INTERIM REPORT (No. I.) OF THE CHINESE IMMIGRATION COMMITTEE.
BROUGHT UP 29th SEPTEMBEE, 1871, AND ORDERED TO BE PRINTED.
OEDEES OF EEFEEENCE.
Extracts from the Journals of the Souse of Representatives. Tuesday, the 29th day op August, 1871. Ordered, That the question of Chinese Immigration be referred to a Select Committee, with power to call for persons and papers, with the view of a Report as to its probable effect upon the Gold Fields and the social condition of this Colony. The Committee to bring up a report this day month. A true extract. (On motion of Mr. Steward.) F. E. Campbell, Clerk, Houso of Representatives. Thursday, the 31st day of August, 1871. Ordered, That the Committee on Chinese Immigration consist of the Hon. Mr. Fox, the Hon. Mr. Fitzherhert, lis. Haughton, Mr. Creighton, Mr. J. Shephard, Mr. Carrington, Mr. Reynolds, Mr. Parker, Mr. Harrison, and the MoverFive to be a quorum, with power to call for persons and papers; to report on this day month. A true extract. (On motion of Mr. Steward.) F. E. Campbell, Clerk, House of Representatives. Tuesday, the 12th day of September, 1871. Ordered, That the number of the Committee on Chinese Immigration be extended to thirteen, and that Mr. Macandrew, Mr. White, and Mr. Thomson be added thereto. A true extract. (On motion of Mr. Steward.) F. E. Campbell, Clerk, House of Representatives. Wednesday, the 27th day of Septembee, 1871. Ordered, That the Chinese Immigration Committee have leave to postpone the bringing up of their Report for fourteen days. A true extract. (On motion of Mr. Steward.) F. E. Campbell, Clerk, House of Representatives.
The Select Committee on Chinese Immigration have the honor to submit this, their first ad interim Report. Tour Committee, immediately after their appointment, took active steps to collect all available information on the subject. Circulars were sent out, containing a number of queries, to Chief Officers of Police in the various Provinces, to "Wardens of Gold Fields, and to various gentlemen of the medical profession, replies to most of which have been received, aud have been considered by your Committee. Tour Committee have also forwarded, through the Hon. the Colonial Secretary, a request to the Governments of the neighbouring Colonies of Victoria and New South Wales, for the furnishing of such data as the experience of those colonies, with regard to the Chinese question, will enable them to afford. Tour Committee have also examined a number of witnesses, whose attendance was procured without any expense to the Colony, including Mr. J. T. Thompson, C.E., Commissioner of Crown Lands, Otago ; Mr. John Ah Tong, Wellington; Mr. Maitland; Captain Bishop, of the ship Halcione ; Dr. Hector ; G. M. Webster, Esq., M.H.R.; G. B. Parker, Esq., M.H.8.; and C. E. Haughton, Esq., M.H.R. On the receipt of replies from Victoria and New South Wales, your Committee will have concluded their labours, and will bring up such recommendations as may appear to them expedient. Meantime, your Committee beg to present herewith copies of the Evidence already taken, and request permission for the printing of the same. Wm. J. Stewabd, To the Honorable the House of Eepresentatives. Chairman.
MINUTES OF EVIDENCE. Monday, lira Septembeb, 1871. Mr. J. T. Thomson, C.E., Commissioner of Crown Lands, Otago, in attendance, and examined. 1. Witness stated: I was between sixteen and seventeen years resident in the Straits Settlements of Penang, Singapore, and Malacca. In Penang, there were 90,000 Malays and 15,000 Chinese. The Chinese, though more industrious than the indigenous inhabitants (the Malays), were much more turbulent; indeed, latterly so much so that the European inhabitants had to take refuge in the forts on several occasions. In a letter received about twelve months ago, I was informed to this effect: —That the European settlers were stricken with the utmost dismay by the riots of tho Chinese; so much so, that fear of massacre forced them to leave their houses and plantations. The Chinese were only kept at bay by the assistance of the Malays and the timely visit of a man-of-war. In Singapore, there were about 10,000 Malays and 70,000 Chinese. Here, also, rioting, gaming, robbery and turbulence, is the intermittent practice of the Chinese. They are much given to secret societies, such as the well-known Tui Tae Iluey, which is the most notorious of them, and whose object is to thwart the Government, and screen murderers and robbers from justice. The internal feuds between tribe and tribe have frequently called for the utmost efforts of the Government, and have periodically put the settlement into great commotion. In Malacca, since the discovery of the tin mines, a great accession of Chinese population took place. There were here about 60,000 Malays and 20,000 Chinese, yet the latter were the cause of most expense in keeping up the military and police. The miners gave great trouble by defying the Government, which necessitated several military expeditions against them, in which there was much bloodshed. In the Malay States of Penang and Pirak, bloodshed and violence often took place from the fact of the Chinese evading the royalties and dues. In Java, the Dutch Government, in respect to the interests of the Natives of that populous island, had to enact most stringent regulations for the entry of Chinese, under the shape of head-money and personal security for good behaviour, as the extinction of the natives from their lands and the abstraction of their women was rapidly going on. They were here also found to be so turbulent that they in tho last century rose against the Dutch Government with the view of their expulsion, and were only suppressed by the concentration of the whole forces of the State, which resulted in a general massacre in fiatavia, where the rising was quelled. Such is a general view of the Chinese in a remote and outlying European settlement. This is not to ignore the fact that excellent men are to be found amongst them ; indeed such men as would be an honor to any country. In New Zealand, a limited introduction can do little harm, but a large introduction will call for the most assiduous attention of Government. In the latter case, the subject must be looked at in several
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lights before a fair judgment can be arrived at. Naturally (for lam one of the believers in a future nation of British here), socially, and economically, were the Chinese to amount even to one-half of the Europeans, they would cause internal weakness ; their baser organization and unsympathetic feelings would be prejudicial to us in resisting the attacks of an invader, for the Chinese would look upon us as oppressors, and side with any new nationality, under the hope that a new master would be less oppressive. This phase can be abundantly illustrated in the history of European Governments in Asia. Thus Java fell to the arms of a few regiments of English in 1811, merely because the natives sided, under the above motive, with the invader. The Chinese would flock as camp followers, and render any assistance to a maritime power that would send its feelers as far as this. With an equal population of Chinese and British, New Zealand might be likened to a tree having one side of its fibres of strong compact material, the other of weak and disconnected; thus, a gale would easily throw it down. On national grounds, therefore, I hold the introduction of the Chinese to be objectionable; on social grounds there is also much to be regarded. Their most prominent habit we term immoral, and as such, destructive of what wo term the good of society—namely, polygamy. By however many arguments this system may be upheld in the torrid zone, they can in no measure be upheld here ; for even the physical cause is wanting, namely, the degraded and ignorant condition of the weaker sex. By the introduction of Chinese largely, we promote what is poisonous to the happiness of private families ; it may be only of tho labouring classes, but the effects will reach even those who, by their high social position, may think themselves secure. No doubt prostitution exists amongst us, as it does iv all other countries. Granting that such is the case, this is no argument why the gold of the Chinese should be brought to bear to augment our pollution. The Chinese bring no women with them, nor is it desirable they should do so. They somcl hues marry Europeans, but when this is the case their laws do not exclude them from having other wives in China and elsewhere. Thus the European woman, ignorant of the effects of the step she has taken, is degraded below the status she claims by her own laws and religion. I have known Mongolians to name seven wives in seven different countries. On social grounds, then, true loyalty would exclude the Chinese. Again, looking at the subject in its economical aspect, how will their large introduction affect the fortunes and condition of our general population, merchants and labourers ? At first, they will give an impetus to trade and employment in several directions, such as storekeepers, waggoners, and growers of produce; but this will soon cease. The waggoner will no longer be required after they have settled. In their mercantile transactions the European will not be required, as they are avowedly more acute and dexterous in trade. As producers, they will soon provide for their own wants ; they now compete with our gardeners in the supply of vegetables for Dunedin. In trade and production, therefore, tho benefit will be their own. With all this, they will remain an alien race, reaping the benefit of our strong laws and just government; under their protection storing up labour, or in other words amassing capital gathered amongst us, which they ultimately carry off to their native country, leaving our fertile valleya a wilderness of stone and profitless " sludge." The rules of political economy also plainly point out the deteriorating effect of this on our own labouring countrymen, —so reaching the whole commonwealth. Thus, while a European labourer gains Gs. a day, if he does not spend it all iv taxable and excisable goods, he puts it into profitable local investment, such as house aud land, thus increasing the store and building resources, and so the power of the commonwealth. On the contrary, the alien, with equal advantages, due solely to the law respecting Europeans, produces the same daily gain, but carries it out of the land ; what he spends cannot exceed Is. per diem. To put the point more clearly: admit that there are 10,000 European labourers in any part of New Zealand, and the same number of Chinese, gaining by their exertions £100 a year each, thence £1,000,000 annually would accrue to the commonwealth through the former, while the latter would cany nearly all away to circulate and sow wealth in another country. As long as Chinese remain " diggers," this will be tho aspect of the case ; but they will early come to enter into competition with the white man in the various trades, and so curtail the comforts of our mechanics and tradesmen. This, to some, especially the capitalist, may be thought to be advisable ; I myself think not, as I believe, the healthy vitality of a colony is closely connected with the prosperity of the labouring man ; for certainly, so sure as he is prosperous so will he be contented ; thus will the general community be freed from the great cost of military and police establishments kept up for his repression, and so burdensome in old countries. lam strongly of opinion that the day of the labouring man's adversity will come soon enough, naturally and unavoidably, with the increasing population; hence the hastening of the day, by the fostering of a rival, is not a sound economical policy. To these reasons against the introduction of Chinese, if they be not sufficient, I may add the fear of the introduction of a loathsome disease, not known to the European in his own country, but with which he is sometimes stricken by contagion—namely, the many and various forms of leprosy, which, at all times odious, in its worst phases, when once beheld, is never effaced from the memory, so truly distressing is the sight of the same. As information as to the mode of Chinese immigration may be useful to the Committee, though not having so high an import as the other questions, I may state what I have seen of it in the Indian Archipelago, where 15,000 annually arrive at Singapore alone. The current wages in the agricultural districts of China are from 2 Jd- to 3d. per diem ; thus there is a strong inducement to seek employment in other parts. The emigration is managed by junk-masters and merchants, who make their profit out of the emigrant in this way: In carrying him to Singapore, Batavia, or other places, where the current wages are sd. to Bd. per diem for labourers, and Is. to 2s. for artificers, such as carpenters, bricklayers, masons, blacksmiths, &C.; the emigrant's services are sold for twelve months to any one who will purchase the same, or in other words will pay wages in advance, the rate being 12 dollars per annum with food for unskilled labourers, and 24 to 36 dollars for skilled, after which the emigrant is free to work for himself at such wages as he may obtain. This principle, I have no doubt, though 1 have not actual data, will obtain in the immigration to Otago, the period of service being longer and the bonus
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higher. In this manner, again, the Chinese merchant and speculators have an advantage over the European, in which there can be no rivalship. Thus, again, at the expense of New Zealand European colonists, who founded the Government and country, he stands in a position singular in its fortune, unattainable in its advantages. This alone, should Chinese immigration increase very much, must tend to impoverish both the capitalists and labourers of the European race. 2. Mr. Carrington.] Would it not be possible to prevent the introduction of leprosy into this country by Chinese immigrants by some supervision, at Chinese ports, by officers whose duty it would be to allow no diseased person to embark in an emigrant ship ? —I do not think it would be possible to make such arrangements; and even if it were, the course suggested would be by no means a safeguard, as leprosy runs in the blood and may break out at any time. 3. Mr. Harrison] Erom what part of China do the Otago immigrants come ?—Erom the Southern ports. 4. Is there any difference in physique or character between the Northern Mongolians and Southern Chinese ? —There is a great difference'in favour of the former, particularly as regards the women, who are more robust and also of more virtuous habits than the women of Southern China. Polygamy, although not forbidden by law, is not generally practised in the North. There is no immigration from Northern China. 5. Mr. Carrington] Then, I understand, from your report, that you think it desirable that steps should at once be taken absolutely to prevent Chinese immigration to this country ? —I do ; because of their habits, and the injurious influence their presence in this country must have. 6. Mr Reynolds] What do you think would be the best plan to adopt to prevent it ? —I think the best plan would be that adopted in the Cape Colony: there they stop supplies by forbidding the sale of provisions to Chinese, and so compel them to return. In Java, the Dutch Government impose a poll tax, and require a security from the leading Chinese merchants for the good behaviour of each Chinaman immigrating. 7. Mr. Harrison] Can you state whether, in Australia or elsewhere, any duty is imposed on provisions, &c, used by the Chinese ? —Not that I am aware of. 8. Do you think Chinamen immigrating to this country are likely to become permanent settlers in it ?—I do not think so. John Ah Tong in attendance and examined. 9. Witness stated, in reply to questions by the Chairman, that he was a native of Canton; left Canton eleven and a half years ago ; was then twenty-one and a half years of age. Was now residing in Wellington, and carrying on business as a cabinetmaker. Had been married, since his arrival in this country, to a European, a native of Wellington. Had not been previously married in China. Was now a widower. 10. The Chairman] Supposing that you had happened to have been married in China, would you have considered yourself at liberty to marry again in this country while your first wife was still living ? — I should not consider myself justified in doing so, but it is a matter of opinion among my countrymen; there is no law in China to forbid it. 11. What is the average cost of living in China for persons of the labouring class?—Erom |d. to 6d. per day ; the first-named sum belongs to the very poorest class ; to single men, labourers, the cost is about 3s. 6d. per week. 12. What are the current rates of wages in China ?— Erom Sd. to 9d. per day for labourers, and half a dollar (2s. 2d.) for mechanics. 13. Have you ever been on the diggings ? —Only for a few months, and know very little about gold mining. 14. Is there any prohibition by the Chinese authorities against the emigration of women? There is no law against it; indeed a large number of women, some thousands, emigrated to California, but the "head men " objected to it, and stopped any more coming, because it prevented the single men from returning to China. The head men would not allow any more women to land. If a Chinaman sends home for a woman with the intention of marrying her on her arrival, she is allowed to come ; a married man may send home for his wife, and she is allowed to come, and to bring two or three single women with her as servants. 15. Do you think the Chinese are disposed to marry and settle in this country ? Most of the Chinese come out here under engagement to masters for three years, who pay their passages, and in return receive so much gold annually. After their time has expired, very few of them have enough left to settle with. 16. Suppose the men employed made enough money after fulfilling their contract with their masters to buy land, would they be likely to settle in the country? —It depends on their character; single men generally like to return home. 17. How much money would a Chinaman consider enough to render him independent?—A single man from £50 to £100; but a man leaving China with a little capital, does not like to return without a large fortune. 18. Mr. Harrison.] There is a large number of your countrymen in Otago at the present time. Suppose the Government sent for 200 or 300 women, would a corresponding number of Chinamen marry them and settle down ? —lf the climate suited them, they would in that case sooner settle down than return home. 19. Do your countrymen drink wine and spirits ?—Tes, but they are not drunkards. 20. Tou have been in New South Wales ? —-Tes. 21. The Chairman] Do your countrymen smoke opium in these Colonies to a greater or less extent than in China ?—They smoke less here than at home. 22. Mr. Harrison] Do you consider it the duty of a Chinaman to keep his oath, and is the form of oath they take in our Courts as binding upon them as the oath taken by Christians ? —Tes, the blowing out of a match is the same to us as kissing the Bible is with you, and we are bound to hold the oath sacred. 2
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23. Erom what part of China do most of the Chinese immigrants come ? —From the South. 24. Mr. Parker] Are there any trade unions, or any combinations to keep wages up among tho Chinese here ?—No, every-one works for what he likes, and they appoint a head man, who arbitrates among them the same as a Magistrate. Memorandum. —Ah Gee, who has been in New Zealand three and a half years, unmarried, and Ah Hing four and a half years, married to a European, were in attendance, but were not examined— witness Ah Toug stating that they came from the same part of China as himself, and could give no additional evidence. Mondat, 18th September, 1871. Mr. John Horatius Maitland in attendance, and examined. 25. Witness stated : —I am in the employ of the General Government as an extra session clerk of the House of Representatives. I lived in China for three years, and during that time was in almost all the treaty ports; the greater portion of the time in Newchwang, in East Tartary. As far as my experience goes of the moral character of the Chinese, I think no people in the world are so utterly demoralized ; but I think they might be desirable as gold fields immigrants, as they are hard-working and frugal, and will work for much less pay than a European. To more clearly define myself in speaking of the immorality of the Chinese, I mean in regard to their domestic relations : they are, besides, mostly thieves when they get the chance. Polygamy is practised among them. In their personal habits they are filthy generally, even the upper classes being very dirty. I don't know that any disease unusual among Europeans other than leprosy prevails amongst them. 1 know there are a great many lepers in some parts of China, especially in the large towns. As regards the ports from whence the Chinese emigrate, I may say that nearly all the emigration is from Hong Kong and Macao, except in occasional instances, and does not necessarily consist of Chinese from the neighbourhood of Canton. I never knew emigrants leave from ports farther north than Swatow and Amoy. I have heard that the southern parts of China are most thickly populated, and know that the inhabitants of Tartary are a larger race. In Tartary it is very cold, the ports being closed by ice during four months in the year. Their habits are the same generally as those of the Cantonese, who are probably the most demoralized race in the world. The immigrants who come to this Colony come chiefly from the neighbourhood of Canton. Very few Tartars leave China at all. I know of no Chinese law against the emigration of women; but there can be none in Hong Kong, as it is a British Colony; and it is a well-known fact that great numbers of Chinese women have gone to San Francisco. AVhen I said that the Chinese might be desirable as immigrants, although their morality and general conduct was bad, I meant that, as they are industrious and frugal, they would be desirable provided there was some special legislation to keep them in their proper place. The same laws should not be made to apply to a Chinaman as to a European. The legislation in China is most severe. I have had some experience of Chinese in Otago, while living in the neighbourhood of Teviot, Tuapeka, and various other parts on tho Molyneux. I cannot speak as to what should be the character of the special legislation the Chinese require, as I have not thought over the matter sufficiently ; but I think they ought only to be allowed to immigrate to the gold fields under certain regulations. At present lam decidedly of opinion they do not bear an equal burden of the taxation. The principal articles, bearing heavy duty, which they consume, are opium, brandy, tobacco, and old torn; and I think heavy duties might advantageously be imposed on rice, dried and preserved fish, and such articles, which they consume largely. As to whether the Chinese live at a cost of a shilling per day, I know that some Chinamen, when doing well, live expensively ; but, as a rule, they live more frugally than a European, and save more money ; and I believe that, as a rule, they all go back to China, if they make sufficient money to enable them to do so. It is for these reasons I think they should be more heavily taxed than at present. I think it would be most undesirable that the race should be allowed to amalgamate with the Europeans, or that intermarriage with European women should be permitted. They ought also to be prevented from voting, unless naturalized; because, as they know nothing of our language or laws, the probability is that the interpreter would possess sufficient influence to command their votes. I think the Chinese might be charged more for their miners' rights than Europeans, or at any rate —it is immaterial by what means — they should contribute more to the revenue than permanent settlers. I have no doubt, although the Chinese leave this country and go back to their own whenever they can, that their example, and the fact of their returning with money, induces others to come out here ; and I think bond fide settlers should not bo placed upon the same footing as the Chinese, the great bulk of whom have no intention of becoming permanent residents. Ido not think there would be the slightest difficulty in getting out a cargo of women ; thousands might be got in Hong Kong at a day's notice, if it were necessary. I have not bestowed much thought on the subject of Chinese immigration from a colonist point of view. From the fact that the Chinese are notorious cowards, I should not apprehend any trouble from riotous behaviour on their part, even in districts where they became numerically superior to Europeans. Indeed, in any case, 1 think European miners are more likely to bully the Chinese. The only possibility of the Chinese becoming overbearing would be in the event of their becoming very much more numerous than the Europeans. When I said that the Chinese ought to be taxed more largely because they take the money out of the country, I was under the impression that they pay less than any other portion of the population of the country. Ido not know that the introduction of Chinese women would prevent the immorality of the Chinese, as the same immoral practices prevail in China, though it might no doubt exercise a beneficial effect in a limited degree. C. E. Haughton, Esq., M.H.R., in attendance, and examined. 26. Witness stated: My attention was called a year ago to the number of Chinese who wero flocking into the gold fields of Otago, and I gained personal knowledge on the subject in the Wakatipu district, and am of opinion that the European miners have a good cause against the Chinese. A very bitter feeling exists on the part of the European miners. I was at some pains to discover whether the
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miners were justified in their antipathy, because I knew that the miners are apt to look at such a question solely as regards personal interest, and not from a political economic point of view. The principal objection was this: —The mining in this district is confined chiefly to narrow gullies, and the spurs abutting thereupon. It is the custom of the miners to take up as a claim the extreme area allowed by the regulations ; then, if the ground is found payable after having worked out one claim, they proceed higher or lower down the gully. The regulations are not sufficiently elastic to allow the miner to occupy a large area of ground, affording work for years, as is done in America. The Chinese have scouts who watch the proceedings of European miners ; and when they suspect the Europeans to be working good or fair ground, they " peg them off"— i.e., they peg off the ground all round, putting on a man or two to satisfy the regulations. Should the Europeans strike gold, a large Chinese party immediately set into work in the direction of " the run." The result is that the Europeans are clearing out of the district, selling out chiefly to the Chinese themselves; and I have no doubt, if some cheek is not put on Chinese immigration, that in the Wakatipu district, at all events, there will not be 100 European miners in three years. There is another point also of great importance, considering that the Europeans and Chinese are working together under the same mining laws. Frequent conflicts arise in regard to the boundaries of claims and other matters, which have to be dealt with by the Wardens' Courts. Now, I find, from personal experience, that the Chinese have not the slightest idea of truth ; and consequently, when their interests are brought into conflict, the property of the European is not safe. I shall give an example of a case which occurred at Cardrona in February last. A Chinese party and a European party were working in the same gully. The European party, who were above the Chinese, struck gold ; upon this the Chinese appealed to the Warden's Court against the Europeans for encroaching upon their ground. The Chinese got up their case exceedingly well, and regardless of expense. A professional man was brought from fifty miles distant, and came into Court armed with surveyors' plans. Of course these plans were practically only illuminated parallelograms, there being no possibility of fixing the locality with base lines. During the cross-examination, the gentleman who represented the Europeans, and who had visited the ground, exposed the whole case by putting one simple question, and completely fixed the Chinamen. After asking the particulars of peggiug-off, and where they put their pegs, taking as an initial point a spot well known in the gully, where an old hut and the stump of a tree stood, he said —" How far was your upper peg from the hut and stump ? " The Chinamen, quite unprepared, answered truthfully, " From forty-eight to fifty feet." This answer put them out of Court, because it was clear from the evidence of the other side that the lower peg of the Europeans was nearly 500 feet from the hut. The case was decided against them with costs. They then appealed to the District Court. As this involved really a new trial, the whole case was gone into afresh ; and, before Mr. Wilson Gray, the Chinese all swore that their upper peg was 497 feet from the hut and stump of the tree. The Warden produced his notes on behalf of the other side. One witness also swore that the Chinese had endeavoured to bribe the Interpreter, and, in fact, tried to bribe everybody connected with the business. Tho Judge decided the case against them, merely remarking that perhaps the course they pursued was considered the correct thing in China. I have called your attention to one case affecting property. I will mention another affecting criminal law. A Chinaman of most supernatural ugliness —a most frightful-looking being —had been convicted of indecently exposing his person before a married woman. He appealed to the District Court; and this is another instance of our beautiful appeal law. By the mere payment of £10 into Court he was set free, and in due course the case was gone into in the District Court de novo. Eight Chinese witnesses then sw rore an alibi, "that the man was two miles off at the time," and he was consequentby discharged. A few days before the trial came off, a Chinese storekeeper with whom I was acquainted came to me and asked mo who was the best lawyer, but without telling me any particulars. I recommended Mr. Brough. I told the Chinaman who spoke to me that it would be necessary to let Mr. Brough see the witnesses before the trial. He replied, " How many witnesses do you think will be wanted ? We can bring half a dozen or a dozen." I told him I thought Mr. Brough would probably be quite satisfied with half a dozen. "With these facts fresh in my mind, and seeing that the Chinese are rapidly superseding Europeans in my district, I hold strong views, even looking at the subject from a business point of view. Business men are not, as a class, very distinguished for their high feelings in regard to political matters ; they look rather to making money in as short a time as they possibly can. At first the storekeepers and merchants in Dunedin advocated the introduction of Chinese, because their custom was a source of profit; but now things have altered. The Chinese have their own agents in Dunedin, and their own storekeepers up the country ; and, as a matter of fact, not a penny goes through European channels of trade. In speaking of their habits and customs, as far as my own district is concerned, I know that they do not spend one quarter what the European miner does. As soon as they make £300 or £400 they return to China, whereas the European miner, if he makes a few hundred pounds, and even does leave the country, has, as a matter of fact, expended a hundred or two before he so leaves ; but the Chinamen never spends one-eighth of what he takes out of the country. Gold mining is not like agriculture, where the soil, after being exhausted, will recover itself. Where the Chinaman mines, he absolutely devastates. He makes a clean sweep ; everything is put through the sluice-box ; and he leaves nothing, from a gold fields point of view. 27. Mr. Harrison.] With regard to your statement as to the untruthfulness of the Chinese, have you ever remarked any similar conduct on the part of Europeans ? —No; I have known cases of individual falsehood, but no instance of concerted falsehood. Such a thing would be utterly impossible amongst a class of men like the miners. Again, if a European makes a false statement it is an easy matter to detect him by cross-examination; but with a Chinaman this is impossible, his evidence being given through an interpreter. 28. Mr. Parker.] A great portion of your statement seemed to point to the defective constitution of the Appeal Courts, rather than to the infirmities of the Chinese ?—I cannot help so stating in showing how the present system works in regard to the Chinese ; but I do not know that any alteration in the law would act as a preventive, from the mere fact that you have to deal with a number of persons who come into Court banded together to give evidence irrespective of truth. The leader of the party, who directs the operations, instructs them how to swear, and they swear accordingly.
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29. Do you not think it possible that the alibi you mentioned might have been a good one, although you certainly make a rather telling point by the question asked you, as to how many witnesses would be required ?—I have not the slightest doubt in that case, because the man had such a remarkable appearance that it would be impossible to mistake him ; he was the ugliest man I ever saw in my life. 30. Do not most of the European miners in this Colony look upon Victoria as their home; and, granted that they spend more money in the country than the Chinese, do they not contemplate permanently settling in Australia ?■ —ln my own district they are settled down, and have their children about them; all that they wish for is that the district may be made habitable by roads and trades, and the ordinary facilities for real bond fide settlement afforded them. In one place alone, the Twelve Mile, I know of upwards of eighty miners with families ; and it is a pleasing sight, in going about the district, to see how comfortably they are located. They have further availed themselves, to a large extent, of the agricultural lease regulations. I think it is only in isolated cases that miners do not look to settling in the country. Many who went back to Victoria have again come back to the Wakatipu. 31. Do you not think you are too severe in calling the work of the Chinese, in extracting the last pennyweight of gold from the ground, as " devastating " ?—No ; I use the words " devastating the country " in a mining sense. 32. Mr. Macandrew.] What remedy would you propose ? —I have thought a great deal about this matter, but the idea of a duty or tax, such as was attempted to be carried out in Victoria two or three years ago, is utterly absurd; the Imperial Government will not sanction it. I am, again, opposed to any exceptional taxation on any class of colonists, as a matter of principle. My own opinion is, that, considering the peculiar characteristics of our gold fields, and the limited amount of ground available for alluvial mining, and the prospect of a very large European immigration in the carrying out of the policy of the Government, the House would be justified in taking the course I suggest —that is, to insert a clause into the Gold Fields Act which would absolutely prohibit Chinese from obtaining mining property in their own right, by prohibiting the issue of " Miners' Rights " to them. Considering their effect upon the general weal; the bad effects likely to result from their example, socially, morally, and politically ; and that they are taking possession of the best parts of the country, practically driving out the European population, —I think it is time the Parliament of the country interfered. 33. Assuming that Parliament did so, do you think they would prevent Europeans employing Chinese, even in mining operations ?—I have thought over that phase of the question ; and I think public feeling is so strong against the Chinese, that, on the Otago Gold Fields at least, no man would be likely to employ them. 34. In quartz mining, for example, do you not think companies would be induced to take advantage of Chinese labour ? —I am not so well acquainted with the nature of the labour required in quartz mining, but I do not think the Chinese are suitable for that description of work. 35. But if they could be induced, I presume the objections you have raised would be modified ?— I would have no objection to their getting possession of land by purchase, and then working it as they liked. What I mean is, that you should not allow Chinese to obtain those rights under the Act which the miner's right gives to the holder; I would not give them miners' rights. 36. I would like to supplement my answer to one question which was put in regard to the conduct of the Chinese when in a majority. I know that in my own district (at the Cardrona) they have behaved with great violence, and in more than one instance have driven Europeans from claims by force. In several other cases I have known them to display a spirit different from that which Mr. Maitland considers characteristic of them. From what I have seen of their conduct on different occasions, I think that, when they get the upper hand of Europeans, they are ready and prone to abuse their power. 37. Mr. Reynolds.] Are you aware of the amount of duty paid by some of the Chinese merchants ?—I have no knowledge. 38. Perhaps you are not aware that there is a Chinese merchant in Dunedin who pays on certain articles more duty than all the other merchants in Dunedin ? —I am not. 39. Mr. Macandrew.] Are you aware that that identical Chinese merchant found it necessary to go through the Court; and that his countrymen, hearing of it, came forward and subscribed so liberally, that he was enabled to pay twenty shillings in the pound, so that there are some redeeming features about them ?—I know that they are very regular in their business transactions, and generally pay cash. 40. Mr. White.] I would like to hear something more definite from you as to the immorality of the Chinese. —Nothing has been brought specifically under my notice in my own district in this respect; nothing save the general idea which everybody seems to entertain on the point. 41. Mr. Thomson.] I do not think you have explained yourself with sufficient clearness in regard to the Chinese working out all the gold and destroying the ground ?—My argument is this: the Chinese take up ground which will not pay the European at the present day, considering the rate of wages and other circumstances, though the ground would be practically valuable in a few years, when a larger population is spread over the country ; but in the meantime the Chinese are taking out the gold which should be the heritage of our successors. Allowing these barbarians to come and take that heritage away as they are doing, is much the same as allowing a man to cut down all the trees on an estate which should pass to his descendants.
Monday, 25th Septembeb, 1871. Captain Bishop in attendance, and examined. 42. Witness stated: —l am master of the ship " Halcione," and have been to Chinese ports on varioxis occasions. During a number of years I sailed out of Hong Kong and Whampoa, but chiefly out of Shanghai; and during that period I had numerous opportunities of observing the manners and customs of the Chinese, as they were constantly on board employed in doing our work. On four
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occasions we had nearly half of our crew to Liverpool and b.ack composed of Chinamen. I have a very low estimate of their morality ; indeed I am in doubt as to whether they are possessed of any at all. As that opinion was formed some seventeen or eighteen years ago, it is possible they may have changed somewhat for the better since then. While at Shanghai, in 1848, I was constantly on shore at work, often six weeks at a time, assisting to paint the first church built in China; aud I was in constant contact with the Chinamen also engaged on the work. I was a boy then. We discovered several cases of theft; and we were of the opinion that they would appropriate anything they could lay their hands on. I was first engaged in the trade at sixteen years of age, and left it when I war, twenty-two, when I held the position of chief officer, and during that time I had a good opportunity of judging of their national characteristics. In their social state in China, I considered them very orderly. Crimes such as theft, and some of another kind, are more frequent than in European communities. I understood then that a law existed prohibiting the emigration of women. I have known cases where Englishmen have married Chinese women, and that they were not allowed to take them away with them when they were leaving the country. When we have taken Chinese away as sailors, we were obliged to enter into a compact to bring them back again ; and they were brought back either in the same ship, or in some other at the expense of the agents. I know that a few Chinese emigrated before the discovery of gold ; and, before I left the trade, very many of them were sent to the West Indies, but not to any extent before I went to China. I have seen Chinese employed in many parts of the world, and have seen their women employed as nurses in the East Indies, but only in isolated cases. I have not been at San Francisco. From what I have seen of the few Chinamen I have observed in foreign parts, they seemed to bo well-behaved and bore excellent characters, both from their employers and others. I am scarcely in a position to speak positively of their adaptability for the various descriptions of manual labour ; but as sailors they were good, after being taught. At first they had little inclination for work, and were not of much use ; but before we got back from Liverpool, we made tolerable sailors of them. We never dared to trust them by leaving anything about. On the whole, I did not consider them so adaptable for sailors, or so quick at learning the calling, as Europeans. As regards other branches of industry, I look on them as exceedingly imitative, and as ingenious as Europeans ; and while likety to succeed and become as useful as our own people in many of the lighter occupations requiring ingenuity, I think they lack the stamina of our agricultural labourers at home, and consequently would not be so well adapted for farming. As domestic servants, such as waiters and cooks, I have found them generally tidy, handy, and civil, and heard them highly spoken of in that capacity. On board ship, however, I have always found them to be great thieves. As regards their idea of me.um and tuum, and the sacredness of the sexes, I think I can assert they are very depraved. I am not quite certain that amongst themselves the practice of decoying young girls for immoral purposes prevails to a great extent. I have not been on the gold fields of this Colony. I think that the introduction of a large element of Chinese into this Colony would have a very prejudicial effect upon our population. 43. Mr. Fitzherbert] Do you think the intercourse of traders and others with the Chinese for months or longer periods has a deteriorating effect upon their character? —Not particularly; our men did not care about associating with them. Our sailors associated with their women on shore. 44. The Chairman] The cost of living in China is very much less than in this Colony ; and Chinamen, either abroad or at home, are contented with much poorer fare than our own labouring classes. I believe that Chinamen invariably, if possible, return to China to spend their savings. I may mention that I was at the Chineha Islands several months, where the work is chiefly done by Chinese ; and there I saw them very anxious to get away as soon as they had saved a few dollars. There is certainly nothing on the Islands to induce them to remain ; and I know of several cases where they hurled themselves down the guano-shoots rather than stay on the Island any longer. I know of no other country in which the Chinese are employed in any numbers. They are so much addicted to gambling that when they have a few dollars they gamble with each other until one or another wins the lot; but generally they have so little to lose that it makes very little difference to them, as they must go to work next day in any case. Still they are always ready to gamble what they have, little or much. They gamble chiefly with cards and dice. 45. I think the Legislature should not encourage any great number, as the effect would most likely be injurious ; but I would not like to express any opinion as to where you should fix the limit. 46. Mr. Thomson] When Chinese and Europeans were on board ship together, I found they did not get on well, though they had no actual rows, but that was because the Chinese were not strong enough ; besides, they occupied separate parts of the ship. One Englishman can always intimidate a number of Chinamen. I think that if Chinamen had a numerical preponderance on diggings or other places where they were brought into contact with Europeans they would be very likely to try to overpower them in the event of any disputes about claims or otherwise. I have witnessed scenes that lead me to that opinion. 47. Mr. White] There certainly is a preponderance of Chinamen in Hongkong, Whampoa, and Shanghai ; but they dwell in separate quarters from the Europeans. 48. Mr. Thomson.] I am hardly justified in saying what would be the conduct of Chinamen who were numerically superior on diggings, as 1 have not been on the diggings ; but I know if they think there is half a chance of winning a dollar they are always ready to fight for it, regardless of the justice of the case. James Hector, Esq., M.D., F.R.S., in attendance, and examined. 49. The Chairman] In your opinion would there be any danger to the Colony, from a sanitary point of view, from the importation of Chinese ? Or would they be likely to introduce any infectious diseases ?—I have not much knowledge on that point, beyond what I have seen. I have been over the Californian diggings, on which the Chinese are employed in great numbers, and I have also visited the Chinese quarters in San Francisco ; but as I only stayed in the country a few weeks, I had very little opportunity of judging on the point you desire information upon. They are not a people 3
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who modify their habits in any great degree in countries to which they immigrate. I consider them scrofulous and leprous ; and I think that view is borne out by what has been observed in Australia. 50. Mr. Parker.] Opinion is divided as to whether these diseases are contagious ; but I think the germs of tho disease are latent, and sometimes break out after long intervals. Unless they are contagious, it is difficult to account for many cases occurring. In countries where lepers prevail, they are usually kept secluded from other people. Maoris are affected with leprosy to a considerable extent. I have not seen elephantiasis amongst the Chinese, but I think it is only another stage of the same disease ; at any rate it is a disease which European medical men have formed only inconclusive opinions about. A commission who lately investigated the matter were inclined to group it with leprosy. 51. The Chairman] I have had no opportunity of forming any opinion as to their general moral character. I believe they are largely employed as hotel servants in San Francisco. As far as I remember, they did not reside in the houses in which they were employed then. Ido not know what they may do now. I never heard any complaints of their misconduct. To say that they are thieves is only to say what is a special characteristic of their race, and I do not believe they will hesitate at crime if there is much chance of escaping detection. lam not aware that they are employed in any other country than their own in raising cotton, coffee, or sugar, or other products. I know that Coolies are, but I cannot class both in the same category. 52. Mr. Fitzlierbert] During the short time I was in Victoria, I observed that the Chinese population was rather secluded, and there did not seem as if there was any danger of their becoming a permanent portion of the population. If Chinese were introduced in large numbers into the Colony, I think it would have a deteriorating effect upon our population in giving them a bad example in morality. As to whether legislative influence is required in the matter, either one way or the other, 1 should, from what I have seen, disapprove of the introduction of Chinese in any numbers ; and I should certainly hold out no inducement to them to settle in a country like this. 53. Am I to understand you to say that their moral character is such as to be likely to affect the character of the inhabitants of the Colony to such a degree that legislative coercion should be brought to bear to limit their immigration to this country ?—I think, if they came here in large numbers, measures of limitation would be found necessary. 54. What do you mean by large numbers, as compared with our present population of 250,000 ? —That would depend to some extent upon their concentration in particular localities. I should not like to see them form more than a fifth or seventh proportion anywhere. In that case they might be found to be politically dangerous. I only know of their numerical proportion in America from report. I see by the public prints that there are about 1 in 80,000 or 100,000 in the United States of America, which is very small as compared with the whole population. As far as I remember, the amount of Chinese immigration has not been much on the increase to that country during the last few years. At first the Chinese were imported in gangs and without their women ; latterly, I believe, they have come more as real immigrants to settle in the country. 55. Since that change in their manner of immigration to the United States, has there been a corresponding change in the feeling of the European inhabitants towards them?—l cannot say positively ; but the prejudice appears to be now as strong as ever it was in 1860. Of course that proceeds mainly from the working classes on the diggings, whose interests are considerably affected by the competition of the Chinese. I think if there was such a body as 50,000 or 60,000 introduced, there would very likely be jealousy arise between them and our own race. lam not aware to what extent they are purchasers of European goods. Though as a rule they live poorly, they do sometimes live liberally; but they invariably like to use their own goods and deal at their own stores. They are extremely particular on this point, much more so than Europeans. On the whole, I believe they are good customers to the shopkeeper, though as a class they are accustomed to live more simply than we do. They are great market gardeners, and generally take that business entirely into their hands in any district to which they emigrate to any great extent; and they raise good vegetables. There is, however, a prejudice against them from using human manure in too fresh a state —that is, not allowing it to be kept some time. There is a natural prejudice against such vegetables on that account, on the ground that they are likely to engender diseases, such as intestinal worms, ento/.oa, and other complaints, and because they are likely to produce generally dangerous results in periods of epidemic disease. I can readily conceive of disease being propagated in such a way. 56. The Chairman] I believe they do a great deal of laundry work in San Francisco. I did not consider their quarters in that city as cleanly as those of Europeans of the poorer classes are generally —much less so in fact; and if their habits are not such as actually to engender disease, they would certainly exercise an injurious effect in preventing its eradication. 57. Mr Fitzlierbert] Have you any reason to suppose that they would be averse to conform to municipal or sanitary regulations —that is, more so than is frequently the case with other people ? — No ; I was only speaking of how they were in San Francisco. I have seen the lower Irish in London, and I think they are as dirty as the Chinese. At the same time I fancy it would be easier to alter the habits of the Irish than of the Chinese. George Webster Esq., M.H.R., in attendance, and examined. 58. The Chairman] I have had rather an extensive experience as to the manners and characteristics of the Chinese during a period of between twenty-two and twenty-five years, —though not altogether in China. My observation has ranged over different parts —the Island of Java, Sumatra, Singapore, Penang, and the Malacca Straits; while some years ago, I was a Commissioner on the Victorian gold fields. Seeing the large numbers of Chinese on the islands I have mentioned, I may say that they occupy every position in life, a large number acting as merchants and shopkeepers. In all the islands where sugar and coffee are grown, it is on the Chinese you have mainly to depend for labour. They come down with the monsoon wind iv swarms, and return when the season is over; something like Irish haymakers flock to England ; sometimes you may see 200 or 300 junks. They are good labourers as compared with any people, and much superior to the natives of the country. They are untiring, patient, and persevering ; they have no idea of being afraid of a long job, or reaping an enormous crop.
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They will undertake to cut the largest fields of sugar-cane or other crop, and will go on continuously until it is completed ; but they are rather exacting as to wages. However, once they make a bargain, they are scrupulous in keeping it; and I have always esteemed them rather trustworthy than otherwise. If you make arrangements with their head man, it is very seldom that any difficulty arises; his arrangements are always regarded as binding. In the Straits, they depend altogether upon Chinese labour, which is considered preferable to that of coolies. In the way of morality, the Chinese are not regarded as very strict in their ideas, and petty thefts are common amongst them ; but I should not say much more so than amongst a similarly low class in the City of London ; in fact, I think the Chinese will compare rather favourably. A great deal, however, depends upon the class of Chinamen. You may have both good and bad. I have seen very bad samples. They were generally supplied by crimps, who had perhaps swept the refuse of a town ; but it would be unfair to class these as the average sample of Chinamen, or with those who would be regular emigrants, who, for a certain consideration, would emigrate. I can give you an instance of how five or six shiploads of Chinese were brought down to Victoria under regular engagement. They turned out excellently. Many of them were engaged as shepherds, many as wool-washers and fellmongers. I employed some of them as shepherds myself long before the gold fields broke out, and I found them capital hands. A friend of mine employed about twenty of them. The majority, as soon as they saved a little money, returned to China; but many remained in the Colony, and cne in particular has been with my friend now some twenty-five years, and has come to be almost the head man in the establishment. But these were of a good class, and had been imported for three years, and after the lapse of that period continued in the employment if they chose. Those who are on the gold fields are imported by their head men. I have not been in Ceylon ; I believe it is mostly coolies who go there. Generally speaking, I can say the Chinese behave as well, or nearly so, as any other race ; and they are far more amenable to discipline and the law, than a great many Europeans would be. As to charges of immorality brought against them by popular hearsay, I may say that I have sat as a Magistrate on cases for criminal assault; but I did not regard that as anything exceptional or wonderful amongst a wild and lawless digging population. Generally speaking, you will find collected around a Chinese camp, the basest of European women, and, as a matter of course, their little children are almost devoid of decency. The natural result of contact between Chinese and these people is, that a considerable amount of enormity takes place. Ido not think respectable children are ever assaulted. I think if your search for information took you into the low houses in England, you would find that the morality of the children very much resembled that of their mothers. Taking the Chinese as a race, I do not think they have a greater tendency towards outraging children of tender years than any other people in the world. lam quite clear, that in their own country, and amongst themselves, and in their own families, there is no people more careful in their reverence for the social obligations —no people who pay such respect to their parents, who more respect their wives and family relations, than the Chinese; and altogether they have a better conception of their social duties than a great many Europeans. The commonest and most degraded Chinaman will be able to read and write, and will carry his veneration for his parents to such an extent as to be scarcely conceivable to a European. Of course they thieve, as the commoner class amongst all people will do ; but 1 do not think them peculiar in that respect. 59. Mr Parker.] I would scarcely be justified in speaking of their domestic and moral qualities from what I saw of them on the diggings ; but I know of many cases in which they contracted marriages with European women, and I have always heard that they were mutually faithful. 60. The Chairman.] I don't think the virtue of young children is more likely to suffer from contact with Chinese on the diggings than from any similar body of men engaged in the same occupation and otherwise on a par in refinement. As far as I have ever seen them, they are very cleanly in cooking and in the arrangements in the interior of their houses—much more so than the lower order of Europeans, or those who might be considered as of the same class as the Chinese. I consider that civilization is more generally diffused amongst Chinamen and Hindoos than amongst many European races; but it is not spread in the same manner. You must, in making the comparison, not include our aristocratic classes and scientific men. But taking the lower classes exclusively for the comparison, you will find the Chinese and Hindoos have a juster perception of the social relations, of the laws and organization of society, and what they owe to it, and observe those conditions better than even our digging population. 61. Mr. Fttzhetbert.] What I mean is, that the European lower classes do not seem to have such a just conception of the obligations as between father and son, and mother and daughter, as the Chinese have who may be considered of the same class, relatively speaking. They are also superior in what I take to be one great test of civilization —their houses are more neatly and better kept, and their cooking is of a better description. 62. Mr. Ma andrew.] Do you mean that the instincts and teachings of civilization are more generally diffused amongst the Chinese ?—Yes. 63. The Chairman. —Are they naturally more subject to contagious diseases of certain kinds than Europeans? For instance, leprosy is a disease which is known to run in the blood of people in Eastern countries, and sometimes breaks out in the father's son or his grandson : Is it so with the Chinese ?—- Leprosy is known amongst the Chinese wherever they are found ; but 1 do not think it is more common than consumption is amongst Europeans. As a rule they may be considered a healthy race. Ido not know that the disease is so largely fatal as to be peculiar; from its very nature, however, its loathsome appearance makes such an impression on the mind, that a case, once seen, is never forgotten; but Ido not think there have been more than fifteen cases in Victoria during the many years the Chinamen have been there. In Ballarat, where there have been some cases, they were kept secluded; and generally, it results in the patients being subjected to a sort of natural ostracism. 64. Mr. Parker.] Would you recommend special legislation to prevent them being imported into this country ? —I should certainly wish to see every cargo subject to a medical examination. 65. The Chairman.] With regard to their employment on the gold fiskls, where I learn that they are largely employed ? —As a rule, they confine their operations to abandoned ground, though they do .sometimes aid considerably in the development of fields. I may instance the Chinaman's Lead, in
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Ararat, entirely due to Chinamen, and which led to a rush of 40,000 people. It may be safely said that the majority of them return to their own country, if they can make a little money ; occasionally they take home considerable sums ; but a very large number remain voluntarily. But at no time do they exclude Europeans ; far from it, as they generally work ground which Europeans will not look at. As they are content with less remuneration, and have a better idea of organization, they can work ground that Europeans could not be persuaded to work. They show a readiness to combine labour, and are so much more amenable to discipline—more so than you could possibly get Europeans to be — that they readily go through an amount of work preparatorily which eventually leads to a profit. By purchasing abandoned ground from Europeans, and by their superior combination of labour, they very often succeed remarkably well. To put it shortly, they will live where an Englishman will starve. Ordinarily they will live on less and more inexpensive food than a European ; but when they can afford it, they live generously. Ido not think they ever crowd out Europeans ; and I have known them to lead the way and make valuable discoveries, but as a general rule they do not. When they become sufficiently powerful they will hold their own with Europeans ; and when numerically superior I have known them to follow the example of the Europeans, and occasionally take advantage of their strength. I know nothing authentic of the Lambing Flat riots. When their claims have been jumped, I have known them to act pretty much as other people w rould do under similar circumstances; they will fight if they have a chance of success ; if not, they will pack up their bundles and go farther afield. 66. Mr. Fitzherhert] I cannot say that they are quarrelsome; I have always found them most amenable to the law, and I have had seven years'judicial experience. I know that some times on board ship when they are very ill-fed and overcrowded, and generally very hardly treated—as in the case of the Coolies —that they are very dangerous cargo ; but the cause may be looked for as much in the way they are treated as in their own disposition —the blame is as much on one side as on the other. If they think they possess the power, they are ready enough to fight to gain their ends; and though their national temperament may be sluggish, as I think it is, they are not afraid to fight when roused or put to it. 67. The Chairman] As they take away, when they can, what money they can make in the country, do you think they are a source of much material profit to the country in the consumption of dutiable articles ? Or do you think the European digger contributes more to the wealth of the country as a consumer?— Undoubtedly he does, in proportion to his earnings; but, other things being equal, the Chinaman contributes equally to the revenue. Ido not think it would be wise to increase the charge for the miners' right to the Chinaman, because you might drive him away by so doing ; he is very touchy on that point, and would take himself to other countries which hold out more liberal inducements. Tou would also find large areas thrown upon your hands which the Chinamen would develop if liberally dealt with. With them, when one goes, many go. Their head men guide them to a great extent, and they obey their influence. By this means large parties of one or two hundred are organized, he advancing them money for their passage, which they repay when they earn it here. If you deal harshly with them, and frighten them, they would be very likely to resent it. If you raised the miners' right from £1 to £5, it would have the effect of placing a direct embargo upon their immigration to this Colony, and they would proceed to other Colonies—Sydney, Victoria, or Adelaide. 68. Mr Parker] I know that when the poll tax was put upon them in Victoria (I was there at the time) they evaded its operation by landing in a neighbouring colony, and making their way overland. There was a popular cry against them at the time, the general feeling being that they were encroaching upon the privileges of the European diggers. The poll tax placed upon them in Victoria was £1 per head, and they travelled 150 and 200 miles to avoid it. 69. Mr. Macandrew] One great objection against the introduction of Chinamen has been because they do not bring their women. Do you not look upon that as a redeeming feature, as if they brought their women they would take up the country like locusts, to the exclusion of Europeans ?— I have tried to think out that question. As a matter of fact, where the Chinamen settle on the diggings in large numbers, very many European women attach themselves to the locality; and onco they do that, they have little or nothing to do with Europeans after. I have gone in the company of detective police to the Chinese haunts in Melbourne, and it struck me as a remarkable fact that the (to use a phrase amongst a certain class) " swellest" women are Chinamen's women —kept by them— women whom you might almost consider of a high social rank in their degraded condition of life. It seemed to me that the Chinese, like other nomadic races, were yery partial to the female sex. Looking at the matter from a political point of view, I should say that, if the country became swarmed with Chinese, it would culminate in a struggle for existence ; but the end would be that their superior industry and plodding perseverance would in the end eat us out of house and home; providing they once took hold upon the land, nothing but sheer physical force would enable us to maintain dominion over them. That, however, is such a remote contingency that any alarm is groundless. I cannot say that they breed faster than Europeans. I can hardly say that I think their coming singly is a redeeming feature in their immigration, as I would rather see them bring their women. I think they would prove a valuable population, as they are admirably adapted for many things that Europeans are not naturally fit for; and I do not think they would be found to clash in the way of competition, as many people apprehend. Besides, no dangerous results could possibly supervene for many years ; and as we could perceive its growth, we could take means to check its spread, though I am ready to admit there would be some such danger as you have pointed out. 70. The Chairman] I think, as a rule, that European women are sunk in degradation before they associate with Chinamen. It is possible that, if Chinese women were to come here in large numbers, the Chinese might come to outnumber Europeans. 71. Mr. Thomson] When Chinamen take up abandoned ground, it is doubtless ground that would one day be worked by Europeans when labour became very cheap. I have had no experience in Otago, beyond passing through the gold fields ; but I have seen the Chinese act as shearers, and splendid shearers they make in Australia, 1 know. They are valuable labourers in harvest time; I know of one district where they reaped a large area. I have no doubt that, in the event of large numbers of them
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coming to the Colony, they would interfere with the Europeans in many occupations, as they now do in the way of mining in California and elsewhere on gold fields. Personally, I have no objection to tho introduction of Chinese, and should rather like to see them allowed to come to the country without let or hindrance. I may inform you that I have seen Chinamen occupying the position of first-class merchants, with twenty or thirty Europeans waiting their turn in their ante-room. These Chinamau owned vessels, and were looked upon as as good masters as Green of London. AYe sec only one class of Chinese. AYe do not see the traders, or tho other high classes, or the educated; and as we know of none but the labourers, we can scarcely estimate the race correctly. An educated Chinaman—that is, according to his view—is as refined in his ideas and acts as our own aristocracy ; and some of them arc really well educated, and enlightened in their discourse. Mr. Kong and Mrs. Kong, who attend the Governor's balls in Melbourne, are very well educated people. G. B. Parker, Esq., M.11.R., in attendance, and examined. 72. AVitness stated: —l was at Tahiti about two years ago. I was on a visit to the estate of a gentleman named Stewart, the manager of, and a large shareholder in, a cotton plantation, for tho possession of which arrangements had been made witli the French Government. The enterprise was a very large one, and my friend went to China and brought out several cargoes of Chinamen —about 1,000 altogether. He did it in this way :He made arrangements with a head man to run the Chinamen there at his own expense ; then he would give him fifty dollars a year for each Chinaman. If at tho end of that period they were satisfied to remain on the place, he would hire them for another couple of years at the same wages, and afterwards, at the expiration, send them back home; but at tho end of the first term they were free to go if they chose. The practical result of this was. that he soon exported some 70,000 lbs. of cotton, and had Chinamen working machines of considerable intricacy under supervision of a European engineer ; and they displayed a great deal of ingenuity and general intelligence, with the additional advantage that they only cost him £10 a year, while European labourers would have cost £40, besides being quite equal in other respects as labourers for cotton cultivation. He had tried the South Sea Islanders, but like all natives where the bread-fruit grows, they could not be got to do a day's work. He had some difficulty at first from the gambling propensities ;f the Chinese, and though orderly in every respect 1o the outside world, amongst themselves they gambled desperately. In one case they got to knives, and one man was killed. The murderer was handed over to tho authorities, tried, and guillotined, and that had the effect of preventing any further difficulty from tho same cause. Another difficulty arose through Chinamen hanging themselves after they had lost their all by gambling. As each case of this kind represented the loss of a hundred dollars, Mr. Stewart said to the head man, " We must have no more of this hanging ; I shall hold you responsible for the hundred dollars." The result was, that when one of them was suspected of any such intention, he was watched so closely by the others that it became a matter of impossibility for him to make away with himself, and there were no more exits of that kind. I noticed that the Chinese made themselves very comfortable on the plantation. They had very pretty gardens, and their houses were tastefully ornamented. Many of them also took native women to live with them ; and although the marriage might not be of the orthodox kind, they seemed to have made up their minds to live there altogether with these women. Although they had joss-houses, they were not much frequented, and I considered them rather irreligious or if ihev ever had any religion, they seemed to have left it behind them. Nor were the efforts of our missionaries attended with any success amongst them. They were employed not only on tho plantation, but also as house servants, and in every other capacity. At cooking they were uncommonly good, and, indued, as domestic servants of every kind. One of them, who was told off specially to wait upon myself during my visit, was so handy and thoughtful that I took quite a liking to him. 73. Mr. Macandrew.] One thousand was a very large number. Was the experiment not dangerous from that cause? —My friend was under no alarm on that account, as lie had provided himself with a most efficient police, and as ingenious as it was efficient. He procured forty savages from Kingsmill group, who were all accompanied by their wives, and they all settled themselves in a camp apart, from the quarters of the Chinamen. I should inform you of a peculiarity of these men. They carry out their orders literally, and have the tenacity of a bull-dog. If they are fold to knock a man down, they fly at him as furiously as a bull dog would obey the command " Seize him, Towser." When the Chinese become troublesome, and use their knives amongst each other, the savages are turned in amongst them with their clubs ; and, without inflicting any very serious injury, they are able to quell the disturbance as effectually as constables with their staffs. One such lesson proves sufficient, and the Chinese after that were kept in submission by the threat, " Oh, if you cannot conduct yourselves, wc shall have to send the savages amongst you." 74. Witness added : —lt was possible to ascertain on this plantation exactly how much these Chinamen spent, as a store on the premises had tho monopoly-of supplying them. Besides their actual living, (which was provided for them by the plantation), they spent about £7 a head in what here would be excisable articles. Saturday, 30ra September, 1871. David Hector Mervyn, Esq., M.H.R., in attendance, and examined. 75. AVitness stated : —I have had an opportunity of seeing the evidence taken by tho Committee, and laid on the table of the House. 1 agree generally with it, and more especially with that of Mr. J. T. Thomson and Mr. Ilaughton. I concur in their opinion that a large influx of Chinese immigrants would be injurious to tho best interests of the gold fields; but in my opinion the presence of a small number would not be injurious, but probably would be the reverse. The arrival of a large number of Chinese would lead to bad feeling between them and the European miners, and would also have a deleterious effect on the people, socially and morally. In the district which I represent there are at present very few Chinese; but that, I believe, is partly owing to the fact that some years ago the Chinese endeavoured to get a footing there, but they were so odious to the miners that they were treated in a way that made them leave. Should any great number of Chinese " 4
AD INTERIM REPORT (No. I.) OE THE
attempt to settle at Mount Ida, I believe it would lead to a recurrence of a state of affairs similar to that which aroso previously. AVhile there are but few, no such result is likely to happen. One statement made I cannot agree with—and that is, that the Chinese generally confine themselves to working the poorer class of ground. I have found the contrary to be the case; and from tho partnership system on which they work, they are able to mine some of the richest claims more advantageously than could be done by European miners. Some years ago, when I lived in Victoria, 1 was acquainted with people who did a large business with Chinese; and from what I saw and was told, I am of opinion that they, as a rule, did not act honestly in cases where they obtaiued goods on credit. As a rule, persons supplying them lost heavily by bad debts. 76. Mr. Shephard] Would an influx of a large body of Chinese have the effect of exhausting mining ground by mere visitors to the country, and thus preventing that ground from being occupied by those who would become permanent settlers? —Quite so. I wish to state that, in my opinion, one of the great advantages of the gold fields is the affording a means of causing a large population to settle in the country. If such ground were worked by Chinese, it would be exhausted without adding to the permanent population of the Colony. 77. Mr. Carrington] What is your opinion with reference to the employment of Chinese labourers on the public works of the Colony? Do you think they could execute works at a lower figure than Europeans?— That would have 1o be looked at from various points of view. AYe must consider what effect the employment pf them would have nationally, and not solely regard the cheapness of labour. I look upon the great public works wo are about to undertake as another means of at trading population of a permanent character, and from that point of view it would bo inadvisable to employ Chinese labour. The question as to whether Chinese labour would really be cheaper, or rather, more profitable to the Colony, than that of Europeans, requires careful consideration; but my opinion is, that it would not. I also think that in heavy work the Chinese could not compete with Europeans, though they are admirably adapted for light employment, but not for heavy railway works. 78. Mr. Shephard] I understand that you feel the same objection to employing Chinese on public works as you have to Chinese miners on the gold fields —namely, iv both cases you sacrifice to mere migratory visitors work that would otherwise tend to increase permanent European settlement? — Quite so. 70. Mr. Reynolds] AVhat measures would you suggest in order to prevent the Chinese from coming to ihe Colony in large, numbers? —I think they should be made to pay a larger proportion of the general taxation of the country than they now do ; and to effect that. I think a duty of Bs. per cwt. should be put on rice, large quantities of which they consume. I would also recommend that they should pay £1 a year for a miner's right; then, they would not be paying more than their proportion to the revenue of the. country. 80. Mr. White] Do you think the stream of Chinese immigration to this Colony has assumed such proportions as to need checking by the State? —I think so. If it is not checked, we will have a great many thousands landed in the Colony within the next twelve months. Frederick Alonzo Clarke Carrington, Esq., M.H.R., in attendance, and examined. 81. Witness stated: I visited California three limes between the years 1852 and 1556, and remained about ten months each time. My observations of tho Chinese led me to the conclusion that they made very good domestic servants, laundrymen, gardeners. &c. They were veil-behaved, particularly when they were few in number ; but when they congregated together in large numbers, they were Aery dirty in their habits. They were exceedingly industrious, working from morning to night. As regards their social habits and integrity, 1 can bear testimony that they were equally well-behaved as the mass of the white population. I have seen them employed on public works, and they gave perfect satisfaction.
APPENDICES. Appendix I. Questions submitted to Wardens of Gold Fields. 1. State your opinion of the effect on gold fields of Chinese immigration. 2. What is the influence of Chinese upon general conduct of mining population, especially as to gambling and disturbance of the peace? 3. Is there any danger to the morality of the community, especially young children and girls? 4. Are the Chinese useful in developing the gold fields, aud for agricultural and domestic purposes ? 5. Are you aware of intermarriages of Chinese with Europeans ; if so, what class of women ? (i. Is it desirable that Chinese immigration should be checked or promoted ; if so, will you suggest what legislation might prove effective? 7. AV That is the comparative cost of Chinese and European labour ; also cost of living ?
Replies from Wardens of Gold Fields. Mr. L. Beoad to Mr. W. J. Steward.
Sic,— Warden's Office, Nelson, Bth September, 1871. 1 have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your telegram of 7th instant, any reply to which I am informed by the telegraphist is to be sent by post.
CHINESE IMMIGRATION COMMITTEE.
1. It is extremely difficult to give an opinion of much value as to tho general effect upon tho gold fields, as after sixteen years' experience of Chinese miners in Victoria, residents there are about equally divided as to their value. For my own part, lam inclined to think they will, if admitted freely to all parts of the New Zealand gold fields, drive away Europeans, and prevent prospecting. It must he remembered that the area of our gold fields is at present limited. 2. The influence of Chinese upon European miners as regards gambling is, I think, very small, as tho games of chance played are entirely different to any understood by Europeans. Some Chinese do acquire a knowledge of games played by the Europeans, aud indulge freely in them, but not many. 3. The danger to morality, especially to children and young girls, is I believe exaggerated by those who are only too glad to find any reason, good or bad, for abusing the "heathen Chinee." The Victorian Criminal Statistics do not show that the Chinese are any worse than the Europeans ; in fact, in proportion 1o their numbers, the amount of crime detected is actually less. These people usually live in a quarter by themselves ; and consequently their special immoralities, whatever they may be, are at any rate unknown to the European public. 4. I do not think generally the Chinese are of any use in developing gold fields, or in promoting agriculture. They rarely work new ground, but prefer taking up claims abandoned by Europeans; and I must also admit that they are almost impervious to the idea that there is anything very wrong in helping one's self to a bucket of washdirt from a neighbour's claim, or a dish of rich stuff from his tail race. Where the work is tolerably easy, as on the banks of the Molyneux, Kawarau, Arrow, and Shotover Rivers, the Chinese would no doubt take .up new ground, greatly to the dislike of tho existing European population, and the certain prevention of any increase in its numbers, as Europeans will not willingly go to gold fields which they know aio overrun by Chinese. 5. I am aware of Chinese having occasionally married Europeans, the women almost always beiug of the very lowest class. 6. I do not think it desirable to encourage Chinese immigration, as, looking to the area of our gold fields and the necessity for settling 1 he country, their presence will < ertainly drive away a far more desirable, if not so numerous a class of colonists. If, however, they could be confined to certain localities, to be indicated from time to time by the Government, they would be of use. I will particularly instance the Collingwood Gold Field in this Province, which would give satisfactory employment to two or three thousand Chinese,without interfering with Europeans,but mat< rial ly improving trade in Nelson. It is impossible, in view of existing treaties, to suggest any legislation which would be likely to receive the approbation of Her Majesty's Government; but the Colony may perhaps indirectly protect itself to some extent by imposing heavy duties on opium, and other articles almost entirely used by Chinese, and also on tho "fancy goods "they import largely now, and by the sale of which many of them make their livings. I think it advisable to point out, that the bitter dislike of the Europeans to the Chinese miners is as strong as ever; has frequently resulted in riot and bloodshed; and that, where .there is a larger mixed population of Europeans and Chinese, a much stronger police force would be necessary than if the people were all of one race. It certainly seems somewhat unjust, that whilst England derives nothing but advantages from the treaties with China, iho Colonies have a few advantages, and all the disadvantages. I think strong representations should lie made by the Colonial Parliament to the English Government, with the view of in future reserving, in all treaties with nations like tho Chinese, the right to Colonies possessing Constitutional Government, to say on what terms they will admit the natives of such countries. And seeing that this question may exercise an important influence on the relations of this and the neighbouring Colonies to the Homo Government, the latter may think it desirable to endeavour to make arrangements on the subject with the Chinese Government. I have, etc., AY. J. Steward, Esq., M.H.R., Lowtuer Broad, R.M., Chairman, Chinese Immigration Committee. And Warden of Gold Fields. , f Mr. J. B. Borton to Mr. W. J. Steward. Sir, — Roxburgh. Bth September, IS7I. I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your telegram forwarded yesterday, and to reply to the several questions therein contained as follows :—- -1. 1 am of opinion that any increase to the number of Chinese already on the gold fields of Otago cannot but be prejudicial not only to the.gold fields but to the whole Colony. 2. The two races, European and Chinese, arc so entirely separated by their respective habits of life, modes of working, and differences of language, that they never mix with each other; and therefore tbe Chinese have little or no influence on the European miners, either as regards gambling or any other amusement. 3. I consider the presence of so many Chinamen in the midst of a settled European population is likely to have a very injurious effect on the morality of the children, especially young girls. 1 know of two or three instances in which the parents of young girls (if fourteen or fifteen years of age have been glad to give their consent to their marriage with Chinamen, in consequence of having allowed the girls liberty to go sometimes to the Chinese stores, &c. 4. I know of only one instance in which the Chinese have struck new gold in this district, and that was only a small piece of ground and wholly wrought by themselves. I consider they are the reverse of useful in developing the gold fields. There has not come within my knowledge a single instance of any Chinaman engaging in agriculture, nor do I know of any who are hired for domestic servants, though doubtless, if they were sufficiently cleanly and trustworthy, they are better fitted for that occupation than any other. 5. I have heard of several marriages contracted by European women with Chinamen, but so far,as I could ascertain, the women were such as would find it difficult to induce any respectable European to marry them.
AD INTERIM REPORT (No. I.) OE THE
G. I think it highly desirable to check Chinese immigration ; and to this end I would suggest aheavy poll tax, say £20, to be levied on every Chinaman entering the Colony, aud an annual tax of £5 on all those continuing in it. 7. As I know of no one who has hired Chinese labour, I cannot speak as to its cost. AVith regard to the latter part of this question, I would estimate the average cost of living to European miners at 16s. per week per man ; to Chinese, at 9s. per week per man. I have, &c, AY. J. Steward, Esq., M.H.R., J. B. Bortow, Chairman, Chinese Immigration Committee. Warden. Mr. J. Beetiiam to Mr. AY. J. Steward. Sir— AVarden's Office, Queenstown, Bth September, 1871. I have the honor, with reference to your telegram of the 7th instant, to submit the following statement, numbered 1 to 7: — • 1. The effect of Chinese immigration upon the gold fields up to tho present time has not, in my opinion, been altogether deleterious : they may be considered as the scavengers of the gold fields, as they have hitherto confined their operations to the cleaning up and reworking of ground which has been worked, or passed over by tho European miners as unpayable or exhausted. 2. No disturbance of the peace has, up to the present time, been caused by the presence of tho Chinese population on the gold field under my charge ; though there can be no question but that the presence of the Chinese is looked upon as a great evil by the European miners. Ido not consider that the Europeans are in the slightest degree affected by the gambling propensities of the Chinese; socially speaking, the two races are as distinct and separate as if the Chinese were still in China, and I do not know of a solitary instance of Europeans frequenting Chinese gambling-houses. Chinese gambling could easily be checked, if it were thought desirable to do so. I very much question, however, if it would be desirable to attempt it, except where it involves desecration of the Sunday by creating any noise, or otherwise disturbs the quiet and peaceful character of tho day. Gambling appears to be a necessity of their existence, and, acting as a sort of safety-valve, will probably keep them from other and worse mischief. 8. In my district, no immorality has hitherto been detected amongst the Chinese, nor have they attempted to tamper in any way with young children or girls. 4. The Chinese arc iv my opinion not at all likely to aid in the development of the gold fields; as before remarked, they are content with either cleaning up old ground, such as the bods of creeks, or taking up such ground as cat be worked in the simplest possible manner and with the smallest possible outlay of capital. They have not hitherto turned their attention to agriculture, except in the direction of gardening —nor do they readily engage in domestic service. 5. In my district, the Chinese population of which is 1,900, no marriages between Europeans and Chinese have taken place. 6. There are in my opinion too many, or too few, Chinese in the Colony. There are now, I think, sufficient to stock the gold fields of this Province, for the prosecution of the gold workings of the character I have above indicated, while the Chinese have, not been sufficiently numerous to be forced into other labour. If they can by any means be forced to engage themselves as labourers on public works, they will, 1 think, be a benefit to the Province, as they are content with saving 10s. per week. At present they can save far more than that on the mines; and so long as this is the case, it is difficult to deviso any method by which they could bo obliged to share in the construction of public works, from which they reap a benefit, and to tho maintenance of which they very slightly contribute by taxation,, and not at all by the means of providing cheap labour. If cheap Chinese labour could bo made available for public works. Ac., throughout the Colony, I do not think it would be advisable to check immigration ; and as a means of doing this, I would suggest the imposition of a Chinese miner's right of say £10 per annum. ™ 7. As the Chinese do not under present circumstances hire themselves out as labourers, except to their own countrymen, it is difficult to fix the rate of wages; I believe, however, that they are satisfied if they can save 10s. per week ; and as they can live for about Bs. per week, the rate of wages may be placet] at £1 per week. European labour is now at from £2 Bs. for ordinary labour to £3 10s. for skilled miners. It will be seen from this that, should the influx of tho Chinese, and legislation as to the miner's right, oblige large numbers of them to resort to occupations other than mining, public works, railways, &c, could by means of the Chinese be constructed at about one-third of their present cost. I beg, in conclusion, to refer you to my letter* on the subject addressed to the Chairman of tho Committee on the Gold Fields, C. E. Haughton, Esq., M.H.R. I have, &<'., AY. J. Steward, Esq., M.H.R., J. Beetiiam, Chairman, Chinese Immigration Committee. AVardeu. Mr. 11. W. Robinson to Mr. AY. J. Steward. Sir, — AVarden's Office, Naseby, 9th September, 1871. In reply to your telegram of 7th instant, I have the honor to report as follows : — 1. The effect upon the gold fields of a moderate immigration of Chinese is, in my opinion, rather beneficial than the reverse. The poor Chinese miners are glad to work ground that would never be touched by Europeans. 2. The Chinese live so much apart from the European miners that I cannot consider they have any important influence upon the general conduct of the mining population. Of those already here, I may say that they give less trouble to the police than a like number of Europeans. They are very * Vide Interim Beport No. 11.
CHINESE IMMIGRATION COMMITTEE.
peaceable and well-behaved. As regards gambling, Ido not think there is any danger of Europeans being led astray by the Chinese; in fact, I doubt if there is more gambling among the Chinese than among other people on the gold fields. 3. I do not anticipate any great danger to morality from the presence of a limited number of Chinese. I believe that in some parts of Victoria, where there have been large Chinese camps, there have been houses of ill-fame, to which young girls have been enticed ; but I do not think there is any danger of so large a body of Chinese being located in any one place in Otago as to give cause for serious anxiety on this head. 4. No doubt the Chinese are useful, both as miners and as agricultural and domestic servants. As yet, they have been chiefly employed in mining in this country; but if they became more numerous, I should expect to see them performing a great variety of menial work. 5. I am not aware of any intermarriages between Chinese and Europeans in this country, but in Victoria such unions were not uncommon. The women were mostly ignorant Irish. 6. Ido not think it desirable that anything should be done to promote Chinese immigration. If the Chinese continue to find a profitable field for their industry in New Zealand, they will come in quite sufficient numbers. On the contrary, I consider that a careful watch should be kept upon them as they arrive, and that it would be well for the Government to be armed with the power to check the influx at any time that it might begin to assume alarming dimensions. The only practicable way that I can suggest would be by a poll-tax on immigrants, to be collected from the captains of vessels bringing them. I have, <fee, W. J. Steward, Esq, M.H.R, H. AY. Robinson, Chairman, Chinese Immigration Committee. AVarden. Mr. Vincent Pyke to Mr. W. J. Steward. Sir,— Warden's Office, Clyde, 9th, September 1871. I do myself the honor to forward as under replies to questions (received by telegram) relative to Chinese immigration. 1. The only effect yet perceptible of such immigration upon the gold fields (so far at least as the Dunstan division is concerned), is to increase the yield of gold, by the working of ground abandoned aa being unpayable, or otherwise unwrought by European miners. 2. The Chinese do not mix or consort with Europeans, nor Europeans with them. The presence of the former does not therefore in anywise affect the general conduct of the mining population. If they gamble, it is with and amongst their own countrymen. There has not been any disturbance of the peace nor any collision between Chinese and Europeans in my district, nor do I apprehend any. The former are very well-behaved people, crime is exceedingly rare, and drunkenness almost unknown amongst them. They seldom appear in the Resident Magistrate's Court. They keep apart as much as possible from European miners, and are rarely involved in litigation. If they have any disputes between themselves, they settle them without reference to the AVarden. 3. I am not aware of any circumstances which would justify me in saying that there is any danger to the morality of the community, or to young children or girls, from the presence of the Chinese. 4. The Chinese are and have been useful in developing the gold fields. They are possessed of a great amount of patient industry and untiring application. Ido not know of any being employed in agricultural pursuits; but they are excellent gardeners, and are frequently engaged as such. They are also employed as cooks, and at hotels ; but I attribute this rather to the extravagant rates demanded on the gold fields by European domestic servants, than to any superior capacity or fitness for the work. 5. A'cry few intermarriages have yet taken place in Otago between Chinese and Europeans. The Chinese Interpreter, John Alloo, has an Irish wife, and they live together very happily —have a fine family of boys and girls, who are well educated, and speak and write English well. In Victoria, such marriages are very common, and generally turn out well. The wives, seem happy and contented with their self-chosen lot in life, and John Chinaman generally makes a good husband and father —much kinder, in fact, than the average European husband and father of the same grade. The Chinese usually marry respectable, well-conducted girls ; I never knew any intances of their marrying girls of bad character. 6. Ido not think it desirable that Chinese immigration should be promoted. Notwithstanding the foregoing auswers, the fact remains that the Chinese are not desirable associates for European colonists. They have no religion, nor any sense of truth, or what Western nations term " honor." Their word is not to be relied on, and they are prone to swear as is most convenient for their own purposes. They are uncleanly in their habits, and herd together after the manner of swine. I have had, in Victoria and Otago, nearly eighteen years' experience of them, and during a part of the time I was Chinese Protector at Bendigo, and Ido not consider the Chinese desirable colonists. And there is danger that, if they are suffered to come in larger numbers, they will cease to be the peaceable people which their present inferiority of number now compels them to be. Hundreds in Otago are equivalent to thousands in A rictoria, and there it was found necessary to check their in-rush by levying head-money for many years. I would certainly recommend that the disproportionate influx (relatively to the European population) wherewith Otago is threatened, should be checked by a similar meaaure—namely, a tax of £10 per head to be levied on the captains or owners of the vessels wherein the Chinese arrive. I would also suggest that Chinese merchandise should be taxed —opium heavily, and (as the Chinese imports usually consist of a very large number of small packages) that such merchandise should be taxed by cubic measurement. Rice would also bear a heavy tax; and another benefit—not to be lightly considered —would result from such taxation beyond the mere revenue collected : the Chinese would thereby be compelled to become purchasers and consumers of European and Colonial produce. This would go far to weaken the cry now raised, that the Chinese do not benefit the storekeeper and local producer. Another article largely imported by tho Chinese is peach brandy, and other potent Chinese liquors. A great deal of smuggling goes on in these liquors and in opium, and this can only 5
AD INTERIM REPORT (No. I.) OE THE
be detected by persons conversant with the habits and language of the Chinese, as the packages containing the smuggled articles are marked in Chinese characters denoting the nature of their contents. I could give some very curious information on these matters, which came to my knowledge when I was Commissioner of Customs at Melbourne, but the limits of this report forbid. 7. European labour, 10s. per day; Chinese labour, 6s. per day ; domestic female servants, European, 20s. per week ; domestic male servants, European, 255. per week ; Chinese domestic servants, 15s. per week —tho domestic servants with board and lodging. Europeans cannot obtain the necessaries of life much under £1 per week ; board and lodging at from 255. to 30s. per week. The Chinese can live at about 10s. per week. I have, &c, W. J. Steward, Esq, M.H.R, ViifCENT Pyke, Chairman, Chinese Immigration Committee. AVarden. Mr. C. Broad, to Mr. AY. J. Steward. Sir, — Charleston, Province of Nelson, 9th September, 1871. I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your telegram upon the subject of Chineso Immigration ; and before replying thereto, beg to lay before the Committee some account of Chinese immigration to A rictoria, between the years 1852 to 1863, inclusive, during which period, as Government Emigration Officer at the port of Melbourne, all persons arriving and departing came under my immediate observation. The Chinese commenced to arrive in Victoria in small numbers at the latter end of 1852, and in larger numbers up to the end of 1855. At that time, the vessels invariably sailed from Hong Kong, which being a British possession, the provisions of " The Imperial Passengers Act, 1852," had to be complied with before the vessel's departure. Amongst those provisions were two by which the number of persons carried was regulated : Ist. That only one person should be carried for every two tons of the vessel's registered tonnage, including the master, crew, and cabin passengers. 2nd. That the vessel should carry a passenger list from the port of clearance, signed by the Emigration Officer. A penalty of not exceeding £5 was imposed for every passenger in excess of the number allowed to be carried, or in excess of the names on the passenger list. Notwithstanding this, however, hardly a vessel arrived but had large numbers in excess. In one instance, a vessel called the Ameer had some two hundred in excess, and from fifty to one hundred was not at all uncommon. The Magistrates before whom I brought these cases, inflicted a penalty of £2 per head in every instance but one, and in that case a penalty of £3 per head was inflicted. These fines were paid in every instance; aud no doubt the vessel, having obtained from £8 to £10 per head passage money, could well afford to escape with a penalty of £2. Further legislation having become necessary, partly on account of the easy manner in which the Act was evaded, and partly on account of pressure brought to bear from without, in consequence of the objection of the miners to the Chinese, an Act was passed by the Colonial Legislature, called " The Chinese Passengers Act." This imposed a capitation tax of £10 per head upon every Chinese passenger arriving in the Colony ; and further, reduced the number of persons to be carried to one to every twenty-five tons. This latter course, however, had to be abandoned, as clashing with the Imperial Passengers Act —the vessels sailing from one British port to another. The capitation tax, however, at once produced a diminution in the numbers brought, and a change in the class of Chinese introduced. Of course the Act was frequently evaded, by getting the Chinese to sign the ship's articles as sailors, or by landing them in a neighbouring colony, and letting them walk overland, but still the immense tide of Mongolian immigration was at once stopped; nor although the Act has now been repealed for some years, has it ever assumed its former gigantic proportions. It was found that we had two classes of Chinese arriving—namely, the Canton men, and the Amoy men, the latter fewest in number, and as a class better than those from Canton, who were picked up anywhere or anyhow from the small villages round Canton. The system that obtained then, and is still the case, is that the Chinese merchant obtains the men to be sent down, forwarding them in charge of trusty agents, advancing the passage money and outfit, &c. This has to be repaid; and it therefore follows, that for some considerable time after arrival, the produce of their labour goes to the person who had entered into the speculation of shipping them ; and thus it is that for some two years after arrival they consume but very little, and are working what is called a " dead horse." I shall now proceed to reply to the queries contained in your telegram. 1. State opinion of the effect upon the gold fields, of Chinese immigration.—ln answer to this question, it is very well known, that a very strong feeling exists amongst the mining proportion against the Chinese. The riots at Lambing Flat, in New South Wales, and at various places in Victoria, arose entirely from this source, and in conversation with miners you will hardly find one who looks upon them favourably. I have not been able, however, to obtain a complete explanation as to why this feeling exists. Some say "They are such thieves;" others, "They spoil the water for our washing;"— but, there is no question that by the presence of Chinese on the gold fields a feeling of bitterness is engendered, and in my opinion, not altogether deserved, but very much of it on the principle of " giving a dog a bad name, and hanging him." 2. What is the influence of the Chinese upon the general conduct of the mining population, especially as to gambling and disturbance of the peace ?—I do not think tho Chinese would exercise any influence upon the mining population. So far as gambling is concerned, it is confined to themselves; and the only matter likely to lead to disturbance of the peace would be the bitter feeling referred to in my answer to the last question. The Chinese would certainly not be the aggressors. 3. Is there any danger to the morality of the community, especially young children and girls ?— I think not on the gold fields ; but no doubt in large cities, such as Melbourne, great immorality exists. But, as a whole, the statistics of crime compare favourably with the European population. This may be partly owing to the difficulty of detection, but, with the exception of petty larcenies, other crimes are not frequent.
CHINESE IMMIGRATION COMMITTEE.
4. Are the Chinese useful in developing the gold fields and for agricultural purposes ?—Tho Chinese are rather gleaners than developers. They would work poor and abandoned ground. The auriferous sea beaches on the AVest Coast present just the sort of easy work they like. They are satisfied with much smaller returns than Europeans, and often extract a good living from the tailings from European claims. The Chinese are great hands at gardens, and grow vegetables to great perfection. Many of them now in Victoria supply the miners with garden produce. 5. Are you aware of intermarriages of Chinese and Europeans ? if so, with what class of women ? —The number of such marriages is very few ; and in Victoria, generally, the girls are those that have been brought out as Government immigrants and gone to service upon the gold fields, and who have been attracted by the Chinamen's money. I saw a very nice Irish girl, with two half-caste children, on board a vessel in Melbourne, going with her Chinese husband, who was returning to his own country. 6. Is it desirable that Chinese, immigration should be checked or promoted ? if so, will you suggest what legislation might prove effective ? —I am of opinion that it should be partially checked, and I would recommend —1. That tho Immigration Officer at the port of arrival should muster the passengers by the list, and if any Chinese be found on board in excess of the number on such list, that the master of the vessel should be prosecuted under the Passengers Act. 2. 1 would impose a capitation tax, and tho proceeds of the tax should be appropriated to the additional expense incurred in keeping the peace in districts where Chinese are resident. This would involve that no person should be allowed to land from any vessel bringing Chinese until after the Immigration Officer had inspected the vessel and certified, after mustering the passengers, the amount of capitation tax payable before entry at the Customs. 7. What is the comparative cost of Chinese and European labour; also, cost of living ?—The Chinese labour is not available for Europeans for the reasons I have previously stated. It is some considerable time before they arc free from the lien upon their labour due to their importer, and when free they always work for themselves. And this for two reasons —1. Because the work is easier ; 2. Because the Europeans themselves do not believe in them, and would not engage them. When they have succeeded in making some money they live luxuriously, pay ready money, and eventually return to their own country. Their introduction would of course aid the revenue, and I would most certainly recommend a partial restriction rather than a total exclusion. I have, &c, The Chairman, Charles Broad, R.M, Chinese Immigration Committee, AVellington. Warden. P.S. —Omitted in my Report to recommend proclamation of particular districts from time to time as available for Chinese occupation, beyond the boundaries of which penalty incurred. Charles Broad, R.M. Mr. J. Keddell to Mr. AY. J. Steward. Sir, — Warden's Office, Coromandel Gold Field, 15th September, 1817. I have the honor to submit the following replies to the queries contained in your telegram on the subject of Chinese immigration, for the information of the Committee. 1. The effect of any large influx of Chinese immigrants on gold fields would be the increase of the expense of governance, and I think this would not be compensated by their small proportional contributions to the revenue. In the gold fields of the Southern Island, their miners' rights would at once be a great consideration ; while in the Auckland Province this money would be handed over to the Native owners. 2. From my experience in the Colony of Victoria I think that the gambling habits of the Chinese are confined wholly to themselves ; they principally resort to their own camps, and mix but little with the Europeans As a body, they rarely appear before the authorities for breaches of the peace, except those arising from conflict with European miners, b} r whom they are regarded with aversion ; and on their first appearance on a gold field are generally annoyed and molested; very often on account of acts of trespass, &c, occasioned through ignorance. 3. I do not think there is any cause to apprehend any danger to public morality from their introduction. I have heard a great deal of immorality amongst themselves ascribed to them, but I cannot remember any charge substantiated. With regard to young children, I can only recollect one case of assault with intent in which a Chinaman was the accused party, and I do not think that, in Victoria at any rate, they have been often found or suspected of committing this class of offence. 4. Ido not consider the Chinese useful in developing new gold fields; they are more generally found, and seem to prefer, working ground abandoned as worked out by Europeaus. They appear to be satisfied with smaller yields, being steady plodding workers, and not easily led away by rumours of rushes, and are enabled by their persevering and frugal habits to make a living where the European miner would starve. On the gold fields of the Auckland Province I think they would do little good, as they consist wholly of quartz diggings, requiring capital to develope. I have known some Chinese employed as shepherds, hut-keepers, and as domestic cooks, and their employers have been generally satisfied with them ; but, if I mistake not, these men I have referred to were specially imported into Victoria for the purpose at the time when European labour was very high in the market, and hardly to be obtained ; and I do not think that they were drawn from the immigrants who came to the Colony attracted by the gold mines. 5. lam aware of a few cases of intermarriage with European females; they were of the working class, and those that I have personal knowledge of seemed respectable. 6. I consider it most undesirable to encourage or promote Chinese immigration. On the contrary, I would recommend its being cheeked. They are not a permanent class of colonists; they make no wealth except of a portable character, which they remove as soon as they have acquired sufficient —even their gold, it has been said, they smuggle away to China; they make no improvement in the country they settle in ; and the only benefit to be derived from their presence is the (proportionately) small consumption of necessaries.
AD INTERIM REPORT (No. I.) OE THE
They are, always, at first the occasion of disputes and litigation and disturbances on gold fields, to understand the merits of which the authorities must have the assistance of interpreters ; and I apprehend it would be an expensive and difficult matter to get a sufficient number of persons conversant with the language whose antecedents and character would warrant reliance on their testimony. In the absence of these, use would have to be made of the Chinese " headmen," who generally understand what is termed " pigeon English," but who may be of no standing or character whatsoever. Tho Chinese, when poor, are very frugal, and live at much smaller cost than the English miner. I have always understood that the richer among them live with something like extravagance, but, as a class, they are more easily contented than Europeans. I will conclude by stating that, although I have no knowledge of the commission of crimes of an immoral kind by the Chinese, I am satisfied that there is a large proportion of dishonest men among them, as, wherever they settle, there are always complaints of petty larcenies that I think are rightly laid to their charge, although, through their cunning, detection is difficult. They are also addicted to such offences as manufacturing spurious gold, and crimes of that nature, which suit the ingenuity and cunning of their character. I have, &c, Jackson Keddell, Warden of Gold Fields, Province of Auckland. W. J. Steward, Esq, M.H.R, Chairman of Chinese Immigration Committee. Mr. E. H. Carew to Mr. W. J. Steward. Gold Fields Department, Sir, — Warden's Office, Blacks, 12th September, 1871. I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your telegraphic message of the Bth instant, which reached me to-day upon my return to this office. To your first question, I have the honor to give the same reply as I have given to the Gold Fields Committee to a similar question, as follows : — 1. My opinion of the effect of Chinese immigration upon the gold fields is, that thereby a largo portion of auriferous wealth is being alienated with the least benefit to the Colony, and I have formed this opinion from the following premises : — That the gold fields serve as a powerful agent in promoting European immigration into the Colony; and that gold being an exhaustible resource, the mining of several thousand Chinese must materially reduce the attractiveness of the gold fields, and consequently tend to check the immigration of a desirable class. That the Chinese are not permanent or desirable settlers. That they contribute less to the public revenue than other miners, although they enjoy excepting the restrictions upon aliens, equal privileges to any. That the profits of the mining and of trade Europeans are to a very much larger proportion retained in the Colony than those of Chinese, who carry them away with them to add to the wealth of the Chinese Empire. There are very few Chinese in this district, but I feel convinced that should any considerable number seek to settle here that they would meet with strong opposition from the other miners—and should any antagonistic movement be made against the Chinese in any part of this Province, that it would here meet with sympathy, if not with assistance. Many persons who at one time did not object to their presence, now that the number is so largely increasing, look with much anxiety to, in their opinion, the necessity for some restraining power to prevent any further influx. 2. I have not noticed that the Chinese have much, if any, influence upon the general conduct of mining population. As a rule they are very orderly, sober, and peaceable, but much disposed to gambling, and eagerly seek opportunities to indulge in it. The police in the districts in which I have resided have suppressed all open gambling ; and although it is generally suspected that this propensity is indulged in secretly wherever Chinese locate, it can have very slight if any influence upon the general population of the gold fields. Open gaming, were it practised would, I have no doubt, be a great attraction to many European miners. 3. I do not consider that the presence of Chinese in this Province has endangered the morality of the community. All classes look upon them as inferiors, and with dislike —and women generally bear this feeling intensified. The very depraved only would be likely to come in contact with their vices. 4. Mining by Chinese does not tend to benefit other miners. On the contrary, to the extent that they develop the gold fields do they also exhaust them. They do not seek for new or rather unknown auriferous land, but work that already known, and which would otherwise be at some other time wrought by Europeans. 5. Tes. lam aware of intermarriages of Chinese and Europeans having taken place in Victoria and elsewhere. The women were reputed, in almost every instance that I know of, to be without virtue, and to have lived previously ujion prostitution. I may add that several of these women have since marriage earned the character of being good wives and mothers. 6. I think it highly desirable that Chinese immigration should be checked, and that the number of Chinese in Otago should not be allowed to increase much beyond the present limit, but I feel unable satisfactorily to myself to suggest what direction legislation should take with this object. A direct tax upon each Chinese arriving in New Zealand, if it should become law, could be made effective, or an amendment of section 4 of "The Gold Fields Act, 1866," could prohibit miners' rights being issued to Chinese, except in renewal of others formerly held by them. The Aliens Act could be altered to exclude Chinese aliens from holding or using lands for mining purposes; but either provision being in my belief contrary to the spirit of usual treaties between nations, and probably of those existing between Great Britain and China, might raise fatal objections. I have, &c, W. J. Steward, Esq, M.H.R, E. H. Carew, Chairman, Chinese Immigration Committee, Wellington. Warden.
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H-05 INTERIM REPORT (No. I.) OF THE CHINESE IMMIGRATION COMMITTEE., Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1 January 1871
H-05 INTERIM REPORT (No. I.) OF THE CHINESE IMMIGRATION COMMITTEE. Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1 January 1871
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