power, &c. This class is mostly attended by miners and those wishing to qualify as mine-managers and engine-drivers. Considering that most of the students live a considerable distance from the school, the attendance has been very good, Many are unable to attend regularly, owing to the different shifts, and therefore they miss some of the work done at the class, This is partly the reason they do not attempt the examination-papers. Boatman's School. —This school started with eleven members, but after doing a little work the average attendance went down to about five, so that the class had to be discontinued. Beefton School. —There has been but little done in the way of adding improvements to the school. A new muffle furnace has been erected, and the inside fittings of the laboratory have been altered for the convenience of the classes. The crushing of all the samples is done with pestle and mortar, and the assay sample is finely ground on a bucking-plate and muller. This method is very slow and tedious, and a good crushing and sampling machine is much needed. The stock of chemicals and apparatus is very poor, and we have been unable to test a lot of the work sent. We have only the one balance, which has to be used for both assay and chemical work, so that another is urgently needed, as in many cases very poor material has to be tested, and accurate assays and analyses must be made. The support given to the school has been much better than that of the previous year ; but, as the committee had to pay off the back debts, there was little left at their disposal for improvements to the school. The Laboratory. —ln this department a large amount of work has been done, no less than 973 assays and analyses being made, besides experiments, determinations of minerals, &c. This shows an increase of 744 on that of the previous year, whichis evidence of the amount of prospecting being done in the district. These tests are made up as follows : Fire-assays, 882; amalgamation tests, 67 (weight of stone, 4601b.); bullion assays and smeltings, 8; analyses, 2; cyanide tests, 2; tin assays, 3 ; platinum, ] ; scheelite, 2; galena, 3; chrome, 2 ; copper, 3. Most of the samples tested by amalgamation were quartz containing free gold. The greater number of the fire-assays were quartz samples. There were also a great many cements, gravels, and black sands tested. Many tests were made for the General Exploration Company on the cements and gravels extending along the coast at Charleston and Addison's. On all these samples, which are poor in gold, and where 1 dwt. per ton would pay to work, large assays from 1,000 gr. to 2,000 gr. had to be made in order to obtain correct returns. There has been a considerable amount of prospecting done throughout the district during the past year, and the want of a small testing plant has been frequently spoken about by prospectors and investors. I consider a small testing plant would be a great boon to this district, and would not only assist the prospector and mining companies, but would give our students practical work in the various processes for the extraction of gold and silver. The plant should be capable of treating up to 2 tons at least by wet- or dry-crushing, concentration, amalgamation, chlorination, or cyaniding. A small roasting-furnace would also be required. Experiments on a practical scale could then be made on quartz samples, cements, tailings, and concentrates, and I am quite sure would be productive of some good to the whole of the West Coast. Annual Examinations. —The annual examinations for students were held in December, 1896. The papers being set by a Government Board of Examiners, only a few of our students competed, and in the subjects taken show good work. The following are the results: —

Student. Practical Assaying (Senior). Practical Assaying (Junior). Practical Assaying (Junior, Dry). Pumping and Winding. Land- and Mine-surveying. T. 0. Bishop N. Lawn J. Sutherland S. Lawn N. S. Lawn 97 90 90 70 95 91 90 81 95 62

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Governing Body. —At the annual meeting the following committee were elected for the current year: President, Mr. W. Laving; Hon. Secretary, Mr. N. Lawn; Hon. Treasurer, Mr. T. H. Lee; members of committee, Messrs. G. Hufton, J. S. Matthews, Eev. T. Pinfold, and T. Watson. In conclusion, I must thank the committee for the valuable assistance they have given me in carrying on the work of the school, and I trust that the institution will continue to improve, and show some practical results at the end of the present year. OTAGO SCHOOL OP MINES. The attendance at this school has still further increased during the year 1896. The new plant for treatment of ore has been completed, and a number of parcels of quartz were crushed and treated by amalgamation or by the cyanide process. The following is the report of Professor George H. F. Ulrich, the Director of the school, on the progress .made during the past year, the personal notice of students and list of donations to the Mining Museum being omitted : — I have the honour to submit the following report regarding the attendance, work, and results of annual examinations of the School of Mines during the past session (1896), together with remarks on the practical teaching facilities, and on other points affecting the future progress of the school. The attendance number of students during the past session was thirty-eight, classed as thirtytwo regular students for the full course and six occasional ones for special subjects—principally assaying—only. Of the thirty-two regular students, nineteen were old ones returned for the completion or further prosecution of their studies (as detailed further on), whilst the other thirteen comprised new entries, including one student who had the previous session attended as an occasional one. Ten of the new students entered for the first year's course of the mining division, though several with the intention of going through four years' study, in order to enable them to gain in addition to the diploma of associate in mining that of associate in geology or the certificate of metallurgical chemist and assayer. Two students who had some years before gone through the first year's course of the mining division returned for the completion of their studies, and the thirteenth new student—being the holder of one of the three scholarships in mining established by the Hon. the Minister of Mines (Mr. Cadman), and tenable at the Otago University —entered for the study of the subjects of the geological division with the aim of gaining the B.Sc. degree in geology in the University of New Zealand. As the attendance number of students during the session of 1895 was twenty-seven, of whom only nineteen returned, the loss of eight is explained by three occasional students and of two who had the year before entered as regular students not returning, whilst the other three—viz., John Watt, Ernest Edwards, and John Orkney —had finished their studies and passed the prescribed examinations, as stated in my last year's report. After producing certificates of twelve months' engagement in practical work in mines they have since each been granted the diploma of associate in mining, and, in addition, John Watt and John Orkney the diploma of associate in metallurgy, and Ernest Edwards the certificate of metallurgical chemist and assayer, to which they were entitled. The attendance of the various classes by the thirty-two regular students was very satisfactory, only a small number having missed any lectures, and those mostly on account of illness. The ten new students passed through the first year's course with the exception of five—two who did not attend mathematics, one who failed in this subject, one who failed in mining geology, and one who failed in theoretical chemistry. Thirteen students passed through the second year's course of the mining division, save two who did not attend mineralogy —one who failed and one who did not sit for the examination in this subject. Three others did not take the classes in theoretical and practical physics, but as these, as well as the others who missed classes, have the intention of staying four years they can make up the deficiencies during next session. Eight students —some of four years' and one of three years' standing —finished their studies during the past session, and are leaving the school, having successfully passed the examinations in all the subjects prescribed for several of the divisions. With few exceptions, all these students took advantage of learning by the practical instruction and example of Mr. Fitzgerald, battery-work and gold-extraction by amalgamation and the cyanide process in working regularly four-hour shifts alternately from the time the testing of samples for the public was started. In compliance with applications, Mr. Fitzgerald arranged evening-classes in assaying, which were attended by six occasional students, five of whom came regularly all through the session, whilst the sixth stopped away after about three months' work. As the afternoon classes for the sixteen regular students in the first and second courses of assaying (which need at least three hours each for three afternoons per week, and necessarily require to be held together for want of other free time) were rather crowded, and the five available smelting furnaces proved quite inadequate for continuous steady working of these students, two of them, whose other lectures fortunately permitted it, attended the evening classes also, much to their own convenience and that of the other students of the afternoon classes. All the new students (eleven) who entered for the first year's course attended the evening class established by the St. John Ambulance Association, and were successful in passing the examination, and thereby gaining certificates of first aid as required by the regulations. On considering that the lecture-hours of the first year's course on any day of the week leave the hour free at which the ambulance class is generally held (which is not the case in the second and third year's courses), it was thought advisable to make attendance at that class part of the first year's course for the future, and prescribe it in the calendar.

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The numerical attendance at all the classes, and the results of the recent annual examinations, are shown in the following table: —

The twenty-four students who require to make use of the vacation for practical mining-work have by this time most probably all found places in gold- and coal-mines in Otago, on the West Coast (South Island), and in the Thames and Hauraki Districts (North Island). The chances of obtaining employment in the latter mining fields seemed, in fact, so favourable, according to news received by some of the students, that thirteen departed together by steamer for Auckland directly after the results of the annual examinations were published. Owing to the kind intercession of Mr. James Allen, M.H.E., the general manager of the Union Steamship Company (Mr. J. Mills) made a liberal reduction in the cost of a return ticket to Auckland from £7 10s. to £5, and extended the time of return to six months—a generous aid during the pursuance of their studies highly appreciated by the students. The manager of the Huddart-Parker Steamship Company has since also intimated by letter that he will in future treat our travelling students with the same liberality as the Union Steamship Company. Eegarding the number of students likely to attend for next year's session, it may reach sixty in case all the twenty-four old students return and all new applicants for entry are admitted. The number of these latter at present on the books is thirty-two, but additional ones will very probably come forth before the commencement of next session. For the special mining classes of the first year's course —mining geology and general geology —(which are the same for all the five divisions of the school) the enlargement and alterations of the present museum room, as sanctioned by the Council, will probably afford the necessary seating-space for so large a number of students; and, if not, Professor Shand's lecture-room, being free at the hours fixed for these classes, could be made use of, though with some inconvenience in the carrying about of models, specimens, and diagrams. But for three of the classes of the second and third years' courses—viz., assaying, petrography, and surveying—twelve students at the outside (which for assaying means twenty-four, as explained previously) can only be accommodated, and only on provision for the assaying class of five newsmeltingfurnaces, and for that in petrography of at least four additional petrological microscopes and a second machine for cutting and grinding rock-sections. With regard to the assaying class last session, Mr. Fitzgerald wrote to me as follows : " I found that the laboratory accommodation was taxed to the utmost. I had sixteen students, two of whom luckily were unable to take the evening class, thus relieving the furnaces to a certain extent. I understand that five new furnaces are to be added, but I would draw attention to the fact that even with the new furnaces we could not accommodate more than twelve students in each course."

Results of Examinations. Subjects. a n-4- , a ,« ; Entered for Attendance. L.™ ,. liixammation. I 1st Glass. 2nd Class. 3rd Class, i Failures. J-eneral (University)— Mathematics ... Theoretical mechanics ... Theoretical physics Practical physics Theoretical chemistry ... Practical chemistry Theoretical biology Practical biology 11 7 1.1 6 13 12 3 3 11 7 12 6 13 12 3 3 1 2 1 2 6 4 4 5 2 4 5 1 3 5 3 5 3 5 1 2 i 2 Special (School of Mines) — Mining, first course Mining geology General geology Palaeontology ... Mineralogy Petrography ... General metallurgy Special metallurgy Theory of assaying Practical assaying, first course ... Practical assaying, second course Blowpipe analysis Applied mechanics Surveying, first course ... Surveying, second course Model drawing Practical plane geometry) -, ( a ,.j 4 r drawing Solid geometry ... ) ° { Machine drawing 16 11 11 3 11 7 6 6 9 9 7 12 5 9 5 9 11 4 3 16 10 10 3 10 6 6 6 9 9 7 12 6 9 5 9 11 4 3 4 1 4 2 I 6 5 4 3 5 5 7 8 3 2 6 3 6 3 4 4 4 3 5 3 2 8 3 2 6 5 "5 2 ... 1 1 "l 2 2 3 1 1 Totals ... 77 91 45 5

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For a class of twelve in petrography, and for any larger number than this in mineralogy, an assistant demonstrator would be necessary, for the reason that in these subjects, more especially in petrography, each student requires special individual attention and instruction in microscopic examination and the preparation of rock-sections, and one man cannot possibly do this work and yet cover the ground prescribed in the calendar in the time available during the session. From the foregoing it will be seen that should, of the large number of students to be admitted for next session, more than twelve qualify for entering the session after next any of the above three classes, by passing the annual examination in mathematics and chemistry according to the Council's ruling, and the entry up to twelve goes by priority of application for entry to the school, then those above that number will have to wait for admittance to these classes till the succeeding session. Being free, however, to take other classes included in the curriculum, they can so arrange that their time for study is fully occupied during the interval. From conversation I had with many of the new applicants I found that a number of them are very deficient in necessary preliminary knowledge, and have, I am afraid, little chance of passing in mathematics and chemistry at the end of the first year's course; but, though I pointed this out to them, their intention of joining the school remained unshaken. On consideration of all circumstances, the pressure for entry to the school will most probably be confined to next session; but, should it be repeated to the same extent for the session after next, a limit would have to be placed on the number of admittances, otherwise the resources of the school in accommodation, apparatus, instruments, &c, would be totally inadequate : they would, in fact, require to be more than doubled in order to meet all the necessary demands for proper teaching. For the purpose of rendering his lectures more interesting and instructive to the students, the lecturer in general geology, Dr. Don, prepared at his own expense about two hundred lanternslides, illustrating geological features and occurrences in various parts of the world, many of them, as he informed me, being copied from the admirable reports and monographs of the United States Geological Survey. He also followed the same valuable course as last year regarding practical instruction in field geology, by making, with his students, three field excursions, of which he most liberally paid the greater portion of the expenses. The first excursion during one day took in various places of interest on the Otago Peninsula, especially the Blowhole and the limestone quarries of Sandymount, and the interesting occurrence of auriferous volcanic rock at Hooper's Inlet. The second excursion, which occupied five days during the midwinter vacation, was to Catlin's Biver and Kaitangata. At the former place three days were spent in the study of the fossiliferous beds of Cannibal Bay, Catlin's Biver, and Owaka, and of the remarkable results of marine erosion on the neighbouring sea-coast. On the return journey a day was devoted to the inspection of the celebrated Kaitangata Coal-mine and the very fine and large mining machinery connected therewith. The third excursion, occupying two days, had for its object -the study of interesting geological features around Palmerston, of the Hampden beds enclosing the celebrated Moeraki boulders— gigantic septaries, so far unique in the world—next, of the fossiliferous series of Oamaru and of the Devil's Bridge. Dr. Don, on behalf of himself and the students, expresses thanks to the General Manager of Bailways for extending the concession in railway return fares from three days to eight days, so as to allow a longer stay at Catlin's; next, to Mr. W. P. Watson, the general manager of the Kaitangata Company, for permission to inspect the mine; and to Mr. J. Shore, the mining manager, for conducting the party through the workings, and in supplying sections of the workings illustrating the faulting of the coal-measures in that district. Dr. Don and the students are also very grateful to Mr. J. Paterson, the librarian of the Dunedin Athenaeum, for permission to occupy his cottage during their stay at Catlin's Biver. The resignation of Mr. P. Fitzgerald of his post as lecturer in assaying and metallurgy again deprives this department of the school of an able and energetic teacher, who performed his duties with exactness and conspicuous success. As one of our past students he certainly sets, however, a good example by his self-confidence and enterprise in trying to better his position by entering into private practice as an expert, and taking the principal active part in an undertaking to develop some of the neglected gold resources of this province. Although the new testing plant has been specially reported on to the mining committee of the Council by Mr. W. Cutten, the lecturer on applied mechanics, under whose supervision it was erected, and also by Mr. Fitzgerald, who conducted its working since its completion, still I may be permitted to add here a few remarks concerning some alterations and additions which I consider would much improve its gold-saving facilities by amalgamation, and next in explanation of the objects of the plant —in fact, its value to the mining public. Begarding the amalgamating appliances in direct connection with the mortar-box at present in use, they consist of two silverplated and amalgamated copper-plates divided by a very shallow and narrow quicksilver riffle, and at the end of the second plate of a deeper quicksilver riffle from which the crushed material runs on to two blanket strakes. In the working it has now invariably been found that the shallow dividing riffle and the succeeding copper-plate retained but a small percentage of gold, while the deeper quicksilver riffle at the end caught a much larger quantity. This points distinctly to the advisability of interposing between the copper-plates, instead of the present shallow riffle, a so-called deep-drop riffle, say, of Sin. drop, such as are used in sets of three with great satisfaction in some of the best crushing-mills in Victoria, and in cases quite to the exclusion of copper-plates. The second copperplate would need to be only a few inches broad, and be followed by a shallow catch-riffle, following which again would come the blanket strake, some 4 ft.-5 ft. larger than at present—an addition much needed for a more satisfactory saving of pyritous material. All these alterations and additions, which I beg strongly to recommend, can easily be effected, and at but a small expense— say, about £3. Begarding the value of the plant to the mining public, it consists, in my opinion, not so much in extracting the highest possible percentage of gold from any parcel of ore sent, but rather in the information imparted to the sender in the report accompanying the gold extracted. For he will find indicated in this report, as deducible from the results of the

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C-03 THE GOLDFIELDS OF NEW ZEALAND: REPORT ON ROADS, WATER-RACES, MINING MACHINERY, AND OTHER WORKS IN CONNECTION WITH MINING., Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1 January 1897

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C-03 THE GOLDFIELDS OF NEW ZEALAND: REPORT ON ROADS, WATER-RACES, MINING MACHINERY, AND OTHER WORKS IN CONNECTION WITH MINING. Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1 January 1897

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