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LOCAL INDUSTRIES.

STEAM JOINERY WORKS. Thoro aro few industries now being developed in the provinco wbich lnvo a greater claim to consideration than tho working of wood for general purposes by machinery. Not only docs it possess tbo merit of decreasing tho importations and reducing the cost of building to an extent wbich greatly improves the chance of all classes securing dwellings of their own, but it also materially increase* tlic consumption of timber grown in the colony. In times past tbo great bulk of prepared timber for inside work waa imported, not because foreign productions wero best, but because having been worked by machinery they could bo landed here cheaper than tbo colonial timber could be prepared by ha:id. To Mr F. Jenkins the credit of adopting measures for putting a atop to this belongs, and although it bas not beeu fully accomplished, yet there can be no doubt that the time is fast approaching when locally worked timber for building purposes will drive all of foreign manufacture out of tho market. Mr Jenkins, who commenced operations thirteen or fourteen years ago, confined his attention for some timo to steam sawing, but ho gradually obtained timber working niachinery of a general character, and has now a very complete establishment, added to which, five others of a similar kind have sprung up in the city— four of them during the past threo or four yeara. When Mr Jenkins took up general joinery by steam, scarcely anything but English or Yankeo timber for iloors, match lining, mouldings and skirtings would bo looked at because of their cheapness, but as machinery increased hero and in other parts of the colony, white pine becaiuotho favourite timber for these purposes, thus, in addition to steam-joinery works increasing tho local demand for labour, thoy brought nativo timber into more general usetbanitotherwi.ecould have been. In process of time Melbourne entered tho lists against England and America in exporting prepared timber to this province, and later on again camo Auckland, followed closely by Dunedin. Of course the colonial exporters proved formidable opponents to tbo English and Amjrican, who gradually lostground, ami some four or fivo years ago tho buik of the prepared timber imported to thi* provinco came from Dunedin. Tliat city ii, however, being rapidlyshut out in its turn by local production, and thero is now very little of the better class of prepared timber imported from anywhere. Tho importations consist almost entirely of cheap sashes and doors, a class of work which has not yet received much attention at the hands of the Ohristchurch firms, who find plenty to do in turning out good work, and who doubtless have a disinclination to enter upon the " cheap and nasty " style so long as tney can avoid it. From tho intereat which must be felt in what has now becomo one of the loading industries of tho province, detailed information with respect to tho various works will no doubt be acceptable, and somo trouble has therefore been taken to supply it. In

making roferonco to thorn, ouoh will bo taken in tbo ordor in which it wan visitod, and with no desiro to givo undue prominence to ouo ovor another. W. MONTOOMMIty AND Oo.'s WOHKH. Tboeo works woro established ut tho commencement of lasfc year, but havo only benn in full work for a fow months. Prior fco commencing this branch of industry, Messrs Montgomery and 00. wero for many years ongagod in the timber trade on n largo soalo, their establishment being in Cashol stroefc, Tbo principal olilce is still located thoro, bufc fcho timber yards and mill aro in Oolombo street, afc the point of intersection with Tuam etreet. Tho firm havo purohased two of the cornor sections, and one is devoted to fche purpose of a timber yard, whilo tho mill, wifch oxtonsivo timbor racks under cover, and a small oflloo, stand on tho othor. Tho main building is ereotod of timbor and oorrugatod iron in tho form of a T, with 18ft walls. Thafc part of tho building roprescntod by tho body of tho lottor is 120 ft by 24ft, and is fitted with throo tiers of timbor racks, Tho loffc hand portion of tho cross pioco is 00ft by 45ft, and with tho exception of a covered cartway, is also fltfcod with timbor racks. Tho right-hand portion of tho cross pieoo is 75ft by OOffc on the ground floor, with a room OOffc by 45ffc nbovo , The ground floor is tho mill room, and contains all tho machinery in uso on tho promises. On tho oaotorn oxfcrcmity of tbo section thero is a shod 18ffc by 48ft for gonoral storago purposes, and near tho Colombo stroofc entranco gato thoro aro small ofllces. Both fcho sections aro a quarter of an aero in extent, and havo gateways opening on to Colombo and l'uam streets. Thero is an iramonso quantity of timber, of nil sizes, fltored on tho promises, and amongst ifi, a numbor of Kauri logs, 4ffc square, and some others, GSffc in length. In tho mill yard thoro is a erano capablo of lifting seven tonß, and othor appliances for facilitating tho moving' aboufc of timber. Additions to tho present buildings aro in j contemplation, and the ground already begins to appear too small for fcho works Messrs Montgomery employ aboufc thirty-five men in all, and sixteen of these work in tho mill.

In making a tour of tho mill, tho enginoroom necessarily olaims firsfc attention, It is situated in tho southwest cornor of tho mill, with tho boiler in a briok compartment closely adjoining. Tbo engine is 24-horse powor nominal, by Young and Co., of London and Glasgow. Ib is on tho horizontal principlo with doublo cylinders, and really looks a vory flno piece of maohinory. Tho boiler is 80---horse powor, and was oonatruotod by Mr Jobn Anderson, on tho Cornish principlo. Ifc io 25ffc long, with a diamotor of sft and a 3fb fluo, Tho flro io almost; entirely maintained by tho ohipfl, shaving, and sawduafc, from tho mill, whioh by tho application of tho pneumatic principlo are convoyed from all tho machines to a briok receiving mngazino close to tho boiler without boing touched by hand. This possesses a fcbreo-fold peounlary advantage. First, the purchases of coal aro vory trifling . second, tho labour of convoying fuel to tho spot is avoided . and third, tho mill is kopt clear of rubbish without any expenso in carting away. Besides fcheao good points, it also has tho merit of kcoping fcho mill cleaner and moro fcidy, materially decreasing fche quantity of floating dusfc, and of reducing tho risk of flro. To explain tho modus operand i it may bo said fchafc undor oaoh maohino there ie a hopper or shoot, whioh conveys tho ohips, sawdust, ko., into an underground fcubo, and noar fcho boilor-houso fchoro is a fan or blower which draws fchem through tho receiving fcubo and then ejects through anothor tube into tho magazine. The material can bo drawn from almost any distanor, and in this mill is is brought; from ono machine ovor lOOffc distant •from the boiler-house, Tho shaffcing which convoys fcho motive powor from tho ongino to tho machinery is all underground, thus giving more space in tho mill and decreasing tho chances of accident. Thero are two circular saw-bcnolics in fcho mill, fcho largosfc of which is capablo of cutting boards up to 18 inches wido, acd ifc can do aboufc 3000 fcofc per day. Ifc io on fcho selffeeding principle Tho timber to bo cut is placod on a framo with rollers, and a hook being attached to the extrcmo end of fcho log ifc is pulled into tho saw an fast as fcho latfcor outsits way through, Bo»idc» theso, there are two othor sawing machines, ono being whafc is known as tho patent vortical timber frame, and tho othor as tho patent bund saw machino, The former consists of a rnassivo upright frame, inside whioh a number of saws are flxod in a smaller framo whioh by a crank motion is inovod up and down, muoh in fcho same manner thafc pit sawyers work fchoir saws, Right; and left of fcho main framo there is a bod on which iron carriages, bearing the log to bo out up, travel, Aa tho machine works, the log is drawn gradually forward, thus aftor being onco sbarted upon a piece of timber no manual labour is required in putting tho timber through, Ifc wifl tako in logs of nny size up to SOffc in length and Bffc squaro, and fcho moveable frame will hold as many as fcwontyf six saw bladoa at onco. Thus a log can bo cut; into fcwonfcy-sovon boards in passing through tho maohino onco, Tho timo occupied in cutting up a log 30ft long and 3ft squaro in this mannor would bo about throo-quartorß of an hour, but in gauging tho capabilities of tho machine ifc should bo romombored that tho saws and logs tako a long timo in fixing. Tho saws havo a stroke of 20 inches, and will out timber into boards any width up to 3ft. Tho maohino was mado by Mossrs Robinson and Son, Roohdalo. Tho band Baw is a vory ingenious contrivance for cutting scrolls and bovolß of any description, and is tho labosb improvement on whafc io known as fcho ,( i l £& cv " 0aw * Both havo a vortical motion, but; fcho latter usod to work up and down, whilo fcho former has a continuous downward mofcipn. This is scoured by endless saw blades working around fcwo pulleys— ono above and ono below fcho tablo on which tho wood to bo oporatod upon rests, Tho saw blades rango from .{in to ljin in width, and aro vory thin, bo as to onablo thorn to work round tho necessary curves or sweeps, liy changing tlio saw the saino machine oan thus bo used for tho finest ornamental work or to cut any kind of wood up to l'Mn in thickness. Tho endless saw principle was flrst patented in 1808, but ifc wan nob until 1 855 thut, a description of saw was obtained capablo of bearing tho constant bending round tho pulleys, Ifc in gonorally allowed fchafc ono of these band sawn will do fully threo timea as muoh work an ono of tho old "jigger " saws, In working, fcho wood operated upon is moved aboufc asi' may bo required for cutting any parfcioular sweep, and fcho tablo on which fcho wood reefß is arranged to oanfc to nny required anglofor bevel sawing. This machine was mado by A. Ennsomo and Co., London. Tho next ono to bo noticed is a machine by tho Atlas Company for planing, tonguing, grooving, and moulding. This will operate on boards any sizo up to 12in by lin. During ono passage through tho maohino » board is planed on all

I'oui 1 sides, tongucd, grooved, and beaded, in addition to which tho boards aro all niado precisely tho namo thickness, a matter of no slight importance in lining and flooring. Tho work is all dono with revolving knives. In passing through, a board is llrst planed abovo and below, thon, a little' furthor on, tho odgos uro trimmod, then tonguod and grooved, and finally (ho board is reducod in thickness to Iho prescribed mxc. About 3000 foot of limber can bo put through thia machino in ono day. Tlio moulding is a separate oporation, and comprises -nil kinds for arohitravos and skirling. . It should alflo bo said that fcho machino prepares rusticated boarding. Thoro is another machine of tho samo kind on a largor and improved prinoiple, whioh operates on boards up to 12 inohes wido by 4 inohes thick, It works muoh quiokor, turning out frora 12 to 85 foot por minute, acoordiug to tho oharaoter of the wood, and it also doos its work in a moro finished manner. Afc fcho timo of inspection, a quantity of timber for railway waggon . sidos— -vory thiol, and wide— was boing pufc through with tbo most satisfactory result. This maohine was only mado in it's improvod form in 1878, and is from tho works of A. Ransomo and Co., Cholsoa. Ifc is so placed that boards from fcho oiroular saws oan bo laid botwoon tho food rollo>'s without any carrying by hand. From this, attention is nexfc directed to a patont com ploto joiner, and improvement on tho gonoral joiner, and manufactured by A. Ransomo and Co, Oholflon. It is a fao simile of tho one whioh took first prize afc tho Vienna exhibition ; indoed, Monsrs Montgomery and Co woro to havo had tho latter, bufc oould nofc waifc for ifc, and only obtained fcho machino now in fcheir mill, by undertaking to pay tho freight of the ono afc tho exhibition from Vienna to England, for tho person who had ordered tlio former. Tho term ''complete joinor," is by no moan inappropriate to tho 'machine, for ifc will do almost anything oxcepfc gluo fcho parts togothor. Among its accomplishments aro: sawing up fco 9 inohos doop, oross cutting, planing, moulding, circular mouldings, grooving, turning, mortising, and boring. As will bo readily understood, a machino capablo of doing all those variotios of work, is of too complicated a oharaoter to explain in di-tail, thoreforo a simplo statement of what it can do must snflloo. A man can bo sawing, grooving, or tenoning, afc ono sido of fcho machine, whilo a lad is mortising or boring at fcho othor, and whon so worked ifc will do os much as flftoen joiners. Ifc will oporato on timbor up to 12 inohes wido, and is a vory rapid worker.

Passing from tho mill into tho tool room ! a vory comploto sofc of apparatus for sharpening saws and maohino tools will bo found. Thoro aro two stones rnountod in fcho ordinary way ; a largo ono for gonornl 'grinding, and a Water of Ayr stono, 18 inches in diamotor, for sotting piano irons affcer thoy havo boon ground. Noar afc hand is a moulding-iron grinder, whioh consists of a spindlo fitted with sovon small grindstones of varying thicknosaos, which rovolvo in an iron trough. Tho stones aro fcurncd, up so as to flfc fcho rounds and hollows of moulding-irons of different pafctorns, and each stono is supplied with wator by a motal tap placed abovo it. Tho mosfc notable foaturo in tho room is, however, a patont saw sharpening maohino. Briefly doscribod, ifc consists of an apparatus for holding oiroular or othor saws, with a revolving ornery diso immediately abovo, tho diso boing lowered at will by hand, and so fixed that whon tho pressure of fcho hand is removed, it. rises bank again to its normal position. Tho operation of sharpening is vory simplo but' comploto, entirely removing any nooossiby for filing or gullobting. Tlio saw boing flxod tho dioo ia pressed down, and as tho disc revolves with immenso rapidity, a momonfary application of ib to tho saw is sufllcionfc to grind ono sido of a tooth. Tho saw is thon moved by a small hancl-whoel, und unofchor tooth is operated upon. Both tbo diso and tho apparatus holding tho saw aro providod with angle dials, and can thus bo arranged, boforo commencing to work, to any required bovol. Tho saving in labour in vnry great, tho maohino, with ono man, doing quito as much as six of tho most export; workmen in sharpening by hand. Boeidos this also, it has boen found that tho aotion of tho ornery disc, whioh, by the way, is in itself a patont j and of French origin, hardons tho tooth and cttusooa saw to wear longor wiihout sharpening. Tho whole of tho maohinory in this department was obtained from A. Ransomo ami Oo.'s works, Chelsea. Adjoining fcho tool room is a small chambor in whioh there it. a forgo for brazing fcho Baws for fcho hand-saw maohino. Mv F. Jenkins* Works. Tho works established by Mr lif, Jenkins aro situato on a triangular blook of land two aores inoxtonfc, with frontages on to tho Ferry road, Barbadoes street, and Sb Asaph stroofc. The building first oroefcod is 100 ft x 42ffc, extending east; and west, and fronting on tho Forry road. Ifc is two stories high, and builfc of timber. Ifc dales back fco aboufc 1562, fcho fcimo whon Mr Jenkins first commonood fcho business of steam sawing. After fcho lapeo of a couple of years, ifc became too small for fcho businoss, and a ono floor brick building 120 ft x4sfb was erected at tho cast end, stretching out; at a right anglo towards tho Forry road. Boeidos thoso buildings fchoro are oxtensivo offloes on fcho ground, as also Mr Jenkins' refudenoc. A largo spaoo is used for storing timbor, and anothor sootion of land on tho north sido of Sfc Asaph sbreeb is dovobed to tho saino purpose. Thero is a largo quantity of timber on hand, notable among it being a considerable number of Orogon logs 80ffc long and 18in square. Tho buildings now in uso, though oxtonsivo, are quito inadequate to tho domando mado upon fchem, and Mr Jenkins contemplates making additions in roar of fcho old mill whioh will bo aboufc doublo its size. In addition to preparing timber for gonoral building purposes, an oxtonsivo trado is dono on fcho promises in fcho manufacture of sashes and doora of tho bofctor quality, nnd Mr Jenkins carried . on a largo shipping business. In fcho mill and joinery department about forty mon aro employed, while tho shipping business takes about thirty more.

Tho cngino-houso is situated at; tho north end of tho briok building, und in divided into two chamborn, each of which in ocoupied by an ongino and boiler, fcho wholo boinj; out, off on both sides from tin- timber works by iron doors. Tho engines aro Ifi-horso powor, oaoh with horizontal action and Corn ish boilers, tho makers being Young and Co,, of London. Tho engines, wbioh are first-olaos specimens of their kind, can bo worked Hoparately, bufc tlio business koops them both working up to an average jointly of from 3>> to 3'A liorac-pawor. Tho shah ing from thp ongincs to tho machines is nearly all overhead. In tho brick building fcho first, piece' of maohinory como to isaciroular saw capablo of cutting logs 10in thick, and closo to it a machino by Worssman and Son, Chclsoa, for planing, tonguing, grooving, beading and moulding. Its moko of working is tho samo as already explained, and ifc will operato upon boards of any sizo up to Din

wido and Mm fcliiok. Noxfc the re is a planing and ' thieknensing" machino, by nn American maker, which takes in planks up to 2ft wide (iin thick. Tho ob joefcof this maohino is to plariol; ho timber and in' so doing bring all tho planks to ono thickness. It in on l.ho solf-fooding princi|ilo. Adjoining it ia a vortical deal frame sawing machine, by Worasman and Co., Chelsea. This is constructed on thos vine prinoiple us already explained, oxoept fchat tho J'ramo holding tho saws is divided into two parts, oach part holding any numbor up to six saws on eaoh ohlo and cutting 18 inohos in depth. When working, ono picco of timbor ia pufc into eaoh half of tho framo, and can bo out; into as many as Bovon boards, thus producing ab ono oporation fourfceon boards from tho fcwo piocos of timber put in, In tho samo part of fcho mill thoro is ono of tbo grinding maohines with sevon stonos on ono shaft for grinding tools of various shapes. Close at hand thoro aro also grindsfcone«..of the ordinary kind for gonoral purposes, ond a maohine for gullotting saws, thafc is punching out piocos from botwoon fcho tooth of saws whon thoy havo boon worn down too far and filing, which would bo too oxponsivo. As connected with hand sharpening, tbis maohino saves a deal of labour, bufc it has boon idtogethor suporsodod by tho sharpening machino with revolving omory discs. Prooooding next to tho ground floor of tho old building tho first maohino observed is a broaking-down saw bench, or, in othor words, a oiroular saw aboufc 15ft in diamotor, whioh will out up logs 18in to 20in thick. Thore is also an iron saw bench for cutting timbor 8 or 9 inches thick, and flxod to tho axlo aro adaptations for grooving and boring. Tho noxfc oomo to is a largo planing, tonguing, grooving and moulding maohino capablo of working timbor of variouo sizes up to 9 inohes wido by !3 inohes thick, In an adjoining room i* an Amorioan mortising machine,whioh consists of a chisel workocl up and down by a crank motion, the timbor being hold on a tablo undor ifc until fcho morfciso holes aro obippod oub. Another room immediately adjoining is oooupiod by a latho for turning such iron as may be required on the promises ; and a small brassfounder's furuaoo. Ascending to fcho floor above, sovoral othor maohines aro found at work. This portion of tho establishment is used for making sashos and doors, and is occupied by a largo numbor of mon, for whoso uso the maohines aro intondod. Tho first ono is a small planing maohino, tho noxfc a tenoning and boring maohino, tho third a shaping maohino for small moulding.*, and fcho lasfc a jigger saw for orn mon tal scroll work. Tho latter will out wood any thickness up fco 6in into any shapo or pattorn. Thoro is also a latho for wood turning in fcho samo room. Attached to tho works are soveral storerooms and stables, but tho latter aro shortly to bo movod on fco fcho nootion on fcho north sido of St, Asaph streot to mako room for tho contemplated additions to tho old mill, Mr James Booth's Wohks. Thoso works aro situate on half an aoro of land, having frontages to Liohflold and Tuam strcots, Thoy wero established about twolvo years ago, and on tho avorago givo employment; fco ton hands, About half fcho ground is occupied by buildings, Tho main building fronts on Liohflold street and contains not only tho machinery, bufc ofllcos and timbor racks. Tho ongino is 15-horso powor, by Anderson of Nottingham, and is on tho horizontal principlo with two boilers, ono 12ft and tho ordor 16ffc in longth. Thore aro two oiroular saw bonohos, ono of whioh can cut; l4in,, and tho othor 6in. doop. Thco is a vertical deal framo sawing machine similar in construction to tho ono afc Mr Jenkins' mill. Ifc will hold flvo saws on oaoh sido at onoo, and can out; logs 18in. doop by 6in. wido. Adjoining this is a planing tonguing, grooving, boading, and bevelling mnobino, also 'by Anderson, of Nottingham. It; was imported about throo yoars ago, und will oporato on boards of various sizes up to 12in wido by Sin thick. Besides theso there is also a moulding maohino for skirting boards and architraves, by Anderson, whioli wns imported about two yearn ago, and will tako in boards up to J)J.- inches thick by 12 inches wido ; a jigger saw for scroll work by Robinson and Sons, Rochdalo j aud throo turning lathes for woodwork, Mi. Jamks Gloss' Works. Mr Goes, who had previously bo n engaged in tho timbor trade, first, commenced working by steam aboufc four years ago. Hit) premises occupy fcwo blooktj of land — ono with frontages on tbo Whntoloyroad, Durham street, and Peterborough stroot, and tlio othor with frontages on Peterborough and Durham ofcrools. Thoro is about an aoro in all, and it is evident; that ore long an addition will havo fco bo mado to its sizo. , Tho flection fronting on tho Whateley road, is oooupiod by tho 'oflloo ; a shod for storago purposos ; and quantities of stacked timber and coals. Tho other soefcion is occupied by tho mill and timber racks, tho mill boing 110 ft by 60ft, ono half having two floors, and tho othor half being now under alteration, with fcho view of adding another floor to ifc, Fourfceon hands aro employed in tho rail! propor, bufc Mr Goss boing a largo contractor for buildings, ho gives employment; to aboufc ninety hands in all, somo twenty of tho oarponfcora boing kopfc ab work on tho promisos, in addition fco tho mill hands.

Tho maohinery is all situafco on the ground floor of tho building, Tho ongino is li horse powor, with a singlo ovlindor, and was mado by Foxoroft of Moibourno. Tho boiler, whioh is 18ft lOin long, and 4l'fc 9in diamotor, was mado by Mr Anderson of tho Oantorbury Foundry, aud is ou tho Cornish prinoiple. Noar tho ongino-room thore is a 400 gallon tank, supplied b;p an artesian well, and tho wator from ifc is pumpod up to a anothor 400 gallon tank ' on tho upper floor, so fchafc a good supply oan bo laid on to any part of fcho promises. Thoro is a selffeeding oiroular saw bench, capable of outting logo fcwoiity-two inohes thiol. ; a jiggor saw for scroll work ; and a small circular saw for firewood purposes, A boring apparatus for wall plates io attached fco fcho axle of fcho largest; circular saw, bufc fchis will in timo bo replaced with a mortising maohino. At proaonfc, Mr Goss has only ono planing and moulding machino, whioh was mado by Ball and 00., Masßaohnootts, and is oimilar to thoae previously described. Ifc will tula? in any sized boards up bo 2l'fc wido and 3iu thick. In a small room nonr tho ongino houno there is a revolving diso saw sharpunor by Tysack and Son, r f Sheffield, Mr Goaa contemplates making considerable additions to, hia maohinery, and lub inon aro now engaged in fibbing up a largo latho for turning circular mouldings for window or door hoails, any bibo up to 7ft (im in diameter. Tho men employed in tho mill havo beon doubled during tho past nino months. Mi«isu3 Langdowk and Co.'s Woiu.9.

Tho laet worka bo bo noticed aro tho latosfc addition to thoso in the city. They are on a pi 000 of land lying between High and St. Asaph streeta, and woro established by Mcssrj Langdown & Co. aboufc eight months sinco.

Tho null ofllcos and storo yard occupy half an aoro of ground, witn frontages on to both the streets referred 10. Oonata.it employment is given on |,!io promises to ci<>ht men and boys. Tho mill is 81ft by 4-l-ft, and har. two floors. Tho cngino is 12 horse power, and was mado by Davy, Taxman and Co. Ifc hns a patont vortical boiler, constructed on tho Field prinoiplo, with tailoring and curved tubed, whioh havt) tho offoofc of gonorating sfcoam quicker than tilo ordinary kind. Thoro are two oiroular saw benches, ono of which will eufc timber 14 inohos thick ; a jigger saw, for fretwork, capablo of cutting through boards 10 inohes thick j a dovil, or " thioknesaing " maohine, usod for reducing palings and laths all to ono thioknoss, and ablo to turn out aboufc 8000 per day j a planing, tonguing, grooving, nnd moulding machino by Hoads of London, capablo of taking in boards up to 10in wido by 4in thick; a tenoning machine, by Ball and Co,, Mass., for sash and door work ; a vortical boring maohino, for iron or wood, equal to boriug holes 5 inohes in diamotor j sovoral lathes j and a homo mado saw sharpening maohino, with revolving omory diso. It should also bo said that Messrs Langdown and Co. contemplato making further additions to their machinery at au early dato.

Messes Tisok, Nres, and Co.'s Wobks.

Thoso works boing at prosont closed in conscquonco of a dissolution of partnership, no description of thorn can bo givon.

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Bibliographic details

LOCAL INDUSTRIES., Star, Issue 2162, 15 February 1875

Word Count
4,633

LOCAL INDUSTRIES. Star, Issue 2162, 15 February 1875

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