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H-09 THE GOLD FIELDS OF NEW ZEALAND (REPORT ON)., Untitled, 1 January 1884
1884. NEW ZEALAND.
THE GOLD FIELDS OF NEW ZEALAND (REPORT ON).
Return to an Order of the House of Representatives, dated 3rd day of August, 1869. <• That it is desirablo that the Government should cause to be laid upon the table-of this House, during each session, a report embodying a general account of the present condition of the gold fields of the colony, their advancement or otherwise during the preceding year, and their probable prospects; together with particulars showing the average price of provisions during the year on each gold field, the rate of wages, estimated population, and such other information as would afford a comprehensive idea of the general condition of the mining interests in the colony; and that His Excellency be requested to forward a copy of such report to Her Majesty s Secretary of State for the Colonies."—(Mr. W. H. Harrison.)
Secretary for Gold Fields' Office, g IB Wellington, 7th June, 1884. I have the honour to forward the general and detailed reports and returns of the gold fields of New Zealand for the twelve months ended the 31st March, 1884. I have, &c, James McKeebow, Secretary for Gold Fields. The Hon. W. Eolleston, Minister of Mines.
EEPOET. In this, as in former annual reports on the gold fields of New Zealand, the details of the several districts are given in the reports of their respective Wardens; and whatever relates to more improved modes of working, and the introduction of labour-saving machinery, is treated at length in the report of Mr. H. A. Gordon, the Inspecting Engineer. In the same report will also be found particulars of the contributions from the State funds in aid of public works on the gold fields. The reports of the Managers of Water-races deal with the water-supply, and the tables in the Appendix give the statistical information of the gold fields, arranged in the same manner as in former years. In taking a general view of the state of the gold fields, it may be said that there never has been more skill and enterprise brought to bear on the workings, whether of quartz or alluvial mining, than at the present time. The digger phase of scratching the surface, and using the hand-cradle, has been almost entirely superseded by the systematic operations of mining engineering and scientific processes brought to bear in saving the finer gold. ■ In quartz-mining, the rock-drill, driven by compressed air—the advantages of using which were prominently urged in a former report—has been extensively introduced during the year. In the Eeefton and Lyell Districts alone the cost of introducing new machinery, and its application to the opening-out of the mines, may be stated at about £70,000. In alluvial mining, the tailings difficulty has been solved for many auriferous areas by the adoption of Perry's hydraulic method of raising stuff, as described in last year's report. Wherever there is a sufficient head of water, ground can be worked on this system that would have been considered impracticable a few years ago. It is now adopted in several of
the principal alluvial workings of Otago, and is being introduced on the West Coast, and ground is now being worked, yielding from £1,000 to £3,000 an acre, which, for want of fall, would otherwise have had to be left untouched. Yield of Gold. The statement to follow shows the export of gold for the year ending the 31st March, 1884, to be of a value of £35,421 less than for the previous year, ending on the 31st March, 1883. The value of the gold exported from New Zealand has kept off and on about a million sterling for many years, and it is not likely to vary much for some time, as the alluvial workings, which contribute nearly twothirds of the amount, are regulated in a considerable measure by the water-supply, which is a pretty constant quantity; and the quartz-mining, although increasing, does so very gradually. The total value of gold exported from New Zealand up to the 31st March, 1884, was £40,707,074. Of the gold exported for the twelve months before the 31st March, 1884, the West Coast and Nelson contributed 49 per cent.; Otago, 35 per cent.; and Auckland, 16 per cent.: or very nearly one-half, one-third, and one-sixth respectively of the total yield.
Yield of Gold during Year ending 31st March, 1883, and 31st March, 1884.
: .- Mining Population and its Earnings. The return of miners (Table No. 9) gives a total of 12,206 employed on the gold fields on the 31st March, 1884. The number returned for the previous twelve months was 14,523. The average number for the year may therefore be stated at 13,364. Taking the value of gold exported at £959,134, the average earnings per man will be £71 165., an increase of £2 6s. on the earnings per man of last year.
Quartz Workings. Table showing the Comparison of the Yield of Quartz Workings in the Years ending 31st March, 1883, and 31st March, 1884.
Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value. 1882. June quarter ... September quarter December quarter 1883. March quarter Oz. 40,944 74,776 62,175 £ 164,253 298,445 248,060 1883. June quarter September quarter December quarter 1884. March quarter Oz. 52,401 59,113 65,893 £- 210,205 236,422 262,928 70,967 283,797 62,281 249,579 r 248,862 994,555 239,688 959,134
188: i-83. 188: !-84. Name of District. Quartz crushed. Gold. Quartz crushed. Gold. Coromandel ....", Thames ... Te Aroha ... Eeefton Lyell... , .... Arrow and Queenstown Cromwell Tons. Oz. Tons. Oz. 2,907 25,867 18,928 7,277 6,503 2,900 7,577 43,311 19,194 3,949 4,996 2,400 1,042 36,228 4,316 23,433 2,980 5,500 848 4,018 54,865 4,547 16,547 1,455 4,623 850 Lawrence— Quartz Cement 64,382 81,427 6*,371 74,347 86,905 700 6,150 64,382 87,798 74,347 93,755 Increase 1883-84 9,965 5,957
The increase in the Thames District is due to large returns from the Prince Imperial Mine, and the returns from Te Aroha are encouraging as the first-fruits of a field which promises to be both extensive and lasting. The decrease in yield in the Eeefton and Lyell Districts is mainly due to the Welcome Company, who own one of the largest gold-producing mines in the district, having been engaged for the greater portion of the year in erecting winding and air-compressing machinery in their underground chamber; and at the Lyell to the principal goldproducing claim, belonging to the United Alpine Company, having been engaged during the last twelve months putting in a low level, the upper levels beingworked out, and as a consequence neither of these companies has crushed much quartz during the year, hence the diminished returns. In Otago the principal centre of quartz-mining is at Macetown, near the head of the Arrow Eiver. There are numerous' gold-bearing reefs in this district; but hitherto, from the great difficulty of access, the expense of opening a mine has been very great, every prop and piece of machinery having had to be packed for twelve or fifteen miles over a mountain range. The formation of a dray-road at a cost of £8,000 up the gorge of the Arrow Eiver, and which was opened a few days ago for traffic, will very materially assist in the further development of this field. The quartz reefs at Skipper's and Upper Shotover have been and still are very heavily weighted also from the difficulties of access. Although a good deal has been done in road-formation during the year, much remains yet to be done before the pack-horse can be replaced by the wagon, and stone yielding under an ounce per ton made payable. On the other side of the main range from Shotover, a reef known as the Invincible has been opened out in the Eees Valley. The natural access to this mine by dray-road from the head of Lake Wakatipu is easy, and timber is procurable at small cost: there is a large body of stone, and, although it only yields about Bdwt. to the ton, the mine is paying, and promises to be a valuable property. Outlay on Gold Fields. The amount of money contributed by Government during the last two years, together with the amount that is still due on works in progress, to assist to open up and develop the gold fields of the colony is about £92,752 ; and the amount of gold that the colony has produced during the same period, as far as can be ascertained, has been 488,5500z., showing, therefore, that the Government has assisted to develop the gold, fields to the extent of about three shillings and ninepence halfpenny for every ounce of gold that has been produced. But much of this expenditure, such as the Macetown Eoad already referred to, the tramway at Te Aroha, and the roads and tracks on the West Coast, are of the nature of permanent works, and their total cost to the country is not fairly chargeable against the yield of gold during their construction. They have to be looked on rather as an investment, to be repaid by the future and further development of the gold fields. It would be well to continue the opening-out of more country by the clearing and formation of roads and tracks. A little assistance in this way is often a great aid, and the opening of a track in new country is undoubtedly the most effective means of having it thoroughly prospected. Eevenue from Gold Fields. From Eeturns Nos. 1 and 2 in Appendix, it will be seen that for the twelve months ended the 31st March, 1884, the export-duty on gold realized £23,969 Os. 4d., and the miners' rights, business licenses, rents of leases, and other mining privileges produced £28,139 ss. 4d., or, in all, a sum of £52,108 ss. Bd., which was paid over to the counties without deduction, the cost of collection and other expenses of administration on the gold fields being a charge on the consolidated revenue. Departmental. The department lost the valuable services of its Under-Secretary, the late Mr. Oliver Wakefield, through the sad accident at Dunedin on the 20th March last, which deprived him of life and the public service of a most honourable and
upright man, conscientious in the discharge of duty, with a kindliness and courtesy of manner that endeared him most to those who knew him best. I greatly regret the loss of an official associate I held in such high personal respect and esteem. The Government, having had to consider new arrangements, decided to amalgamate the Gold Fields Department with that of Crown Lands, Mr. H. J. H. Eliott being Under-Secretary of both departments. I have to acknowledge, with thanks, returns of revenue, and of gold exported, received from the Secretary to the Treasury, Mr. Gavin, and the Secretary of Customs, Mr. Seed. J. McKerrow.
BEPOET ON GOLD FIELDS, ETC., VISITED, AND WORKS IN PROGRESS ON GOLD FIELDS. Mr. H. A. Gordon, Inspecting Engineer, to the Undeb-Secretaby, Mines Department, Wellington. g IE _ Mines Department, Wellington, 20th May, 1884_. _ I have the honour to forward you annual report on the gold fields that I have visited during the year, and on the various works, either subsidized or wholly constructed by Government, that are in progress for the development of the mines throughout the colony. NORTH ISLAND. Te Aeoh\ —This field may be said to be only opening, for, although claims have been held and worked for nearly two years, there was no quartz crushed from any of them until November last, when the completion of the tramway (which was constructed by the County Council, with subsidies from the Mines Department, at a cost of about £18,000, including rolling-stock of which sum the Government contributed £9,000, and the use of 156 tons of 401b. iron rails) enabled the quartz to be brought from the principal mines to the crushing battery at Waiorongomai Township, which was erected by Messrs. Firth and Clark, of Auckland, as a crushing plant for the field. The returns from some of the mines on this gold field are very encouraging, especially the New-Imd and Colonist Mines, which have averaged about 1-Joz. of gold per ton since they have been opened; and, when the thickness of the quartz lodes in these mines is taken into consideration—viz., from 41b. to bit., and in some places Bft.—it must be extremely gratifying to all those who have invested capital in them, and likewise to those who have an interest in the welfare of the district. Not only are they getting this percentage of gold out of the quartz from the crushing battery but the tailings are giving an equal percentage after being treated in the berdans. When I visited this gold held in December last quartz from five of the principal mines at that time was tested at the battery—viz., the NewFind Colonist, Premier, Werahiko, and Waitoki. Out of these the Waitoki was the only mine that did not prove payable for working, the quartz from that mine only averaging sdwt. per ton ; but since then the Premier and Werahiko have not turned out so well as was at first anticipated. Mines like the New-Find and Colonist, which have a largo body of stone, will pay with a much smaller percentage of gold than they are averaging at present. There were other mines, which had notihen had an opportunity of being tested, that showed gold pretty freely. There are thirty registered companies on this field, besides private-claim holdings. The registered capital of these companies represents in the aggregate £637,000, of which about £20,317 have been called up; and from the present appearance of these companies' mines, there will only be a small percentage of them compared witn those on other quartz fields that will not pay for working. Some of the lodes are very small, but the quartz is rich. The character of the gold is extremely fine, and averages about £2 16s per ounce : it is diffused in bands through the stone, the same as though the gold had been ground to the finest flour, and peppered into the quartz when they were in a plastic state.- Ihe crushing battery and gold-saving appliances that Messrs. Firth and Clark have erected is one of the most complete plants there is in the colony: they have spared no expense to-render it effective but the fine character of the gold, and the way in which it is diffused through the stone, requires special manipulation to extract it. Therefore, although every credit is due to those gentlemen, who have erected a plant which is reputed to have cost about £20,000, and has been the means of proving this field, there is something still wanting to extract more of the gold before it leaves the tables to run into the tailing-pits, there to undergo a second process; and until this is done the crushing machinery cannot be said to be anything like perfect More attention has been devoted to this subject in America than in the colonies; but this is no doubt owing to it being an older field, where more experience has been gained in extracting and separating the various minerals that are mixed with the gold and quartz. In addition to the present crushing plant, which consists of 41 head of stamps and 12 berdans, Messrs. Firth and Clark are erecting a large tailmg-plant of 64 berdans, 3ft. 6in. in diameter, 35 of which are at present in position. These are covered over by a large building 80ft. long and 40ft. wide, having 14ft. walls, and a double roof covered with corrugated iron, and the floor of this building is about 22ft. below the level of the end of the tables of the crushing battery. Alongside the berdans there is a series of pits to serve as receptacles for tailings from the crushing battery, and these pits are connected with boxes or shoots from the different battery tables so that any company using five or ten heads of stamps, their tailings flow directly into the pits alongside the berdlns that Le treating them. After the berdans have done reduced the tailings into a pulp, the sludge flows from them into a common channel at the end of which there s arable covered with electro-plate, Bft. by 4ft., where everything must travel over before it gets finally away, and to each side of this electro-plate there is a wire connected from an electric battery, to pass a current of electricity through the plate, so as to keep the quicksilver lively and active The whole of this plant is to be driven with a Pelton hurdy-gurdy water-wheel, 4ft. hi diameter. These wheels are now coming into use at the Thames, and will be described when mentioning the different machinery on that field. It is placed m a pit outside the building, he bot om of B which is 16ft. under the level of the floor, and the same water that..« .used for orrvmg the crushing plant is brought down on a flume into a vertical pipe 2ft. 6m. m diameter and 37ft. long,
haying a bell-mouth of 4ft. 6in. at the top; at the bottom of the pipe or column is fixed a nozzle 3-|in. in diameter, to drive the hurdy-gurdy wheel. The manner in which the several mines on the field are connected with the battery are deserving of notice. It is by a series of self-acting inclines and tramways, following a contour line along the side of the range. The first incline is about 15 chains in length, and at the upper end it is connected with points and crossings with a single line of tramway, which follows alongside of the range for about 68 chains. On this portion of the tramway it is intended to use a locomotive engine, which has been specially constructed for the purpose, and is now lying at the side of the Thames River ; but the sharp curves, and short distance that the locomotive could bo worked on, will debar it working more economically than the present method, which is with horses ; besides, the sharp curves would render it liable to have more accidents. From the end of this tramway is another incline 25 chains in length, and thence another tramway along the side of the range for about a mile, thence another incline for 18 chains, and thence another tramway alongside of range in a northerly direction as far as the Premier Mine, and in a southerly direction for about 12 chains. The reason of the tramway being brought on the several levels is to have it well under the quartz workings, and adjacent to the principal mines that were taken up when it was first laid out. These mines are now connected to it with shoots and hoppers. The whole of the inclines and tramways are constructed with iron rails. The inclines, at the time of my visit, were not working so satisfactorily as they might have been : the brakes and gearing were so placed that it required two men to work each incline, whereas they ought to be so fixed that one man is sufficient. The charge for conveying the quartz from the mines to the battery was at first 2s. 6d. per ton, but this has been raised since to 4s. 6d.; and the charge for crushing 10s. per ton: making the total cost of 14s. 6d. per ton after the quartz is placed in the hopper—the value of about sJdwts. of gold. The construction of this tramway by the Piako County Council and Mines Department, and likewise the enterprising manner in which Messrs. Firth and Clark have erected crushing machinery, has given this field such a start as no other field in the colony ever had, and it is now gratifying to find that it has the appearance of proving a good field for mining ventures; but it will yet have to be further developed, and the reefs tested to a much greater depth, before its permanence can be established. The total quantity of quartz crushed from all the mines on this field up to the 31st March last (as taken from the Mining Inspector's report) is 4,316 tons, yielding 4,5460z. lldwt. 12gr. of gold; and the number of quartz miners employed is 160. There are 585 acres held by the different companies and private-claim holders, at a yearly rental of £1,847. Kabangahake.-—Very little work has been done on this field since my last visit. There are no new claims at work, and in those that are opened there is scarcely any work done, with the exception of the Hauraki Company's mine. There seems to be a great apathy displayed in prospecting, and. probably may continue so until the various mines at Te Aroha are thoroughly tested. The claims on this field are badly held, so to speak. A large amount of money is required to develop the mines, and they are mostly held by working men, who have not sufficient capital to open them out properly, and they place too high a value on their shares to induce men of capital to join and assist them. It seems to be a country where quartz-reefs are likely to be found all the way along the range to Te Aroha; but it is questionable if the reefs here are a continuation of the Te Aroha reefs, although they are in the same line of country : both the quartz and the gold seem to be of slightly different character, and I did not observe the hard flinty substance in the Te Aroha reefs that is found alongside the quartz lode in the Hauraki Company's mine. This mine is connected by a wire tramway with the crushing battery at the junction of the Ohinemuri River and the Waitawheta Creek, but the quartz yet obtained is of a poor quality. The Golden Crown Company have done very little work in their mine during the year: the stone is of a payable nature on the outcrop near the surface, and some very rich specimens have been found; but following their reef into the hill it gets more broken, and has the appearance of a slip from the main range, and until further prospecting is done and the reef traced into a solid country it cannot bo said to have. a permanent appearance. There is a quartz-lode extending from the Hauraki Company's mine, across the top of the mountain near the trig, station, and can be traced for a considerable distance ; but no prospecting is done here beyond what has been done by the Dubbo Company, which is very little. The County Council has constructed a road, with subsidy from the Mines Department, from the crushing battery at Waitawheta Creek to the Martha Claim, a distance of about two and a half miles; it is 8 feet wide in the solid, and formed with grades not steeper than 1 in 10 up to the Hauraki Company's mine, and thence along the face of the range on a grade of lin 19. This will give facilities to the several claims to have their quartz tested at the battery, but, when, once they are proved to be payable, a crushing battery will have to be erected further up the Waitawheta Creek before the mines can bo economically worked. The continuation of the road from the Martha Claim towards Te Aroha is now in course of construction, being likewise subsidized by the Mines Department. It was thought most advisable to construct this portion 4 feet wide in the solid on easy grades, so that it could be widened into a dray-road at a future time if required. By constructing a narrow horse-track it will afford facilities to get the whole of the field prospected, as provisions and tools, &c, can be easily brought on the ground.* Owhaeoa.—The mines here continue to be profitably worked : the facilities there are for getting out the stone and crushing makes a small percentage of gold pay. The claims and crushing battery are alongside the main road that leads up the Ohinemuri River. Waihi.—This field was first opened in 1879, and several claims have been worked; but at the present time there are only two claims on the field, one of which—the Martha Extended Company— is paying fair dividends. There is a large body of stone which is worked in an open face, and has
* Mr. Atkin lias kindly forwarded mo information that a fresh discovery of gold has been made in the Ohinemuri District, at Ratakuhu, by Mr. Hunt, the discoverer of the famous Shotover Claim at the Thames. It was supposed to be 4oz. to soz. stone, but on crashing five tons of it tho yield was a little over loz. per ton. The quartzlodo varies from Ift. to 3ft. in thickness, and, as it is in a very rough and broken country, no idea can yet be formed of its extent or real value.
the appearance more of a quarry than a quartz lode. The mines are situate about two miles from the Ohinemuri Eiver, where a crushing battery of 30 head of stamps and 4 berdans are erected, driven by a turbine water-wheel, and the battery is connected with the mines by a horse-tramway. There are good roads, and every facility for working the mines, on this field. The manager informed mo that quartz containing gold to the value of 10s. per ton pays all expenses for getting out and r*T"ii Waitekauei.—There is very littledoing on this field. Some patches of good stone are occasionally got, but not sufficient to keep the crushing battery fully employed. Tho principal workings are in the Waitekauri Company's mine. This company has a crushing battery of 30 heads of stamps and 12 berdans, situated about two miles from the mines, and is connected with a series of incline tramways, which at the present time are in a bad state of repair, and show that they are not much used. The County Council, being subsidized by the Mines Department, have improved the road from Katikati to Waitekauri, and made it passable for drays to get to the crushing battery, which is all that is required. The present prospects of this field do not warrant any large expenditure being made. , , , . ~ ~, i Thames.—The quartz reefs on this field have far exceeded those m any other part of tho colony for richness when it is borne in mind that one of the mines a few years ago produced gold to that extent that the company declared over £600,000 in dividends. This, together with the numerous mines that have been and are now profitably worked, extending over a large tract of country, shows that it is a field deserving attention, and likewise one that may still bo expected to be a large goldproducer Among the mines that are at present working, the Prince Imperial may be said to take the lead as a dividend-paying mine. A little over two years ago this mine was supposed to be worked out and when put up to auction was sold, with winding machinery, for about £200. Ihe fortunate purchasers had scarcely concluded the bargain when they struck the reef at a few feet deeper level, and have since received £52,000 in dividends. This company has connected its workings by a winze - from the tunnel, leading from the bottom of the big-pump shaft at the 640 ft. level, and is still continuing to pay good dividends. How far the reef continues to go down and contains gold ot a payable nature remains yet to be proved. On the 640 ft. level, where the winze goes up from the tunnel the reef is very narrow. It may only be termed a vein of quartz, which is not ot a payable nature' Still, the reef may make again going down; but the expense of sinking the big-pump shaft and opening out again at lower levels, will entail enormous outlay, and, unless rich stone is found going down below the present level of the tunnel, either by sinking a winze or by boring with the aid of a diamond drill, there is little chance of the company incurring so large an expenditure. The crushing machinery on this field is far more complete than it is on any field m the Middle Island but the mining plants are greatly inferior. They have, however, recently commenced working with a rock drill in the Caledonian Low-level Mine, the use of which has enabled the company to drive their tunnel at the rate of 33 feet per week, at the cost of £1 13s. per foot, including rails, sleepers, and air-boxes; whereas the lowest contract that was ever carried out in similar ground at the low levels was £2 9s. 6d. per foot. This shows clearly that there is a great saving to be effected in driving tunnels with improved mining machinery. Not only is the rate per foot less, but it enables the tunnel to be constructed twice as fast as it could be done by hand labour; and to any company that has to contend with a large body of water or pay for drainage, the same as the Caledonian Low-level Company has, viz., £65 per month, it becomes a matter of great importance to get the work done as rapidly as possible. There, is a new description of water-wheel, recently erected by G W Bull at Hape Creek, known as the Pelton water-wheel, which is causing quite a sensation as regards a motive-power for working machinery. It is termed " a hurdy-gurdy water-wheel, and is 6ft in diameter over all, with 12|-m. breast. A wood-cut of this wheel appeared in the Californian Scientific Press " at the beginning of September last, on account of it having given the highest tests at a public competition made by the Idaho Mining Company with the view of determining the best description and most effective motive-power, combining cheapness, simplicity, and economy. Mr. Bull was so thoroughly satisfied with the description of the experiments that were made with this wheel that he had one constructed, which now drives his crushing battery at Hape Creek, consisting of 13 heads of stamps, 5001b. each, and 6 berdans. The stamps make seventy blows per minute, and have 10 inches drop. The quantity of water used is 216 cubic feet per minute, and has a head of 34ft., therefore giving about 81 per cent, of the power of the water. In coniunction with Mr. Aitken, the County Engineer at the Thames, I conducted some experiments to get the power of the different water-wheels at the Thames, that being a place where the exact bead of water is known at the various wheels, and where there is a gauge-box placed to measure the Quantity of water they use ; and the result was, that this wheel gave about 12 per cent, more power than the best constructed Leffel turbine, the tangent wheel giving the next highest percentage The extreme simplicity of these, as well as the tangent wheels, together with their cheapness of construction, not being liable to go out of repair, and the high percentage that they give, will always recommend them in preference to overshot or turbine wheels, more especially as they do not cost more than one-third the cost of the latter. The only difference from the tangent wheel is, that the buckets are bolted on the outside of the rim, and throw the water on each side. The water coming from the nozzle strikes the bucket, which has a vein in the centre that divides the water, and by means of a parabolic curve, turns it outwards on each side. The County Council, with subsidy from the Mines Department, has constructed and improved the road up Waiatohi Creek to the Bright Smile Mine, which enables the quartz to be brought down from all the mines in tins neighbourhood to the crushing batteries on the flat at Grahamstown. The Council has likewise improved the road up Karaka Creek to Lucky-hit Company's mine, which enables all the companies in this locality to get ample communication with their mines. The road from the Otanui mines to the crushing battery at Mangakerikeri Creek is now in course of construction, and when completed, will afford ample facility to get the quartz from all the mines in this neighbourhood to the battery. A subsidy S likewise been authorized to construct a track up Mangakerikeri Creek from the battery, to
enable the miners to get supplies when prospecting the country, and a subsidy has also been authorized for metalling Kaueranga Valley Eoad to Otanui Creek, and a road from Tapu battery to the mines. The former is to enable heavy machinery to be taken up to the mines, and the latter to connect the mines with the present crushing battery erected at Tapu Creek. Coeomandel. —This field at present is not in a flourishing condition. A great many of the principal mines are merely prospecting. The Kapanga Company, which is entirely held by English capitalists, have expended a large sum of money in trying to develop their mine, without so far being successful. Occasionally they get a small reef containing payable gold, but the amount of the proceeds is not sufficient to pay working expenses. This in some measure is due to the class of machinery they employ, especially the pumping engine, which is one of the very old type of beam engines, and requires a large amount of fuel to work it: and there is no improved mining machinery used in the mine. Where so large an amount of prospecting and cross-cutting is being carried on, the rock and underground diamond drills could be employed to good advantage. Not only could the tunnels be driven at a cheaper rate per foot, but they would likewise be constructed at least twice as fast as by ordinary hand labour; and therefore a considerable saving would be made on the surface expenditure, as it has to be the same whether carried on slowly or quickly. The gold is likewise very patchy, as it is in the whole of this district, and may be termed more as a specimen reef. The manager, Captain Thomas, showed me a specimen that he obtained from the mine that would average 2oz. of gold to every pound of quartz; but, unfortunately, these are not got in large quantities. There is a deal of metallic arsenic in this mine, which has gold regularly diffused through it. They are now collecting it, and intend sending it to England to be treated, as they have hitherto failed at the mine to extract the gold from this substance. Some good specimen stone was being obtained in the Just-in-Time Mine, at the time of my visit, but the reef here is likewise very narrow. The most prosperous part of the district seemed to be at Matawai, where Vaughan's Claim is situate : the reef in this mine was from 2ft. to 3ft. thick, and very rich specimens were obtained from it, and, after picking out all the specimen stone, the balance was expected to average 2oz. to the ton. However, this reef was only lately opened out, and the stone is near the surface; whether it will continue to go down is a question which has yet to be solved. The County Council, with subsidy from Government, has constructed during the year several roads and tracks to assist in developing the mines in the district. These are as follow: — Dray-road to Kapanga Mine. —The upper portion of this was formerly a very narrow drayroad, and the amount of traffic between tho township and the mine cut the road up to such an extent that in winter-time it became almost impassable, and the Kapanga Company had great difficulty in conveying a sufficient quantity of coal to keep their pumping and winding engines at work, together with other supplies, which amounted in all to about 150 tons per month. This road is now widened into a. 14ft. dray-road, and metalled, at a cost of £132. Extension of Vaughan and Vizard's Track. —This track is in course of construction : it is parried on almost a contour line along tho side of the range, and when completed will enable the different claim-holdors to get the quartz from their mines in this locality taken to the crushing battery at Matawai Creek. £150 has now been spent on this work in progress payments : the total cost when completed is estimated to be £300. Dray-road to lona and Just-in-Time Mines. —This road was previously formed, but not metalled, and the soft nature of the material that was used in the formation would not allow drays to be used'except in very dry weather. The road is now improved and metalled, and with ordinary maintenance can be kept in good repair. The cost of doing the work was £200. Making and Improving Track from Tokatea towards Kennedy Bay .—This was formerly a narrow horse-track, which was not fit to work sledges on satisfactorily, to convey the quartz from Tokatea Saddle to the Tokatea Company's battery. This track has now been widened, and the grades reduced, so that a dray with narrow-gauge wheels can be used. During the construction of this road a very heavy flood occurred in the district, which caused numerous slips from the side of the range, making the construction of the track more costly than was first estimated. It has now cost £320, and will require a further sum of £50 to complete it. Continuation of Track from Success Company's Mine to Top of Banga. —This work is now completed, and has cost £80. It gives a direct line of communication from the upper township to the opposite side of the range, and enables supplies to be more readily taken to the mines. Improving Track from Tokatea Saddle to Waikoromiko. —This is a track which was formerly made on a contour line along the side of the range, but numerous slips had taken place from time to time aud rendered the track impassable for horse-traffic. Claims are being worked here and there along the side of the range, and this track is the only means of communication with them. It is now repaired, and widened in places, and will be a great benefit to the community residing in this neighbourhood. The cost of the work has been £50. Bing's Bridge to Kapanga Road. —This is a work which had to be taken in hand owing to the heavy floods that occurred in the district in July last. The quantity of debris that the floodwater brought down the creek filled its bed up to near a level with the ordinary surface of the ground, and the creek, where it came close to the Kapanga Eoad, formed a horseshoe bend, so that in time of floods the water flowed over and cut away the bank at this level, and was rapidly washing away the road. A new channel for the creek has been constructed, cutting off the horseshoe bend, and the road repaired at a cost of £150. Subsidies on several other works have likewise been authorized during the year, but there is no work done on them yet. They will appear in the schedule of works appended hereto. When the whole of the works authorized are completed a fair line of communication will be established for opening up and developing the field, which no doubt has hitherto been greatly retarded by having no means of getting supplies brought into the country to prospect it. Teeawhiti.—This field is almost at a standstill at present. The Success and Golden Crown Companies are driving a low-level tunnel to try and cut the reef, but they have not succeeded yet
in finding any quartz lode that is payable. The whole of the country is very broken, and the fcKfa of rock are turned and twisted in every direction : so that very little reliance can be v aced in findni"the reef at a low level, as the quartzJode that was found near the surface m the Golden Crown Company's ground may have been a slip or slide from the top of the range. On my las vSittoXs field, in December last, I went through all the workings of the Golden Crown Mine, and the appearance „ the quartz-lode then was entirely different to what it was at the. time of my former visit The vein or lode does not appear to be continuous for any length; but it is more like bloX of quartz thrown up here and there, giving it all the appearance of a slip The present tunnel is scarcely at a low enough level to test the hill thoroughly, and even if it cut a quartz lode containing gold it has a fair chance of being almost equally as broken as it is near the surface. MIDDLE ISLAND. Westiand • ToTAEA.-The principal gold-workings in this district are at Ross Donaghue's, and Wootoock On my former visit the Ross Extended Gold-Mmmg. Company had commenced to s__? their shaft below the level of the drainage tail-race, which is 90ft. under the level of the surface This tail-race is constructed at as low a level as will dram the water to high-water mark on the sea-beach : it is about a mile in length, and the upper portion of it is a tunnel, constructed 3ft 6m wide and 6ft. high in the clear, having props and caps placed 4ft. apart from centre to centre aid close-lathed throughout. The main shaft is now 312 ft. deep below the original surface, and is'l2ft by Bft. in the clear, having three compartments/viz., two for winding, and one comZint for the pumps. At he level of the tail-race there is a large chamber constructed m which are ejected two hydraulic engines with cylinders each 18|m. m diameter and 9ft. stroke, under a head of water of 314 ft. At the time of my former visit there was only one engine erected but when the shaft was sunk to a depth of 165 ft. below, the level of the. tail-race the mfantrtv of water there was to contend with was too much for the single engine to raise. The two and are working four sets of pumps 14|inm diameter, and it reg uhes them to be worked at their maximum speed to keep down the water. There are likewise a double cylinder hydraulic engine for raising and lowering the pump-rods and columns, and a mesent the drift from the sinking of the shaft is hauled up m buckets, by a reversible overshot Lter wheel 30ft in diameter ; but as soon as the sinking of the shaft is completed cages will be uZ? and a reversibleT turbine water-wheel for winding. This reversible turbme-wheel IS erected and ready fofusei is of special construction, patented by Camilla Malfroy, of Ross, the mining manageSS the company, and the only reversible turbine-wheel there is m the colonies. It is SSf m its construction easily set in motion, very compact, perfectly under control and can be stopped almost instantaneously, as far as can be done without causing a sudden jerk on the tee h of the SinTwheels. The dimensions of this turbine-wheel are as follow: * Diameter, 3ft.; depth or vidthof whlelloin.; depth of orifice, S^in.; and number of orifices, 16.. It is. a wheel specially Sed for winding purposes, and reflects credit on its inventor for the ingenuity displayed m its coXuctioii This° company with having so large a quantity of water to contend with, have exnorfenLd groat difficulty in sinking their shaft, and in getting men to work m it: hey have had to fay 12s pe ß ! day of six-hour shifts to each man employed, and a bonus per foot m addition As his is ?he only deep shaft in alluvial workings in New Zealand which is sunk through a peculiar formation, a descriitiSofTnlay be interesting, Ihowing the different strata gone through For the first 20 ti beow the surface the formation is a heavy drift gravel, then a layer of loose drift about Jt. tfock contlining a good deal of water, thence a gold-bearing stratum a>eut ;4& . < 3ui *-k tWe 50ft of vorv tight heavy gravel, thence another gold-bearing stratum about 6ft. thick, thence 4Uit. through five dstfoct strata of mullocky clay and loose drift containing a heavy body of water, thence another^gold-bearing stratum about 6ft. thick, thence for the next 52ft through three layers of clay 3 stonfs two layers of conglomerate, one- layer of loose watery drift and three hick layers of Wv gravel and Moulders containing a little gold, thence another gold-bearing stratum about sft. „_TffilhS for the next 90ft. through three heavy layers of gravel containing a little gold, two layers of clay and one layer of conglomerate, thence another gold-bearing stratum about 4ft. intSness See through 7ft. of gravel containing a little gold, thence another gold-bearing stratmnSft 'thfck thence for the next 37ft. through one layer of mullocky clay, one thin layer of or Maori bottom, and two layers of gravel containing a little gold, thence another goldbearing stratum 4ft thick, thence coming on the gravel, and are still sinking. They have therefore seven different beds or strata containing gold that, is supposed to be payable for woTk-'ng on a wholesale cheap method. The depth of their shaft is now about 212 ft under seafovel andnosTgn o any properly-defined bottom, such as slate or sandstone, has yet been met wrrh A sketch plan of this company's hydraulic pumping engines, and section of shaft, showing If varfous strata gone through, was kindly forwarded to me by Mr. Camille. Malfroy, copies of A description of these hydraulic pumping engines is as follows : The 22in. in diameter and 1,400 ft. long, to.the distributing chamber ofcXdriLT tank which is made of boiler-plate half an inch thick, and rivetted together the same as asteam-boiler this chamber is placed oil the surface near the mouth of the shaft, and from it a dast-iroHipe 12im in diameter is led down the shaft to the chamber where the engines are placed, v hero his deduced in branches to 7*in. in diameter. The balance or differential piston-valves, which represent the slide-valves, to admit and discharge the water to and from the mam. cylinder Tre Sin and lOin in diameter respectively : these pistons are worked by another small piston n a cvunderformin-a portion of what Is termed the « octopus," on account of its numerous branches ?KSiSWvJ?to the engines by a sliding crank motion connected to the plunger-pole (marked _? and by a sSond crank (marked M), which is connected to the piston-rod m the cylinder of the "octopus l (marked C). This turns a small quantity of water on the large end of the differentialpiston S driving it down until the smaller end of the piston is below the aperture connecting he the supply-pipe (E); the pressure of water then causes the piston m the
main cylinder (A) to rise to the top, lifting the plunger-pole, to which are attached the necessary connections to work the lift-pumps. As the plunger-pole moves upwards, the crank motion connecting with it and the piston that works in the octopus (C) closes the supply, and opens the exhaust on the top of the differential-piston (B), which allows it to rise and close the supply-pipe (E) of the main cylinder, and open the exhaust-pipe (F). The weight of the plunger-pole then brings down the main piston, and the same motion again takes place. There are likewise two cocks in the supply and exhaust-pipe from the balance-valve or piston working in the octopus (C), by which the motion of tho differential-piston (B) can either be accelerated or retarded, as may be required, without causing scarcely any concussion. The pumps that this engine works are fixed at different depths, as will be seen on section of shaft where the tanks are placed. The cost of working this machinery is very trifling in comparison with what it cost formerly to pump the water out of this flat about twelve years ago, when a steam-engine working at about 90 horse-power was employed, The weekly expenditure then was from £100 to £120; whereas this machinery can be worked with four sluice-heads of water at say £3 per head per week, or £12, and the other expenses, when the sinking of the shaft is completed, will be about £4 10s. per week: making the total cost of working £16 10s. per week. This company has let some portions of the upper levels or gold-bearing layers to parties to work on tribute, but the results from working them has so far not been successful. In addition to 100 acres which they hold as a mining lease, they have purchased several claims and leases from small mining companies, and are now the holders of almost the whole of Boss Plat. They intend working the upper levels that are above the level of their underground tail-race by hydraulic-sluicing it in a face into a pit, and to erect elevators, to work on the principle of a dredge, to lift the tailings from this pit to the surface, allowing only muddy water from the sluice to. get into, the tail-race. There are two hydraulic sluicing companies on this field, which are conducting sluicing operations on a large scale; but the quantity of water they have at their command is not nearly sufficient to carry away the debris and mullock from the great depth of ground they are working.. These companies are the "Greenland" and "Mount D'Or." The former is working with a "new hydraulic nozzle, which was imported from California, constructed with universal joints in the ordinary manner, and likewise a joint on the mouth-piece of the nozzle, so that the water can be directed, by the aid of a small lever, to whatever portion of the face it is required to strike without moving the main portion of the nozzle. It is certainly a great improvement on the ordinary method, which requires an unwieldy pipe to be continually handled about. The Mount DOr Company is making provision for an electric light, so that the men can work continually, day and night: at present they only work during daylight, as their face is a great height, and the space where the stuff rolls down is in a narrow gully, where the stones have to be broken up before the quantity of water at the company's command can wash them away. This company has rented the portion of the Mikonui Water-race that is constructed, until such time as it is required, for £100 per annum. Donaghue's.—A large company has taken up the old working ground in Donaghue's Plat, and has brought up a tail-race from the sea-beach about three-quarters of a mile in length, and commenced to sluice all the ground from the level of the tail-race, and to lift the tailings with elevators which are fixed on an endless-link chain, on the same principle as a dredging plant. It may be termed a dredge working on a stationary frame, having one end placed at the tailings-pit, and set up at an. angle of forty-five degrees to the surface, and fixed to a frame or trestle-work at the top to carry the dredging appliance some distance above the surface, so as to lift the tailings high enough to get trucks under the shoot where the buckets empty, and run away and stack the tailings on the ground. The buckets are placed about 2ft. 6in. apart, and hold about 7 cubic feet each. The lip or mouth-piece of each bucket has a steel lip or band round it to prevent it wearing away quickly. The company, estimates that the dredging plant is capable of lifting about a hundred tons per hour. The dredge is worked by a turbine water-wheel of thirty horse-power, constructed on the Whitlow principle. The whole of the plant was constructed by Messrs. McQueen and Co., of Dunedin. There is another large company between Boss and Donaghue's, bringing up a tail-race from the sea-beach to work the ground in a similar manner near Swiper's Gully. If these companies are successful with their dredging appliances, and are able to get clear of the sludge which will necessarily lodge to a great extent in the tail-races, it will be the means of a great deal of ground being worked in this neighbourhood. WooDSTOCK.—There is still a considerable number of miners working on this field, but a great number of the claims are worked out, and the population is not so large as it was last year; but some of those that are working are making fair wages. There is very little water on the field : the wash-dirt is driven out, hauled up shafts to the surface by the aid of horse-whims, stacked in paddocks, and when there is water it is box-sluiced. Waimea. —The whole of the workings on this field are principally confined to hydraulic sluicing. The miners in this district chiefly get water from the Government water-race, which enables them to earn small wages. This water-race, although paying but merely nominal interest on the cost of construction, is the means of maintaining a steady population in tho district. The best of the ground has no doubt been worked out, but there is a large area of auriferous country yet left, which, although poor, is expected to pay small wages for working. It was to enable this district to be worked that the Government constructed the Waimea Water-race: its construction up to the present time, not including any branches leading towards the Kumara Gold Eield, has cost about £118,575 15s. 2d.; and the revenue accruing from sales of water, after deducting the expenses of maintenance for the year, is £1,076 3s. 7d., or nearly 1 per cent, on the capital invested; while the population, including the families supported by the mines that it maintains, is about 600. There is about a mile of fluming across two low valleys between the Kawhaka Creek and the Christchurch Boad, which is beginning to show considerable signs of decay. A good number of the trestle-legs and bracing will shortly have to be replaced. There are four different descriptions of timber used in the trestle-work here, viz., totara, kawhaka, silver pine, and rata. The decay is
Wholly confined to the two former : the totara round legs in almost every instance are considerably decayed; the kawhaka seems to stand a little better than the totara, but where nails and bolts go. through it the wood is in a decayed state, and in some instances the heads of the nails can be, with ease, drawn through the timber. The silver pine and rata trestles are as sound as on the day they were constructed. This shows that, wherever the two latter kinds of timber can be obtained at a moderate cost, they are the most economical to use. The other bridges and flumes along the line of race appear to be in fair condition. Kumaea.—This field is confined entirely to hydraulic sluicing, and is worked by water from the Kumara Water-race and the Okuku Company's race. The Kumara Water-race was originally commenced by a private company, but was purchased by Government in 1877, who completed its construction, and afterwards enlarged its dimensions, in order to bring a larger supply of water on to the field. Recently a reservoir has been constructed in the Kapitia Valley above the loop-line road to store water, so that the supply can be kept up in dry weather. It is capable of supplying 100 heads of water for twelve hours per day for about three weeks, but in very dry weather the supply of waiter available is not equal to the present demand. The cost of this water-race up to the present time has been about £37,367 4s. In conjunction with this water-race the Government constructed the Kumara Sludge-channel as a tail-race, to enable a large area of flat ground to be worked: it was. originally 85 chains in length, constructed in a tunnel. The lower 40 chains of it is 10ft. wide and sft. high above the top of the channel, and the upper 45 chains 7ft. wide and the same height. But since the workings commenced the tailings from the channel have filled up a large valley between the mouth of the tunnel and tho Teremakau River to such an extent that the boxing of the channel has been carried out for a further distance of about 30 chains, and very soon will bo at the edge of the Teremakau River. Tho cost of constructing this sludge-channel up to the present time has been £17,200 12s. 6d. The cost of maintaining the channel has been very heavy, and has far exceeded all estimates that were ever made. It was originally paved with wooden blocks set on end, Bin. deep; but the cost of replacing them was so great that stone paving was tried, and in order to' get paving of a greater depth the sides of the channel have been raised, and 14-in. pavmg-stones used. About 2 chains of cast-iron blocks have likewise been used, and the result of tho cost of the different classes of paving, from careful observations of the manager during the last twelve months for the lower 70 chains of the channel, where the wear and tear are the greatest (m tho upper portion of the channel the wear is not nearly so great), is shown in the followingtable :— °
The last item is calculated on the basis that cast-iron blocks are to be of hematite iron, and can be placed in position in the chaunel at £16 per ton, which would probably be done at this rate for a largo quantity. The cast-iron blocks at present in use cost about £18 10s. per ton. The above table shows the cost of stone paving to be much less than any other. The cost of different-classes of paving has been taken in the channel near the mouth of the tunnel; therefore the wear is all under the same conditions. The stone paving no doubt reduces the carrying capacity of the channel to some extent; but the manager, who has had every opportunity of making careful observations, states that the difference in the carrying capacity of the channel between the stone and wood paving would be not more than one party each shift, and, as there are three shifts working in the channel, and seven parties each shift, if it were wholly paved with wooden blocks, instead of accommodating twenty-one parties each day, it would enable twenty-four parties to work. Therefore, taking this as the basis to work on, the total revenue derived from parties using the channel last year amounted to £2,128185. 3d.; and, if one-eighth more parties had been able to use it, the revenue would have been increased by £266 2s. 3d., and the wear and tear of the blocks would also be increased in equal proportion. The cost of maintenance for the year was £6,405105. Bd.: this would be increased by £800 13s. 10d., showing a still greater loss on working. However, the water-race and sjudge-channel have to be taken together, and the conjoint result of the workings shows a profit of £1,886 17s. Id., or nearly 3-| per cent, on the capital invested, the total cost of construction being £54,564. 16s. 6d. This field will take a number of years to work out, but the limited space that there is for tailings will soon become a question that will demand attention, as they will be carried into the Teremakau River, and will gradually fill up its bed, and cause the flood-water to damage tho property along its banks, for which compensation will no doubt be required. Humphrey's Gully. —There are large works in course of construction here to enable the whole of the drift terraces in the neighbourhood to be sluiced away in a wholesale manner into the valley of the Arahura River. These works are being constructed by the Humphrey's Gully Company, which is formed with a capital of £150,000. They have constructed an open ditch for a distance of about five miles, capable of carrying about one hundred heads of water, and near Milltown there is about three-quarters of a mile in length of a ponderous aqueduct, which resembles more a canal than a water-race, very substantially constructed; and they are at the present time constructing a reservoir to store water, and tunnelling through the range to get the water on to the mining leases. When these works arc complete, and a tail-race constructed, a commencement will be made to work their
Class of Paving. Cost per Chain placed in Position. Number of Weeks that Paving lasts. Cost per Woek per Chain of Paving. Cost per Annum for Maintaining tho Pavement in lowor 70 Chains-of Channel. Wooden blocks 14in. deep Stone blocks 14in. deep Iron blocks 3in. deep £ s. 14 10 38 10 184 16 d. 0 0 0 7 34 91 £ s. d. 2 15 1 2 10 2 0 7 £ s. d. 7540 0 0 4121 15 4 7392 0 0
ground ; but it is still a question whether the present supply of water will be sufficient to canyon fheh extensive operations, and if not the water-race will have to be extended to the *™Ugeks that are on a level with the race line, and possibly may have to be taken into the Arahuia Eivei before a large permanent supply in dry weather can be obtained. They have a great depth of wash SS£ fine gold Smtecf all through it, and there does not discovered, any permanent bottom. If the quantity of water anticipated, s available very pool ground will pay for working, as the quantity of dirt that can be washed will be enormous Gieat Sit is due P to Mr. P. Coinisky, of Auckland, who. has been the means of two companies constructing works of great magnitude, involving an immense expenditure, to develop the resources of this and the Boss district. The Westland County Council, being subsidized by Government is constructing the following roads and tracks : — . Tack Tom Duffer's Creek, Bowen and Okarito Road, to the Sea-Beach-A contract has beenlet for the coitructio/of this track, and the work is now will afford facilities for getting between the inland road and the ocean beach This is the only Snt_fi_£ miles on either side where there is any line of communication with the beach except in the beds of the Wanganui and Waitaha Elvers, and when these are flooded they are very && n^^B%o^x^ M^nt Gremland ,_ Thet hav e been two surveys, made of this track : the first one showed, when the plans were completed that the grades were one m three n some places When shown to the Chief Surveyor of Westland for approval, he very wisely S___S.it, and another survey has been made/and a track laid out with better grades. Plans are being prepared, and the work will very soon be ready for contract Continuation of Track from Back Creek to Eel Creek.-Two sections of this track have been let by contract, and at the time I went over it the contractor represented the work as being completed ; but it was so totally differently constructed from what was shown on the plans and specifications, that the County Engineer, who accompanied me, would not pass any portion of it. lhe county it seems, has two responsible overseers-the County Engineer, who selects and ays out lines of road all over the county, and looks after the construction of the roads on the north side of the Hokitika and Kanieri Rivers; and an overseer who looks after the construction. of all roads on the south side, and reports directly to the Council. This track, being on was under the overseer's control; the grades, drams, culverts and width of track shown on plans and specified in specification were totally disregarded, and a foot-track substituted, following the inclination of the surface of the ground. . _ _■„ _ IV o O nf Improvement and Construction of Track up Gentle Annie Terrace.-This work is in course of construction, and ought by this time to be completed, or nearly so. Boad from Duffer's Creek, Greenstone Boad, to Fifteen-mile Peg Chnstchurch Boad-This road is in course of construction; the portion of it that is nearly completed shows that the work has been carefully laid out, and plans and specifications adhered to It was originally intended for a horse-track, but a portion of it is widened into a dray-road, which will give greater facilities to get materials to the pipe-line on the Waimea Water-race, in case of any repairs being required, and enable supplies to be brought to the miners who are working m the several gullies along the line ot 1 Grey.—The principal mining centres in this district are in the vicinity of Westbrook, Cameron's, Cape Terrace, Barrytown, No-town, Nelson Creek, Orwell. Creek and Granville At Westbrook the gold-workings are chiefly confined to hydraulic sluicing; at Cameron s and Cape Terrace, to sinking and tunnelling. At Barrytown a great many of the tunnelling claims are worked out, and those parties who have water-races and a small supply of water are commencing to sluice the terraces, which have a little gold distributed all through the drift. There are thirty miners employed in the different terraces between Barrytown and Deadman s, whc> ane. reported to be making Wall wages; but they have a very limited supply of water. At No-town there is verylitt c water available for hydraulic sluicing, and the workings are chiefly confined to tunnelling There s a large area of ground and heavy deposit of drift in this neighbourhood that is reputed to.be payable for working if a large supply of water were available; but there rs no source in the vicinity of the field where this can be obtained, unless at an enormous expense At Nelson Creek the workings are wholly confined to hydraulic sluicing. The miners are supplied with water from the Nelson Greek water-race, which was constructed, and is wholly maintained, by Government. The cost of this up to the present time has been £89,833 19s. 7d„ and denved from sales of water during the year, after deducting the cost of maintenance, was £491 10s. Bd., oi a little over a half per cent on the capital invested. The bridges and flumes on this race are showing considerable signs of decay, especially wherever red-pine timber has been used : even the heart-wood of this timber is not all that can be desired, for there are some portions of a spar or boom that is apparently all of the same class of heart-wood, intermixed with red-rosm seams showing decay in small pieces here and there, while other portions of it are equally as sound as when it was put into the structure. A considerable amount of repairs have been effected by the manager, and a number of the bridges strengthened; but the state of the timber generally is such that it will have to be replaced from time to time, so long as it can be done in the ordinary course of maintenance. The known auriferous terraces that this water-race commands are getting gradually worked out, and, unless some fresh ground is opened, the receipts from this water-race will be rapidly decreasing. An enterprising gentleman on this field, Mr. M. Eoche, a storekeeper has commenced, with a party of miners, to work the Nelson Creek flat, where there is no fall for hydraulic sluicing, with the same appliance as that used by Mr. Perry in Gabriel's Gully, and if they are successfu in their effort it will be the commencement of a new era in gold-mining on this field, as there is a large area of flat ground in the valley of Nelson Creek that can be worked on this principle by water from the Nelson Creek race Mr. Eoche, on seeing a description of this appliance in the Gold Fields Report last year, sent one of his party to see Mr. Perry's appliances in Gabriel's Gully, and he was so pleased with
the satisfactory manner it worked and the quantity of material it lifted that he has commenced to erect a similar plant at Nelson Creek, to test the ground in the flats and creek-bed, where very little working has ever been done. There is another water-race in course of construction, to bring water on to the ground on the west or opposite side of Nelson Creek to where the Government race is constructed. This work is undertaken by the Band of Hope Water-race and Gold Mining Company (Limited). They are lifting the water from the right branch of Nelson Creek, about two miles above its junction with the left branch. The size of the race is 4ft. wide in the bottom, and 2ft. deep, and is constructed with a fall of Bft. per mile, which will be capable of carrying about twenty sluiceheads of water. The total length of race, when complete, will be about 4J- miles; and the cost of construction is estimated to be about £2,600. This company hold a mining lease of thirty acres, in what is known in this locality as the Deep Lead, which they intend to work, and, if they have any surplus water which they cannot use, they intend selling it to the miners. At Orwell Creek and Granville the principal workings are hydraulic sluicing, but there is very little water in this locality. The company that applied for a special claim of 200 acres, and got the same granted, on condition of bringing in a large water-supply to Orwell Creek, has either become defunct, or neglected to take up the lease, which has been returned by the Warden and cancelled. Inangahtja.—The quartz reefs in this district extend over a very large area of country. Some of them are profitably worked, while others have proved too poor for working at present. Among the principal dividend-paying mines in this district are the Welcome and Keep-it-Dark. The former mine has only lately been opened out on the first level below the main tunnel, or what, the company terms No. 6 level. The quartz lode here is about 2ft. 6in. wide and averages from loz. to 2oz. of gold per ton. This company has gone to a great outlay in erecting underground steamwinding and compressed-air machinery. There is a tunnel driven into the hill for 2,600 ft., at the end of which there is a chamber cut out, and poppet heads, winding, and compressed-air machinery erected. From this chamber there is a shaft or air-way to the surface, some 800 ft. in length. The timbering in this chamber has been executed with considerable skill: the walls are vertical for about 15ft., and then it has a Gothic arch, having the timber adzed and fitted to the exact curve of the roof. A shaft has been sunk for 150 ft. below the level <of this chamber, and divided into three compartments, viz., two winding-shafts and one ladder-way. Then winzes and tunnels are constructed, with the aid of the'compressed-air rock-drills, and the manager, Mr. Eooney, states that in driving all winzes and tunnels the rock-drills are a great saving in cost; but when the reef is narrow they are not worked much more profitably than by taking out the stone by the ordinary hand labour, but they assist materially in ventilating the mine. This company have erected a plant for crushing tailings, consisting of fifteen berdans, and a force-pump for lifting the tailings from the pit into boxes or shoots, which are placed above the level of the berdans. Two of these boxes are alongside each other, so that when the tailings-pump is filling one the other is being emptied into the berdans by a self-feeding apparatus. All the principal companies in this district have now compressed-air machinery erected for working their mines, and certainly have superior mining plants to any other portion of the colony. The underground diamond-drill belonging to the Golden Eleece Company, mentioned in my last report, has been erected and is at work in the 740 ft. level. The Globe Company have erected a crushing battery of twenty heads of stamps, and constructed an aerial tramway to connect the hoppers for holding the quartz near the mine with the battery. This tramway is about 96 chains in length, and has to go over two ranges of hills in that distance. It consists of an endless-wire rope, kept about 10ft. apart horizontally by trestles and pulleys fixed up at certain distances along its length. At each end there is an inclined round shaft about 10ft. long, on the upper end of which is placed a grooved pulley about 10ft. in diameter, having the groove large enough to admit of bucket-clips on the wire-rope; and about 3ft. from the bottom of the shaft there is a brake-pulley from 4ft. to sft. in diameter, around which there is a brake band of iron worked with the necessary lever to regulate the speed and stop the motion of the tramway when required. These shafts and pulleys are fixed to wooden framing, and the shafts are set at about right angles to the inclination of the endless rope. The framing supporting these shafts is made so that it does not project quite as far as the large-grooved pulley which is overhead, in order that the buckets that are placed on the endless rope can work round these grooved pulleys clear of the framing. Trestles are erected about from 4 to 6 chains apart along the line of tramway, having small grooved pulleys, about 16in. in diameter, placed at each end of the trestle to carry the weight of the endless rope and buckets that are placed on it. These trestles are placed at a slightly higher level than the straight line of inclination of the rope, in order to make sure of there always being sufficient weight on the pulleys to prevent the endless rope swinging off by any jerking motion. There are sixty-six buckets, each capable of holding 2cwt. of quartz, suspended from the endless rope at equal distances. These are fixed to the rope by a suspension-rod with a square knee on the upper end sufficiently long, in the portion at right angles with the vertical rod, to have a semi-round clip to receive the endless rope on the upper side and work over the top of the grooved pulley on the lower side, and to have two holes at each side of the clip. On the top of this clip there is a cap-piece, likewise made in the form of a semi-round clip, which is bolted to the lower clip, having the rope between them with two screwbolts : this holds the suspension-rods or bucket-carriers firmly to the rope. The lower ends of the suspension-rods are double-formed in shape of a bow, so as to come on each side of the buckets for carrying the quartz; each bucket is hinged to the bow, and held upright by a catch; but when, emptying it the catch is knocked off, and the bucket turns over automatically. The tramway "is constructed so that the perpendicular height and incline of the gradient at the end where the crushing battery is placed has a sufficient number of full buckets always going down to keep the endless rope in motion with the empty buckets going up, and the full ones on the ascending grade on the other side ; or it can be worked by machinery at one end by gearing from the incline shaft on which the large grooved pulley is placed. There is an ingenious arrangement at the end where the hopper is placed, near the mine, by which the buckets that are fixed stationary on the endless rope can be filled when they are in motion. This consists of a frame, which stands on a level with 2—H. 9.
the wire tramway, and has an iron bar bent round in the form of a somewhat oval link, being flat in the middle portion ; from this iron bar is suspended a small iron hopper, which travels on the bar by aid of a small pulley round the link, made so that it can shoot the quartz into the stationary buckets on the endless rope. This hopper is brought round on the iron bar until it gets under the shoot of the hopper where the quartz is emptied from the mine, and when filled is brought round to the other side of the link where the wire tramway is fixed, and as the bucket passes, this iron hopper fits in between the bow for holding the bucket; a trap-door is then raised and the quartz shot into the bucket, the hopper travelling with the bucket along the flat portion of the link, and thence round the end to the side where the quartz-hopper is placed, and filled the same as before. This tramway is capable of carrying about fifty tons of quartz to the battery in ten hours. There is an immense number of quartz reefs all over the district containing a little gold, but generally very poor, and, unless there is a large body of a lode, they do not pay for working. There is another peculiarity in all the reefs in this district, as well as those in every part of the colony, and that is, that the quartz lodes do not run continuous for any great distance : they cut out in some places in a wedge-shape, leaving only a small vein of quartz as a trace of the line of reef, and in other places they are cut straight off by a slide, leaving no trace whatever: hence they appear like isolated blocks of quartz here and there in certain belts of country. Sometimes these blocks are found running at right angles with the different strata, but generally in this district they follow the same line as the strata. The County Council, being subsidized by the Government, has constructed various roads and tracks all over the district to enable machinery to be brought to the mines, and to open up the country for prospecting. A dray-road has been constructed from Soldiers' Creek to Devil's Creek up to the Oriental Company's battery, for the purpose of getting machinery to the Globe and Oriental Companies' mines. A dray-road has also been constructed from the Inangahua Biver up Bainy Creek to the Inkermann reef, where the Inkermann Company are at present engaged in erecting a crushing battery of thirty heads of stamps, which will be driven by steam-power. This battery and steam machinery were constructed by J. Anderson, of Christchurch, who is now engaged in erecting it. A dray-road is likewise constructed from Black's Point up Murray Creek to the Inglewood and Phoenix Companies' mines : the former company have just completed the erection of a crushing battery and steam-engine, constructed by Messrs. McQueen and Co., Dunedin, and are now ready to commence crushing. This road enables all the mining companies in the vicinity to get machinery and mining timber on to their claims, and likewise coal for fuel. A dray-road is likewise constructed from the Westport Boad to the Inangahua Biver for the purpose of getting mining timber ; a dray-road is also been constructed from Caplestown up Boatman's Main Creek, for the purpose of getting machinery and mining timber to the Welcome, Just-in-Time, Imperial, Fiery Cross, and Eureka Companies' mines ; a dray-road has also been constructed up Little Boatman's Creek to enable machinery to be brought to the Specimen Hill Companies' mine and Boatman's Low-level Tunnel, where compressed-air machinery has recently been erected. The Specimen Hill Company has recently erected a crushing battery of fifteen heads of stamps, which is driven by an overshot water-wheel constructed by Messrs. McQueen and Co., of Dunedin, with iron buckets of a new pattern. A horse-track has likewise been constructed from Caplestown to join the track leading from the Westport Eoad to the Waitahu Eiver. A horse-track is also constructed from the road leading up Little Boatman's Creek to the Caledonian Company's mine at Larry's Creek: this track will give facilities to a number of miners working in alluvial claims and prospecting for quartz-reefs in this neighbourhood. [Mr. P. Q. Caples, of Beefton, who has spent many years in prospecting the mineral lodes of the colony, has kindly forwarded me information that he has found argentiferous galena, particles of stream tin, and zincblende in the mineral belts in this locality.] A horse-track is likewise constructed from Cariboo Creek to the Big Biver to enable the miners to get supplies to prospect this district. A horse-track is also constructed up the Big Biver, and the County Council is now constructing a track to join this track with the dray-road at the Oriental Company's battery, which, when completed, will open a line of communication between Eeeftpn and the Big Eiver, a distance of about twelve miles. Some good quartz reefs have lately been found in the Big Biver District: a company is working a mine in this neighbourhood and stacking the quartz until they have facilities for taking crushing machinery on to the ground. The whole of the country in the Inangahua District where quartz reefs are found is very broken and mountainous, and excepting near the bed or valley of the Inangahua Eiver, it is very diffiqult to open up; but the roads and tracks that have recently been constructed, and that are in course of construction, ought to do a great deal towards developing the quartz reefs throughout the district. Lyell.—The principal work in the quartz reefs in this district has been confined during the year to prospecting. The principal companies that have been at work are the United Alpine and United Italy. The former company have completed the construction of their tunnel at No. 6 level, and are now beginning to stope out the quartz. The United Italy Company have been driving in the reef, but their present crushing plant is almost useless to crush the quartz from their mine : they intend erecting better machinery as soon as the construction of the dray-road is completed from the Lyell Boad to their claim. About two miles of this road have lately been constructed by the Government, and the remaining portion of it, nearly two miles, is in course of construction. It is formed Bft. wide in the solid, and is metalled throughout, having no worse grades than one in fifteen, and, when completed, will be a serviceable road, and afford facilities to a number of mining companies in the vicinity of the Eight-Mile Creek to work their claims. Chaeleston. —The gold-workings in this neighbourhood are almost entirely confined to hydraulic sluicing. The gold is distributed in black sand leads, and in some places turns into beds of cement. There are several water-races on this field, the largest of which is the Argyle Bace, the property of the Government. The cost of this water-race up to the present time is £12,663 os. 2d. During the last year several deviations of this race have been constructed in order to avoid replacing high fluming in
the several gullies that the water had previously been carried over, the fluming in every instance being in such a decayed state that it was impossible to repair it. The deviations that have been made shorten the length of race and avoid most of the deep gullies, but where these occur iron syphons have been placed instead of fluming. There are two of these syphons, one at Butcher's Gully and another at Micky Free's Gully; the former is about 304 ft. in length, 2ft. 6in. in diameter, and made of 12-gauge iron; latter is 154 ft. long, 2ft. 2in. in diameter, and made of 14 gauge iron. The ground this water-race at present commands is getting gradually worked out, and until a syphon is constructed from Argyle Terrace to Ballarat Terrace, capable of carrying about 10 heads of water, there is little prospect of this water-race giving fair returns. The dam at the head of the race has been enlarged, and when full now covers an area of about 400 acres. The working of this race during last year resulted in a loss of £47 3s. This is due in a great measure to the works that were in progress, and not being able to supply water continually; but now the works are all new (with the exception of the syphon from Argyle Terrace to Ballarat Terrace alluded to above) and of a substantial character, so that the cost of maintenance will be very small in future. There is no large permanent supply of water in this district: almost the whole of it is. collected by catch-water drains and dams. The Buller County Council, with subsidy from Government, has constructed the following roads and tracks : — Boatl from Candlelight Flat to Deep Greek.-— This road is constructed with easy gradients, but is too narrow for dray traffic, which is a great inconvenience to those parties who require sawn timber, &c, from Charleston to the top of the hill near Deep Creek, as it necessitates the timber being unloaded at Candlelight, and brought up the remainder of the distance by sleighs. Boad, Orawaiti Lagoon to North Terrace. —This piece of road has done away with a long stretch of bridging which was formerly across the Orawaiti Lagoon, and gives a good line of communication with the North Terraces. Track, Bazorback to Paparoa Bange. —This is merely a prospecting track, with the bush felled and cleared to enable the miners to get on to the back ranges to prospect during the summer months. Track from Seatonville to Larrikins'. —This track commences at the end of the present constructed track on the south side of the Mokihinui River, and follows the sideling through the gorge up the Mokihinui River to Specimen Creek. A bush line from that point is likewise cleared for about one mile further up the river towards Larrikins'. This is the only track in the country that has not been fairly constructed, which may be accounted for by the great anxiety to rush the track through quickly, in order to keep the miners in this district that came from other places to the rush that took place in December last at Larrikins' Creek. However, the track as it is at present is not even a good foot-track, and certainly would be a dangerous one to travel on for an extremely nervous man carrying a swag : still it is a great saving of time and labour to be able to go through this gorge at all, as the high and precipitous range that formerly had to be gone over occupied about half a day. The Government have constructed a good horse-track from Coal Creek to the Mokihinui reefs at Seatonville, which will be a great advantage to tho miners and mining companies that are at work in this locality, and will enable them to get machinery and supplies to their claims. This district has the same appearance as the Lyell District, and the same hard slate occurs where the quartz lodes are found. Some very rich specimens of gold in quartz are got in the Red Queen Company's mine, but the lode is narrow, from 6in. to 15in. in width, and, though well defined, the hard nature of the walls leads one to suspect that the lode will cut out as it goes down. However, the company has got a quantity of apparently good stone stacked ready to send to the battery as soon as a wiretramway has been constructed across the Mokihinui River. This company and the Mokihinui Company have repaired and refitted up an old battery that was used here some years ago. It has ten heads of stamps, and will be driven by an overshot Water-wheel. When this plant is completed it will give an opportunity to three additional mining companies—the Guiding Star, the Comet, and the Golden Crown —to have their quartz properly tested. The quartz that is being got near the surface may pay for crushing, but, until such time as the lodes are followed into the hill and found at a considerably deeper level, it is not wise to incur a large expenditure in erecting crushing machinery to work them. Wakamabina.—The alluvial gold-workings are principally in the bed of the Wakamarina River, and in the several creeks and gullies leading into the same : and the quartz-workings in the range on the eastern side of the river near Deadhorse Creek. The principal river-workings are the Gorge Company and an English company. The former has been engaged for about two years in cutting a channel and turning the river, to enable them to work its original bed, in a gorge directly below the junction with Deep Creek. They have al2 horse-power steam-engine and pumping gear for working ordinary common lift-pumps; but they have so far been unable to contend with the water, and have never yet got to the bottom. They have recently contracted with a party of miners to pump out the water in the gorge, which is confined between two dams, and to keep the water down for three days afterwards, for £400, in order to enable them to test whether there is a sufficient quantity of gold to pay for working. The English company have taken up a portion of the riverbed below Deadhorse Gully, and have erected an undershot water-wheel to drive two Cahforman pumps to drain the ground. The machinery and appliances were all completed at the time of my visit, but the water-wheel was not working satisfactorily. The quartz-workings are confined principally to the Golden Bar Company's mine; they have driven on the reef for about 200 ft., and the width of the lode is about Bft. This company has over 200 tons of quartz stacked ready for crushing, which the mine manager informed me would average about 7dwt. of gold per ton. I brought away samples of quartz from this mine from different places in the drive along the lode, four of which were brought to Wellington, and tested by Dr. Hector,, and the result was 2dwt. 4gr. per ton from one sample, and ldwt. 3gr. per ton from another, while there was no gold in two of the samples. I tested, likewise, a stone at Havelock, taken promiscuously from the paddock where
the quartz is stacked, which gave about lOdwt. per ton: the stone has every appearance of goldbearing quartz, and possibly when the reef is prospected at a deeper level the lode may be found to contain more gold. Otago. The Government has just completed the construction of a dray-road from near Arthur's Point, on the Shotover River, to the top of the saddle, for a distance of nearly four miles on the road leading to Maori Point and Skipper's. It is constructed with 12ft. formation, and with grades of not worse than one in ten. This will enable goods and machinery to be taken to the top of the saddle with drays, instead of packhorses, sleighs, and trollies, as formerly ; but from there they will have to be conveyed by the means of locomotion now used. There is still a very bad hill to get over, known as the " Zigzag," near Stapleton's Beach, which is really the worse part of the whole road, and the most difficult portion to use sleighs or trollies on to transport heavy machinery to the quartz reefs at Skipper's and the Upper Shotover, the present track being extremely steep, and very sharp bends, almost in every instance being acute angles, so that horses cannot pull any vehicle round the bends, but they have to be unyoked and the sleigh or trolly hauled up to the bend with blocks and tackle. If a deviation were made here and a road constructed it would enable heavy goods and machinery to be taken up to the quartz reefs at a considerably less cost, and therefore enable them to be worked more cheaply. There is likewise a dray-road in course of construction from Arrowtown to Macetown for a distance of about six miles through the gorge of the Arrow River, and is now near completion: it is constructed with 12ft. formation, and is metalled, and, with the exception of two short pinches which could not be avoided unless at a great cost, has very good grades. This will afford great facilities for working the quartz reefs, which are numerous in the vicinity of Macetown. The mining timber and goods have heretofore been either packed on horses, or taken with trollies over a very steep hill, nearly 3,000 ft. above the level of the river, and is for several months in midwinter covered with snow, and impassable. The quartz reefs, except where rich stone was got, could not be profitably worked owing to the high price paid for the transit of mining timber. This road.will allow wagons to be taken up to the mines, and therefore will enable quartz claims to be worked that heretofore would not pay for working, and get heavy improved machinery taken on to the ground. Tho heavy parts of the crushing machinery that is erected at present had to be made in small pieces, which made it more costly to construct.The total value of works on gold fields constructed during the last two years wholly by the Mines Department, or by means of subsidies to County Councils or local bodies, and the amount of expenditure and liability on the same, are as follow, viz.:—
Deducting the value of works constructed and in progress during the year ending the 31st March, 1883, it leaves £31,946 16s. lOd. for new w-orks undertaken during last year, of which sum the Government contribution amounts to £25,480 ss. 2d. The roads and tracks that have been constructed to assist in developing the gold fields of the colony have been carefully laid out with such grades that almost the smallest track can be widened into a dray-road if required. In subsidized roads and tracks plans and specifications have been approved, before the works were authorized, and copies of same filed for reference. Some of the local bodies considered it a hardship at first to have to forward plans of works they proposed to construct, but it will be seen that this method is essentially necessary to guard against money being spent on works which, although they might serve for a time, would be ultimately of no value. There are still a great many districts, especially where quartz reefs abound, that will require to be opened up by roads and tracks: as a rule quartz reefs are generally found in very rough, broken country, and difficult of access, and before they can be properly tested heavy machinery has to be brought on the ground, which necessitates the construction of dray-roads. The alluvial gold fields still continue to support a large population, but the yield of gold from them may be expected to diminish yearly, while the yield from the quartz reefs ought to be increasing, as the latter are the only permanent gold mines : it is a branch of industry that requires to be fostered, as it will be the means of supporting a large population, and gradually developing the mineral wealth of the colony. Annexed is a list—taken from the departmental records—of works that have been constructed and are in progress to assist in developing the gold fields, and likewise plans of pumping machinery, Ross Flat, and section of the Ross Extended Gold-Mining Company's shaft at Ross, showing the various strata gone through. I have, &c, Henry Goedon, The Under-Secretary for Gold Fields, Wellington. Inspecting Engineer.
Total Cost of Construction. Expenditure by way of Subsidy or otherwise. Amount of Liabilities on Works in Progress. Water-races... Eoads on gold fields Eoads undertaken by County Councils, and subsidized by Mines Department Works undertaken by prospecting associations, and subsidized by Mines Department Construction of sludge-channels, subsidized by Mines Department £ s. d. 29,261 11 0 21,437 11 2 £ s. d. 21,670 9 10 13,089 16 0 £ s. d. 7,591 1 2 8,347 15 2 52,841 17 0 21,844 16 7 10,207 15 9 13,216 13 4 3,350 0 0 3,400 0 0 5,750 0 0 2,468 15 4 781 4 8 Total ... 122,507 12 6 62,423 17 9 30,327 16 9
List of Works on Gold Fields undertaken wholly by the Mines Department, or by Subsidies to County Councils, Local Bodies, and Prospecting Associations, either constructed or in progress on the 31st March, 1884.
Locality and Nature of Work. Total Cost. Amount of Contribution paid by Mines Department. Amount due by Mines Department on Works still in Progress. £ s. d. £ s. d. £ s, d. Coromandel County. Improving road to Iona and Just-in-Time Companies' mines and crushing battery Making and repairing track from Kapanga Mine to Paul's Creek Making and improving track from Tokatea towards Kennedy Bay Making and improving track from Golden Belt to Tiki Extension, Vaughan and Vizard's Track Extension of track, Tiernan's to Castle Book Making road to Kapanga Mine Temporary track from Tokatea Saddle to Waikoromiki Temporary road from Bing's bridge to Kapanga Boad Continuation of track from Success Company's mine to top of main range Completion of road from Tokatea Saddle to Tokatea battery Boad from cutting, Lynch's paddock, to Matawai battery Widening road from Emily Battery to Bocky Creek Widening road from Matawai Valley to Vaughan's Claim Boad deviation, Eraser's saw-mill to Tiki Saddle Prospecting track to connect Tokatea and Tiki Widening and extending road to Harbour View Improving track, Mercury Bay to Waitai. Widening and extending road to Harbour View mines Continuation and improving Waikoromiko Track 200 0 0 290 0 0 320 0 0 245 0 0 300 0 0 150 0 0 132 0 0 50 0 0 150 0 0 80 0 0 133 6 8 213* 6 8 ioo' 0 0 88* 0 0 33 6 8 53* 6 8 193 6 8 163 6 8 100 0 0 100 0 0 100* 0 0 50 0 0 180 0 0 291 0 0 192 0 0 300 0 0 300 0 0 100 0 0 100 0 0 150 0 0 150 0 0 33 6 8 120 0 0 194 0 0 128 0 0 200 0 0 200 0 0 66 13 4 66 13 4 100 0 0 100 0 0 3,730 0 0 621 6 8 1,865 6 8 Thames County. Making new road from Ohinemuri Biver to Karangahake quartz mines Dray-road to connect Otanui mines with crushing battery at Maungawherawhera Creek Improving road from Waitekauri Boad to Katikati Boad Improving road up Karaka Creek to Lucky-hit Company's mine Improving road to upper mines, Waitahi Prospecting track to open up Karangahake Gold Field, extending towards Te Aroha Track up Mangakerikeri Creek Metalling road, Kaueranga Valley to Otanui Creek Boad from Tapu battery to mines 650 0 0 710 0 0 250 0 0 300 0 0 320 0 0 1,600 0 0 433 6 8 164 4 0 100 6 8 175 7 4 172 12 7 309* 2 8 66 6 8 24 12 8 40 14 1 1,066 13 4 100 0 0 650 0 0 160 0 0 66 13 4 433 6 8 106 13 4 Thames County, Miscellaneous. Purchase of diamond-drill by Thames County Council 4,740 0 0 1,045 17 3 2,114 2 9 1,500 0 0 1,000 0 0 Piako County. Extension and completion of tramway 18,000 0 0 9,000 0 0 Hutt County. Boad to connect Oteronga Bay with Albion Company's battery ; and likewise to connect Terawhiti quartz mines with battery Golden Crown and Success Quartz Mining Companies : Construction of Terawhiti low-level tunnel 509 16 6 750 0 0 210 17 0 83 6 8 150 0 0 1,259 16 6 210 17 0 233 6 8 Tuapeka County. Improving road from Lawrence and Waipori Boad to antimony mine, Waipori Making road from top of terrace to Waipori Bush Improving road from Waipori Township to antimony mine, Lammerlaw Banges Improving road from Waitahuna Biver to top of terraces on road to Waipori copper mine Making bridle-track from Boxburgh Boad near Shingle Creek to Campbell's and Pomohaka Creeks Waipori Township to Waipori Bush 200 0 0 300 0 0 200 0 0 200 0 0 200 0 0 133 6 8 133 6 8 133 6.8 450 0 0 300 0 0 200 0 0 133 6 8 Tuapeka County, Miscellaneous. Drainage channel, Lawrence; undertaken by the Borough Council (approximate) Tuapeka Prospecting Association 1,550 0 0 333 6 8 700 0 0 3,000 0 0 2,000 0 0 600 0 0 300 0 0 Vincent County, Miscellaneous. Completion of sludge-channel, Smith's Gully, Bannockburn Completion of sludge-channel, Pipe-clay Gully, Bannockburn 3,600 0 0 2,300 0 0 2,000 0 0 750 0 0 251 1 0 217 14 4 598 19 0 182 5 8 2,750 0 0 468 15 781 4 8
List of Works on Gold Fields, &c.— continued.
Locality and Nature of Work, Total Cost. Amount of Contribution paid by Mines Department. Amount due by Mines Department on Works still in Progress. Lake County, Miscellaneous. Completion of-road from Arthur's Point to Skipper's (approximate) .. Completion of road from Arrowtown to Maoetown (approximate) Cardrona Prospecting Association £ s. d. 2,467 13 8 8,000 0 0 400 0 0 £ s. d. 1,795 6 11 5,543 14 10 200 0 0 £ s. d. 672 6 9 2,456 5 2 Southland County. Improving road through Waikaia Bush Improving road through Mataura to Nokomai Improving road from Waikaka to Leitham, leading to Whitcombe Improving road from Waikaka Township to Leitham Creek Improving road from Waikaka to Waikaka railway siding Widening and improving bush-track from Waipapa to Waikawa 10,867 13 8 7,539 1 9 3,106 18 3 150 0 0 75 0 0 150 0 0 30 0 0 150 0 0 150 0 0 50 0 0 100 0 0 20 0 0 100 0 0 100 0 0 100 0 0 Taieri County. Boad from Mullocky Gully to Silver Peak 705 0 0 370 0 0 100 0 0 600 0 0 400 0 0 Westland County. Boad from Duffer's Creek, Greenstone Boad, to fifteen-mile peg, Christchurch Boad Continuation of track, Back Creek to Eel Creek Bridle-track from Boss Town boundary to Mount Greenland Bridle-track, Duffer's Creek, Bowen, and Okarito Boad to sea-beach.. Improving track, Boucher's Creek to Gentle Annie Terrace Bridle-track to Kanieri Lake Bridle-track to Eel Creek Tunnel-track, Galway Beach to Gillespie Bluff 1,000 0 0 600 0 0 1,440 0 0 360 0 0 120 0 0 719 11 0 168 9 0 437 5 0 666 13 4 400 0 0 960 0 0 240 0 0 80 0 0 359 5 6 84 4 6 218 12 6 Westland County, Miscellaneous. Boad to open up Woodstock Gold Field Construction of Mikonui Water-race Completion of Waimoa-Kumara Water-race (approximate) 4,845 5 0 662 2 6 2,346 13 4 1,000 0 0 11,357 0 10 10,545 14 10 1,000 0 0 4,965 19 8 10,445 14 10 6,39i' 1 2 100 0 0 Maniototo County, Miscellaneous. Deep-Lead Prospecting Association, Naseby Mount Ida Water-race Trust, extension of water-race to Spec Gully Boad from Ida Valley to Serpentine Diggings Mount Ida Water-race Trust, repairs to water-race 22,902 15 8 16,411 14 6 6,491 1 2 1,066 13 4 1,000 0 0 150 0 0 250 0 0 300 0 0 350 0 0 1,000 0 0 100 0 0 250* 0 0 Grey County. Boad from No-town to Deep Creek Boad from Langdon's to Moonlight Contribution from Gold Fields vote towards main road Boad from Maekley's station to Clarke's Biver.. 2,466 13 4 1,100 0 0 1,600 0 0 2,296 6 6 1,200 0 0 550 0 0 345 7 0 2,296 6 6 550 0 0 1,450 0 0 454*13 0 800 0 0 Orey County, Miscellaneous. Nelson Creek Water-race, cost of reconnaissance survey Boad, Cobden to Seventeen-Mile Diggings 6,196 6 6 3,191 13 6 1,254 13 0 69 5 6 1,800 0 0 69 5 6 58 8 6 1741*11 6 Inangahua County. Dray-road from Soldier's Creek to Devil's Creek Dray-road from Inangahua Biver to Bainy Creek battery Dray-road from Caplestown up Little Boatman's Creek Dray-road from Caplestown up Main Boatman's Creek .. Dray-road from Westport Boad to Inangahua Biver Track from Devil's Creek to Big Biver Track from Waitahu Biver to Caplestown Survey and expenses Track from Carriboo to Big Biver Dray-road up Murray Creek to United Inglewood Claim Boad from Beefton to Big Biver via Devil's Creek Boad up Big Biver Continuation of dray-road up Little Boatman's Creek Boad from Caplestown to Larry's Creek 1,869 5 6 647 0 0 909 10 0 379 0 0 697 0 0 224 5 0 134 3 6 358 0 0 250 0 0 728 0 0 3,472 6 0 614 0 0 922 19 0 169 7 6 640 0 0 431 6 8 218 0 0 252 13 4 464 13 4 149 10 0 89 9 0 238 13 4 166 13 4 364 0 0 2,314 17 4 307 0 0 615 6 0 112 18 4 127 14 0 1,741 11 6 388* 6 8 426 13 4 10,145 10 6 5,725 0 8 815 0 0 Inangahua County, Miscellaneous. Diamond-drill purchased by Inangahua County Council Deep-level Tunnel Company, Beefton, towards construction of tunnel, Black Point to Waitahu Biver 2,000 0 0 6,900 0 0 1,000 0 0 1,550 0 0 1,900 0 0 8,900 0 0 2,550 0 0 1,900 0 0
List of Works on Gold Fields, &c.— continued.
Locality and Nature of Work. Amount of Contribution paid by Mines Department. Amount due by Mines Department on Works still in Progress. Total Cost. Buller County. Deviation of road from Candlelight Flat to Deep Creek, Charleston .. Boad from Orawaiti Lagoon to North Terrace Prospecting track from Bazorback to Paparoa Bange Track from Seatonville to Larrikins ' £ s. d. 413 0 0 256 18 6 100 0 0 600 0 0 £ s. d. 246 13 4 171 5 8 66 13 4 £ s. d. 28 13 4 400 0 0 Buller County, Miscellaneous. Boad from Zalatown track, in Lyell Boad, to United Italy Company's mining lease, Eight-Mile Creek, Lyell Beoonnaisance survey of road from United Italy Company's mining lease to Mokihinui Survey of road, Brighton to Seventeen-Mile Diggings Boad from Coal Creek to Mokihinui reefs and Karamea Argyle Water-race (construction) 1,369 18 6 484 12 4 428 13 4 2,899 17 6 1,494 17 6 1,405 0 0 300 0 0 300 0 0 1,350 0 0 3,600 0 0 5,615 0 0 585 19 8 2,611 8 7 5,515 0 0 764 0 4 988 11 5 100 0 0 Miscellaneous Works, Collingwood Boad to West Wanganui Contingencies, water-races .. .. .. - .. Deep Creek, Wakamarina, to reefs 13,764 17 6 10,207 5 9 3,557 12 9 300 0 0 157 6 8 20 0 0 200 0 0 157 6 8 20* 0 0 477 6 8 357 6 8 20 0 0 Summary of Works. Water-races. Construction: Mikonui Water-race .. ., ... Waimea-Kumara Water-race Nelson Creek Water-race Argyle Water-race Mount Ida Water-race .. .. ' .. Contingencies £ s. d. 11,357 0 10 10,545 14 10 69 5 6 5,615 0 0 1,250 0 0 424 9 10 £ s. d. 4,965 19 8 10,445 14 10 69 5 6 5,515 0 0 250 0 0 424 9 10 £ s. d. 6,391 1 2 100 0 0 100* 0 0 1,000 0 0 Roads on Cold Fields. Arthur's Point towards Skipper's Arrowtown to Macetown ,, .. .. To open up Woodstock Gold Field Lyell to United Italy Company's Mining Lease, Eight-Mile Lyell to Mikonui (reconnaissance survey) Brighton to Seventeen-Mile Diggings Cobden to Seventeen-Mile Diggings Coal Creek to Mokihinui reefs and Karamea Deep Creek, Wakamarina, to reefs 29,261 11 0 21,670 9 10 7,591 1 2 2,467 13 8 8,000 0 0 1,000 0 0 2,899 17 6 300 0 0 1,350 0 0 1,800 0 0 3,600 0 0 20 0 0 1,795 6 11 5,543 14 10 1,000 0 0 1,494 17 6 672 6 9 2,456 5 2 1,405 0 0 300 0 0 764 0 4 1,741 11 6 988 11 5 20 0 0 585 19 8 58 8 6 2,611 8 7 21,437 11 2 13,089 16 0 8,347 15 2 Subsidies to County Councils. Coromandel County Thames County Piako County Hutt County Tuapeka County Southland County Westland County Grey County.. Inangahua County Buller County Collingwood Boad Board Taieri County Council Maniototo County Council 3,730 0 0 4,740 0 0 18,000 0 0 509 16 6 1,550 0 0 705 0 0 4,845 5 0 6,196 6 6 10,145 10 6 1,369 18 6 300 0 0 600 0 0 150 0 0 621 6 8 1,045 17 3 9,000 0 0 210 17 0 333 6 8 370 0 0 662 2 6 3,191 13 6 5,725 0 8 484 12 4 200 0 0 1,865 6 8 2,114 2 9 83 6 8 700 0 0 100 0 0 2,346 13 4 1,254 13 0 815 0 0 428 13 4 400 0 0 100 0 0 52,841 17 0 21,844 16 7 10,207 15 9 Subsidies for Prospecting. Tuapeka Prospecting Association Cardrona Prospecting Association Naseby Deep-Lead Prospecting Association Inangahua County Council, diamond drill Thames County Council, diamond drill Deep-level Tunnel, Beefton .. - Low-level Tunnel, Terawhiti 600 0 0 400 0 0 1,066 13 4 2,000 0 0 1,500 0 0 6,900 0 0 750 0 0 300 0 0 200 0 0 300 0 0 1,000 0 0 350* 0 0 1,000 0 0 1,900 0 0 150 0 0 1,550 0 0 13,216 13 4 3,350 0 0 3,400 0 0 Subsidies to Sludge and Drainage Channels. Smith Gully, Bannockburn Pipe-clay Gully, Bannockburn Lawrence Borough 2,000 0 0 750 0 0 3,000 0 0 251 1 0 217 14 4 2,000 0 0 598 19 0 182 5 8 5,750 0 0 2,468 15 4 781 4 8 Total expenditure 30,327 16 9 122,507 12 6 62,423 17 9
Return showing the Revenue and Expenditure on, and Collateral Advantages derived by the working of, the Water-races constructed and maintained by Government during the Year ending the 31st March, 1884.
Name of Water-race. xn o B C Q t> O a § - a I to ID o hi o o h Ph a o rrn'43 O c cn Pr of O o ti a -2.1 •J. HH o o Bo dgrS COCSm 8 a ,3 ■+H © O t-j © ft ii z a CD ■P«H © o3 O fl R 3 "a OOO &§£ CO $ O rfrflwi,. mi 8 g Q^; j c3rrH Jif <!g is* 5 £ B. a. 2,097 11 6 8,316 14 11 2,127 18 3 1,504 15 10 324 7 0 £ s. d. 1,021 7 11 2,153 5 5 6,405 10 8 1,103 5 2 371 10 0 £ s. d. *1,076 3 7 *6,163 9 6 H,277 12 5 *491 10 8 +47 3 0 £ s. d. £ s. d. 118,575 15 2 1 nearly 3J nearly J full Jlossn'ly 112 oz. 4,423 12,882 2,356 600 £ s. d. 16,917 19 6 49,273 13 0 9,011 14 0 2,295 0 0 £ s. d. 2 0 0 3 15 Vairnea [urnara kumara Sludge-channel felson Creek tfgyle 37,367'"4 01 17,200 12 6} 54,567 16 6 89,833 19 7 12,663 0 2 2l:i 44 12 3 5 3 3 3 2 Total for all water-races 14,461 7 6 11,054 19 2 3,408 8 4 273,640 11 1* 4411 20,261 77,498 6 6 2 15 0 * Profit. •I- Loss.
H-09 THE GOLD FIELDS OF NEW ZEALAND (REPORT ON)., Untitled, 1 January 1884
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