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HINTS TO BREEDERS OP CATTLE AND DAIRYMEN.

SUPPLIED BY MR. J. MARTIN. In a work some years back, it is stated, on good authority, that Great' Britain contains more than eight millions of noat cattle, twelve millions of sheep, and abont half a million of pigs, the value of which is estimated at upwards of one hundred and twenty millions sterling-. Of this immense stock it is calculated that ono in fifteen of the neat cattlo die annually of disease, and, at least, one in ten of the sheep and lambs. This mortality, great as it appoars, we have good reason, to believe is not oxaggoratod, nor tho loss thoroby inenrred to tho agricultural interests — upwards of ten millions sterling annually — in tho least ovor-stated. If, then, as is generally considered, tho main causo of this serious destruction of property originates in improper feeding and mismanagement, it becomes imperiously necessary that the errors of tho prevailing systoin should be pointed out, in order that a better and more rational mode of treatment should be adopted to effect some improvement in this branch of colonial national wealth. Will our best endeavours bo then now directed ? The animals comprehended under the term neat cattlo, viz., the bull, cow, and ox form an essential part of every farmer's live stock, and, under careful management, tend, materially, to increase his moans, both of subsistence ami wealth. The bull or the ox may be usefully employed in the several services to which the horso is more usually, but not more profitably, put, particularly in drawing tho plough or cart, which is well-known in these Colonies ; also, tho cow by tho superabundance of her milk, and her occasional offspring, contributes some of the most important articles of human food. Nor are tho sheep or the swine to bo less regarded in this estimate. _The annual shearing of the former supplies us with a covering peculiarly adapted to our variablo climate, and which the art of man converts into texture, fine or coarse, as fashion or more substantial use demands* while, the latter, by its uumerous and easily reared progeny, makes ample amends for its want of those more usofnl qualities which other animals of the farm yard possess diiring their lives. The first and principal eousideration to which the farmer's attention should be directed is the choice of cattle For stock. In order, therefore, that he may be able to ascertain which kind is most snitable for his purpose, I shall givo a few brief remarks on the several varieties in the old country, and, by pointing out the peculiarities of the most prominent breods, enable him to make a judicious selection. REMARKS ON THE SEVERAL VARIETIES AND PECULIARITIES OP THE MOSl' PROMINENT BREEDS. The breeds of neat cattle are, at this period, too extensive, and their varieties too numerous to need a separate notice. They have, however, been conveniently classed by the comparative size of their horns, and as this arrangement is now generally admitted, I shall follow it iv the present instance. The several kinds may, upon this plan, bo classed as follows :—: — 1. The long horns or the Lancashire breed, originally natives of the West Riding of Yorkshire, and now extensively established thoughout tho Midland Counties. 2. The short horns, originally from East York, and improved in Durham, now found generally in the Northern Counties, in Lincolnshire, and, indeed, in every part of the kingdon where the dairy is principally considered or a largo supply of milk wanted. 3. The middle horns, a distinct and Valuable breed much prized in the north of Devon, Herefordshire, and Gloucestershire, among which may be classed, althongh of less bulk, and with a slight difference of •character, the cattle of Scottish and Welsh mountains. 4. The crnmpled horn Aldernoy, from the southern coast, now domesticated in gentlemen's parks and pleasure grounds ■as a useful milch cow. 5. The hornless or polled Galloway fcreed, which are mostly found in Norfolk and Suffolk as well as in that part of Scotland from wheh they are named, and where %hey are supposod to have originated. THE LONG HORNS. The principal characteristics of the long liorns, besides the formation from which they derive their name, are — their eyes are large, bright, and promineut ; the forehead long, but light to a dogroe of elegance ; the shoulders remarkably fine and thin as to bone, but thick 'y covered with fiesh : the girth comparatively small, the loin broad, the quarters long 1 aud level, the legs small and clean, with an appearance of greater length, the flesh generally of the finest quality ; the hide of a middling 1 thickness, and the color varioun, but usually inclining' to the brindle ; the fench-back, or the pye, the lighter being most esteemed. Tho advantages of this breed are principally confined to grazing purposes, for which they rank deservedly high ; the bone and offal being small and the fore-end light, while the chine, the loin, the rump, and the ribs are heavily laden with flesh of a very superior quality. As beasts of draught, the peculiar formation of their fore-parts, and particularly the length of their horns, renders them least serviceable ; and, as dairy stock, they have but few pretentions, their milking qualities being far from their best recommendation. Of late years, the peculiar excellencies of the long horned breed have somewhat deteriorated, and it has been found necessary to cross them with the short. horns. Protil'this admixture, when

the crossing- is not carried too far, a breed more useful for general farm purposes has been produced. TUB SHOUT HORN. The short horn Durham, or Holdorness breed are, as we have bofore noticed, most ostoemcd for all dairy purposes — dairymen generally (particularly in tho vicinity of the metropolis) preferring them for the pail. Of this breed consists the principal part of the oxtensivo stock of milch cows kept by the greatest cow keopors near London. I knew a Mr. Laycock aud a Mr. Rhodes, of London, who by thoir oxporionco as milkmen in this breed havo shown that they yield the greatest quantity of milk, and are best adapted for the butcher when their services arc- no longer valuable as milch cows. Tho bulls and oxen of this breed are also much prized as beasts of draught, particularly for the plough. This breed is evidently of foreign origin, but aro now brought to much perfection in tho old country, particularly in the East Riding of Yorkshire and in tho County of Durham, from which latlor placo fcbo improved short horn breed have roceived their appellation. THE MIDDLE lIORNS TSRGED. The middle- horns aro particularly prized as a description of cattlo valuable in every point of view, and as most gcnorally useful to tho farmer. In tho formation of tho cows of this breed, we find united all tho advantages which tho short-horned kind possess as to tho dairyman, with tho construction which renders animals of the long-horned kind so valuable to tho graziers. They are supposed to bo tho original British breed, and are found in the greatest perfection in East Devonshire, from whence they havo extended into Herefordshire, Gloucestershire, and evon to Wales and tho Scottish border. The characteristics of the most perfect of this breed are thus laid down by professed judges : — Tho horn of tho bull is of a yellow or waxcy colour, noither too high or too low, not too thick at tho roots, and taporing at the points ; the oyo bright, clear, and prominent, showing tho white distinctly, and having round it a circle, usually of dark orange colour ; tho forehead flat, indented, aud small ; the checks small, the muzzle fine, and the noso of a clear yollow ; the nostrils should be high aud open, the hair curled about tho head to a degree of coarseness, and tho nock thick, even to an apparent fault. Tho head of tho ox is singularly small, yet possessing a striking breadth of forehead; it is free from flesh about the jaws, its eye is very prominent, and the countenance has a ploasing vivacity, which at onco distinguishes it from the heavy aspect poculiar to mauy breeds ; aud its neck is long and thin, admirably suitod lv Lite collar, aud even more for the common yoke ; it has a pecnliar rising of the forehead, essential to tho free and quick action for which the Devonshire middle-horned breed is so l-emarkfible, and it has little or no dewlap depending from its throat ; it is light in the withers, the shoulders aro slightly oblique, tho breast deep, tho bosom wide and open, and the forelegs wide apart, like pillars that have to support some considerable weight ; if inknocd or crooked in tho forelegs, it implies a comparative incapacity for work, as well as for grazing, aud as such should be avoided ; the forearm should be largo and powerful, and not only the breast broad and tho chest deep, but tho two last ribs should be particularly prominent, the hips high, and the hind-quarters, or space from tho hucklo to the point of the rump, long, and well filled up. The sitting on of the tail, which is long, small, and taper, should bo on a level with tho back, and should have a round bunch of hair at tho bottom. Tho skin of tho true- Devon breed is mellow aud elastic, rather fchiu than thick, aud the favourite colour is red, althongh there are many valuable cattle approaching to the chesnut hue, and evon to a bay brown. If the eye be clear and gos>d, and tho skin mellow, the paler colours noed not be rejected ; but an auimal with a pale skin, hard under the hand, and tho eye dark and dead, will provo a sluggish workor and an unprofitable feeder, l'erhaps the yellow colours are equally objectionable as being peculiarly subject to diarrhoaa. The most remarkable trait of this breed is the comparative smallness of tho cow. The bull is much smaller than tho ox, and the cow is much smaller than, him ; she is particularly distinguished by her full, round, clear eye, and for possessing a gold coloured circle round it, as well as on the inside skin of the oar ; her countenance is cheerful, and her muzzle oi'ango or yellow, without either black or whito ; her jaws are free from thickness, and her throat clear of dewlap. ICor hock and hindquarters also diffor from most other herds, having more of roundness aud beauty — qualities peculiarly favourable to working, fattening, breeding, and milking. In situations where the ground is not. too heavy, tin* Devonshire oxen aro mi rival lod at the plough, and have a quickness o f:\ction which 110 othoi 1 brceJ etui equal, smd which horses raroly exceed ; and if they have not sufficient strength for tho most tenacious clayey soils, they will exert themselves to tho utmost, aud stand many dead pulls which fovv horses could bo inducod or forced to attempt. Four good steers of this brood will do as much work in a field, or on the roads, as any three horses, and in as quick and often quicker time. During harvest time, they often trotted along with the empty waggons at the rate of six miles an hour, ai' ' ■ . r,c of speed and activity unkriow >'«t certainly not unattainable in any other part of the kingdom. Tin: CKUMiTirD ttoi:\ t nunm. Tho Alduruoy, or crumpled horn breed, are so well known, aud so readily distinguished by their smaller size, as to render '

any particular description unnecessary. Thoy are much prized as milch cows, particularly where kept in gentlemen's paddocks, for tho family supply. Thoy are, indeed, nsoful for all dairy purposes, but not equally so for farming- work ; and anothor drawback on their valno is that when fattened for tho shambles, their small size provouts thoir realising" an adequate roturu, to componsato fo.- thoir first purchase. THE POLLS, Oil ITOR\ ,I3SS TJIiKKD. The polled, or hornless breed, aro not truo specimens of any original stock, but are an accidental variety, produced by crossing 1 with soino foreign race. They arc principally bred in the ancient Province of Galloway, and are usually lorrnod black cfittle, from that being thg prevailing 1 colour. A similar breed is found in and about Norfolk, varying somewhat both in colour and general appearance, but still possessing' the main characteristic foatures of tho polled kind — tho total absence of horns. In most respects, escort in tho want of horns, this breed has a strong affinity to tho long horns, only tbat they aro a little shorter in thoir stature, and therefore generally weigh loss ; tliey aro straight, broad in tho hock, and nearly level from head to ramp ; in round iwss of barrel, and fulness of ribs they vie wilhany othor kind. The legs are short, and moderately fine in tho shank-bone, preserving tho happy medium which construes hardihood and disposition to htten, the head is rather heavy ; the oy)s not prominent, and the oars aro largo, lough, and full of long hairs in the inside; tho \ prevailing colour is black ; a few ate of a dark brindled brown, and some of x dun, or drab colour ; thoso nearest approaching to the Suffolk breed are specklel with spots, but tho dark colours aro preferred, , as indicating hardiness of constitution. The cows of this breed are valuable to the dairyman, but, unlike the grazior, who looks to the darker, ho pvofors the lighter colours. Tho question has, however, been raised, whether the quantity of butter made from tho produco of a Suffolk cow is not loss than tho average yielded by that of ; any other milch cow ; but the reasons for forming this opinion aro by no moans satisfactory. I think from tho previous remarks on the different breeds, that by strict attontion in tho selection of tho animals, tho breeds might bo much improved. There is not the least doubt that cattle aro fast degenerating instead of improving. If tho impo-fod animals aro thus mixed with properly selectea-w^Uo, n-v^^ay^t change for the botter will bo noticoablo ~m~ ~ the stock of tho Province. There has lately been imported into New Plymouth, from Sydney, sorao fresh blood, which ought to encourage the owners of cattle to persevere in improving their stock. Young cattle should not bo put to use until thoy have arrived at the age of two and a half years old, and by adoptiug this system you will get much finer, larger, and healthier stock. The great fault is, that young cattle aro not allowed to roach their proper age, size, and strongth of frame. Tho muscles, bone, and symmetry cannot be properly formed and set until about four years old, and it stands to reason thoy have not sufficient strength to support nature and its progouy. A NEW HINTS ON TUB CHOICE OF STOCK. In selecting your cattle for stock, two important considers! ions should invariably bo kopt in mind. Tho first is, tho health and soundness of the stock from which they are purchased, aud second^, tho nature and quality of tho soil -npon which it io intended to feed them, for unless these harmonise in some degree it will houseless to expect advantage from their possession. For this purpose it is essential that stock (whether for breeding, dairy, or for the butcher) should bo selected from a breed of which you kuow, or can ascertain every particular, not only as to the stock from which they wei'e bred, but also as to the mauner in which they havo been reared, tho nature of food upon which they wore sustained, and last, though not least, the diseases to which that particular breed aro cr have been subject. This latter consideration is essential, for if they are much subject to disease it would be advisable to havo nothing to do with them. If, however Hie stock bo good, but deteriorated from improper food, poorness of living or unhealthy situation, you may by a better mode of treatment hope to restore thoir condition, and even improve the breed. To afford fair prospects of a healthy stock, neat cattlo ought to be bred from cows of a good mako and shape Tho bull should particularly bo of this description, for it is considered that tho soundness of the issue depends more upon tho rnalo than the female. Always purchase cattle that havo been fed on lands of a poorer quality than your own, but you must not too suddenly I put them in tho richer food, or they will | be liable lo several dangerous diseases. Ft rarely happens, however, that cattlo fed 1 on rich land'? thrive well on poor soils ; while, on tho contrary', those from poorer farms do well on good land, providing tho change bo not too sudden. Tho cattlo should be young as well as of sound constitution, for the younger they aro tho rnoro likely they will be to do service. TO KNOW THE AGK OF CArTLE BY Til Ell! TRETJI. The ago of cattle may easily bo known by tho tooth like sheep. They have no fore-teeth in tho upper jaw, it is tho lower, therefoie, by which this must be determined. The eight fore-tooth of tho lower law aro shed, and replaced by others which continue throughout life ; the two middle fore-teeth fall out at about two years old, and aro sucoeeiW by others not so white. A( three years ol<i they havo two more nest to thoso of tho previous 'year, and thurs, by tho two sucooiing '

years, nil the fore-teeth aro renewed ; they aro thun tormed full-mouthed, find are five years old. At tho sixth year tho row is oven, tho last two being completely up. Jiosidos these, they have ten grindors in each jaw. TUB AGE AS SHOWN liV TUB HORNS. At the ago of three years old tho horns are completely funned, smooth, and oven ; in tho course of tho fourth yoar, a wrinkle or cirelo forms round the base of the horn near tho head. This is every year succeeded by another, which always seems to move the othor forward ; as looking-, thoreforo, at tho horns of neat cattle, if the first cirelo bo considered ns three years old, it will be an easy tusk to 101 l tho ago of the beast at any subsequent period. An implicit reliance cannot, however, be placed on eithor of these remarks, particularly in purchasing- of strangers or cowjobbora, suoh persons having been known to fa'lo down somo of tho animal's teeth and alter the appearance of tho horns, so as to give them tho resemblance and marks of young cattlo of tho most valuablo breeds, and pass them off as such to strangers. For all farming purposes perhaps tho Sussex variety of tho middle 1 horns aro the best. Mr. Young, whoso experiences and treatises on agriculture give his opinion somo weight, tells us that Lord Egremont had a pair of Sussex oxen, and in tho eleventh year of their age, which, for sevon years, had done as much ploughing as any horses iv the country ; and then, with half a summer's grass, having been takon from tho collar, and an- autumn's run, they were, with other food, sent to Smith field, and sold for oighty guineas. Tho Pembroke kind are valuablo also, and for the same good qualities ; uniting, perhaps, as far as can bo combined, the two opposito qualities; of being very fair milkers, with a propensity to fatten. The Pembroke cow has deservedly been called tho poor man's cow ; it is, indeed, one of the best cottagers, and equally profitable to the largo aud small farmer. Tho Devon breed is also a speedy and honest worker — fit for tho road as well as for tho plough, and -when takon from tho work fattens speedily. OT-- THE CHOICE OF COWS FOR THE DAIRY. In selecting cows for tho dairy, the previous remarks will bo found particularly applicable ; but the purchaser will do well to bo careful that the cows ho selects aro of a tolerable sire, young, and of a form aud disposition adapted to fattening — a use to which of courso they will be put; -vrh©ii trcr- ten sop 5 op serviceable for tho pail. By many the Alderney breeii are pvcfWnrl, on account of tho richness and quantity of the milk they produce ; bat if their high cost as milch cows, and tbeir low price with tho butcher, when done with, aro taken into account, they will not ultimately prove so much advantage as has been gonei'ally supposed ; although, all things considered, they may, perhaps, be best for a private family. The nso to which tho milk is intended to be put is tho criterion which should decide the choice. Tho milk of some cows abounds with the buttoraceous or oily principle, or that of cream, much more than others , if butter, therefore, bo the object, these are decidedly preferable, but if cheese bo more worth attention, tho choice should be given to that kind ; tho milk of which produces tho caseous, or curdy, principle in tho greatest quantity. These qualities, however, aro dopondenfc in a great degree upon food and treatment ; particular counties havo also peculiar soils, the vegetation produced upon which have a groat ofFect on the quality of tho milk given by tho animal fed thereon ; for instance, the same cow that in Gloucestershire or Herofordshiro would yield a milk from which tho finest cheese could be made, would not be equally capable- of doing so if l-omoved into Cornwall, or even into Norfolk and Suffolk, the milk prodnccd iv tho latter counties being decidedly inferior, as far as the caseous quality is concerned. Near large towns, and particularly in the viciuity of tho motropolis, where the milk itself is a vory important object, the preference is givou to the short-horned, or Durham breed, not only because they are good milkers, but as "being generally of good size, mild temper, and easily fatteuod when age renders them useless in the dairy. The particular age at which cows should be purchased has been repeatedly asked. If wo take the opinions of the best informed judges on the subject, founded on the practice of tho most successful dairymen, we shonld say, not youngor than three, or older than fivo, years. It is too generally tho practice to put cows to the bnll too young. This weakens the constitution, not only of tho cow herself, but also of her progen}', alfchongh they may bo { brought earlier to the pail by this plan. I It is certain that it produces a premature j maturity, and the animal becomes nob only more subject to disease, but its prodnotivo ability is necessarily much sooner oxhaustod. fii (he ond, then, it would bo funnel to prove n loss rather than a e^ain. I have known many, whoso opinions generally seem deserving of credit, as giving their opinions on the Devou breed, that they arc particularly valuable for tho cottage farmer ; of tho oxen, they are r.imblo and free, outwalking many horses ; healthy and hardy, and fattening e\ en in a straw-yard ; good tempered, and earlier to tho yoko than steers of any other breed. Tho cow, doscribed as red, starred, or while-faced, better horned than tho ox ; very quiet ; the playmate of the children ; a sure breeder, a good milker, nml a quick fattonor ; fair grass-fed beef in three months. Another description in describing the qualities a cow should po.-se.-H. Tamcuess and docility of temper [enhance the value of a milch cow. ' Some degree of hardiness, a sound uou&li-

luliou, and a moderate decree of lift; aiul spirit ni-o qualil.icH lo bo wisliod for in a dairy cow ; but the most valuable quality which a dairy cow cau possess is, that she yields much milk, and that of an oily or bulteraceous, or caseous naluro, and that after she has yielded very largo quantities of milk for several 3'ears, sho shall bo as valn.iblo for bn<;f as anj- olhor breed of cows known, her fat .shall bo much more mixed through Iho whole llosh, and she shall fatten fast, theso qualities the middle horns possess, in gonc-ral, more than any other breed. Tho short, horns also lay claim to them, and so do tho crumpled breed ; perhaps the middle horns carry the pal m, at least as far as tho dairy h; tho professed object. If tho situation of tho farm should be cold and exposed, it will bo essential that the cows should bo such as arc inured to tho place, and it would be advisable to preserve or keep up the stock by breeding-; but if tho farm is in a northern or more sheltered situation, and tho pasture- forward and abundant, great c;irc will bo necessary when cattle are brought from a colder or less produefcivo situation into such luxuriant pasture. Change of food, particularly of pasturage, has a great effect on neat cattle, and, when suddenly made, is often productive of very serious consequences. They should first be put into situations tho most like that from which they have boon taken ; if from better pasture, into tho best you have ; but if from poorer, into tho worst you have, and barest parts of tho farm, and, after a sufficient time has been allowed to adapt the constitution to the change, they may bo gradually removed into the pasture in which it is intended they shall remain.

Farming in England.— Tim London Gardener's Chronicle of a recent date epitomised certain fundamental f'su-ts in English agriculturo which have influence in hastening emigration. The business of farming in that country J3, as :i rule, carried on by otic man's monoy spent upon another man's I.mrt ; and upon iho relations between these two depend the enterprise and energy n ith which affairs are managed, It is within tho jurisdiction of the owner of tho land to retain a power (whatovor may be tho consequence-*), of vc-cntering on i(3 possession after six months' (ou any other) notico of his intention. It is also in his power to limit tho uses that shall be mado of this land, of which for an annual sum he lends tho use. Ho can forbid particular crops, require particular crops, attach a fino to tho growth of this, that, and tho othor plant, insist on tho application of particular manures, and lay down the order in which tho various cultivated crops shall succeed each other. Moreover, he can claim au associated ownership in tho produce of the land to the extent of keeping an indeGnito amount of live stock of his own, to feed within its aroa, and with this he may forbid tho tenant to interfere. That is one possible sot of relations between the two. Is it any wonder that with theso and other disagreeables consequent ou tho land question ; and the pest of preserved game; and inconsiderate treatment of the labouring classos, that vessels from English to American ports are crowded, and that half a million more of Victoria's subjects contemplate a speedy and permanent change of scene ? To Estimate Tnß Weight of Live Cattle.— The Boston Journal of Cheniistnj giv.js tho following rules, which will be found useful to many of our readers :— First see that the animal stands square ; then with a string take his circumference just behind the shoulder-blado, and measure the feet and inches— this is tho girth. Then measure from the bone of tho tail which plumbs the line with the hinder part of tho buttock^ au* direct tho strin^ along the back to tho fore-part of the shouldor°blado, and this will bo tho lentjth. Then work the figures thus— Suppose girth of bullock 6 foot 4 inches, length 5 feet 3 inches, which multiplier! together make 33 square- superficial feet, and these, multiplied by 23— the number of pounds allowed for each superficial foot of cattle measuring less than seven and more than five feet to girth— make 730 lbs. When the animal measures les3 than nine and more than seven foot in girth, 31 is the number of pounds to bo estimated for each superficial foot. And suppose- a small animal to measure 2 feet in girth and 2 feet in length, these multiplied togothcr make 4 foot, which multiplied by 11 — the number of pouuds allowed Tor each squaro foot whon the cattle measure less than threo feet in girth msiko 14 pounds. Again, suppose a calf or shoop, &c, to measure 4 feet C inches in girth, and 3 feet 9 inches in length; that, multiplied together, makes 1G square foot, and these multiplied by 16, tho number of pounds allowed for cattle measuring 5 and more than 3 feet in girth, makes 236 pounds'. Tho dimensions in girth and length of the back of cattle, shoop, calves am) hogs, taken this wav, are as exact as is at all necossary for common computation or valuation of stock, and will answer to tho four quarters of the animal, sinking' Uio offal. A deduction must bo mado for tho animals half fat, of ono pound in twenty from those that aro fat; and for a cow that has had calve ono pound must be allowed in addition to the ono for not being fat, upon every twenty. " Gentility.."— The V«Abj News asserts that that " gonlility" to which Lord Salisbury casually alluded in his admirable speech at Manchester tho otbor day works far more- mischief in English society than any combination of strikes or rise of lbod to famine prices. If wo could get any trustworthy statistics on such a subject, we should leavn how many thousands of families there aro in London who aro endeavouring to keep up a state altogether out of proportion to their means, aud who aro from time to tiino plungodinto the deepest distress by some unexpected call ou their confined resources. This disastrous pretentiousness does not stop here. It prevails in other regions. Tho son of tho workman inubt bo a vhopkeopor ; tho son of the shopkeeper mnsl be a merchant's clerk ; the son of tho merchant's clerk must be cdnc.itod fur the law, or medicine, or tho Cli-irch ; and th.'y mu.il in the iiJiuutimc ultimo tlu tooi.il position aud oxpeudituic nooc^.iry to the character, and incur the most severe privations for tho s.ilce of a weak and foolish pretence. No one, of course, desires to check the ambition of ardent youth. But t..0 impul-o which ilrivres people into cflbrts to distinguish lliamsok-es or bettor tlicir circumstances is vastly ilifleivnt from thai, petty hypocrisy which loves to "keep up appearances," and ape "a stylo of living altogether beyond its means. That is one of tho groat curses of our tiino ; and it is hard to see how it is to bo remedied, except by a growing spirit of good senso and honesty on tho part of our population generally. The example- of noblemen , sending thoir sons into commorce is all very good in its way; but it cannot be expected to affect tho conduct of mon who consider a clerkship and eighty pounds a year as moro " gontcel" than a carpenter's bench and thrfo pounds a week; or of women who, adrainisceritig an income of two hundred a year, would thiuk thomselvos degraded if they assisted in the cooking and studied the small economies of Llio kitchen. If we liavo a littlo less "gentility" and a trifle move thrifty, prudent, and plain ordering of limited moans, our social life in England would bo a good deal move coinorlablo and praise* worthy linn it is. To lake tVvii tho gri-li fn fnm 'ho nail whore it is hinging with Hie- 1-m'i I'ut'.lu a»i<;n that (hero '..ill bo r. broil in the kitchen. « j

Cokns. — Wlio.i sumll, they niay bo removed by KLiiiiuluiils or csohuryLios ; as uiU'ato of silver (lmmr caustic), l>y wetling tho corn, and touching it with a poncil of tho caustic ovory evoniug j previously soften tho skin by immersing tho feet in warm wntor. Or apply a blister tho size of a fcixjionco. Or tho following romodfos : — i. Apply fresh evoi'y morning the jeast of small beor. spread on a rag. Or, after paring them close, apply bruised ivy leaves daily, and. and in fifteen days tlioy will drop out. Or, apply chalk powder mixed with water. This also cures warts. Some corns arc curod by a pilch plaster. All aio greatly f-aseil by stoepiug tho feet in hot water wherein oituieal is boiled. This also helps dr/ and hot fee! . — Wesley. 2. Four ounces of whits diachlyon plaster, four ounces of shoemaker's wax, and iifty drops of muriatic acid, or spirits of salt. Boil these ingrc-dionts for a few miuutea in an earthen pinkiri, and when cold roll the mass out between tho hands, or upon a marble slab, slightly moistened with olivo oil. 3. Rub logolhor in a mortar two ounces of powdered saviue louvea j half an ounca of verdigris, and half an ounce of red precipitate. Mix, "and put some of it in a linon bag ; apply to the corn at bod-timo. 4. Some people roast a clove or garlic, and fasten it on with a pioco of cloth at the time of going to bed. It softens tho corns, and romovos tho coro in two or three nights' using. When tho gai lie is taken off, wash tho foot with warm water ; in a little time the indnrated skin 1 that forms tho horny tunic of the corn will disappear. Avoid tight shoes, boots, and stockings, to bo devoid of corns. 5. Ratho (ho feet for twenty or thirty minulos in strong soda water and sofo soap. After repeating a few times, tho corn may be oasily drawn out. If (ho corn bo sole, apply a rag clipped in turpentino. Coma should never bo cut without being softened in warm water and soap. 6. Sir Astley Coopor gives the following recipe as an infallible euro; —Gum ammonia, two ounces ; yellow wax, two ounces ; verdigris, six drachms. Melt thorn together, and spread the composition on a piece of soft leather or linen ; cut away as much of tho corn as you can with a knife before you apply the plaster j renew in a fortnight, if the corn is not gone. 7. A hard corn should be soaked night and morning in hot water, and scraped. Tincture of iodino, laid on with a oamePs hair brush twice a day will remove a hard corn. For a soft corn, tho solution of potass should bo well rubbed in. 8. Tincture of iodine, fonr drachms : iodino of iron, twelve grains ; chloride of antimony, four drachms. Mix and apply, after paring tho corn. After bathiug the feetand outting tho oorus, apply to them a leafof housoleok, or ono of ground ivy, or of purslane, well steeped in vinegar. Kenew every evening for a few days. Smaut Trading.— There is a sheriff in Illinois who was rather taken in, on one occasion^ and done for. Ho made it a prominont part of his business to ferret out and punish pedlars for travelling through tho Stato without a license ; but one morning he met his matoh — a ginooine Yankee pedlar. " What have you gob to soil ? anything ?" asked the sheriff. "Yaes, sartain ; what'd ye like to hey P Got razors, fust rate ; that's an article, 'sqnire, that you want, tew, I should say, by tho looks o' your baird. Got good blackiu' ; 'twill make them old cowhide boots o' you'n shine so'tyou can shave into '6m. Balm o1o 1 Klumby, tew ; only a dollar a bottle ; good for the ha'r, and assistin' poor human natur', as the poet says." The sheriff bought a bottle of tho Balm of Columbia, and, in reply to the question whether ho wanted anything olse, that functionary said ho wanted to see the Yankee's license for peddling in Illinois, that being his duty as the high sheriff of the State. The pedlar showed him a document "fixed up good— in black and white," which the officer prouounced all correct; aud, handing it back to the pedlar, he added, " I don't know, now that I've bought this stuff, that I care anything about it. I reckon I may as well sell it to yon again. What'll you give for it ?" " Oh, I don't know as the stuff's of any use to mo, but seem' it's yeou, sheriff, I'll give you about thirty-seven and a half cents for it," quietly responded the trader. The sheriff handed over the bottle and received the money, when the pedlar said, " I say, yeou, Fvo a question to ask yeou now. Hey yoou got a pedlar's license about your trouse's ?" "No; I haven't any" use for the articlo myself," Paid the sheriff. " Hain't, oh ? Well, I guess we'll see about; that pooty soon. Ef I understand the law, neow, it's a clear case that yon'vo been tradiu' and peddlin' Balm o' Klnmby on tho highway— and I shall inform on you." Reaching the town the Yankee was as good as his word, aud tho high shoriff was fined for peddling without a license. Ho was heard afterwards to say, " You might as well try to hold a greased eel as a live Yankee." The heat in Calcutta has recently exceeded 100 degrees in the shade. At Bombay oven the crowa have beeu scon to drop off types nith jshaustion. An uHompb was lately mado to poison the animals in tho London Zoological Gardens, by placing poisonous fungi in their cages. Tho animals, howovor, refused to eat them. » Holloway's PiiiS. — Truthful Experience.— Tho united testimony of thousands, oxtending over more than thirty years, most strongly recommends tboso Pills as the best purifiers, tho mildest aperients, and the surest restoratives. They never prove delusive, or merely give temporary relief, but attack all ailmeuts of the stomach, lungs, heart, head, and bowels in the only safe and legitimate way, by depurating tho blood, and renovating those imperfections which are the foundation and support of almost every disease. Their medicinal efficacy is wonJerful in rcnooating enfeebled constitutious. Their acliou embraces all that is desirable in a household medicine. They repel every noxious aud effete matter; and thus tho strength is nurtured ami tho energies stimulated. Dn. Bisight's Phosphodyne. — Multitudes op People arc hopelessly suffering from Debility, Nervous and Liver Complaints, Depression of Spirits, Delusions, Unfitness for Business or Study, Failure of Heaving, Sight, and Memory, Lassitude, Want of Power, &c, whose cases admit of a permanent euro by tho new remedy PHOSPUODYNE (Ozonic Oxygen), which at once allays all irritation and oxcitoincnt, imparts now energy aud life t» tho enfcoblei! constitution, and rapidly cures every sfcngo of these hitherto incurable and distressing maladies. SoM by all Chemists aud Storekeepers throughout Uio Colonies, from whom Pamphlets containing testimonials may bs obtained. B&T C-vimoN.— Be particular to ask for Dr. Bkight's Pwospiiodyvb, as imitations are abroad ; .niJ .u'oid purchasing single bottles, the geuuiuo iii'liclu lieiiigsold in cases only. MARAVILLA COCOA— Opinions ol" the Press. " Those who have not yet tried Miiravilla will do well to do so." — Hominy Post. "It may jusfly bo called the perfection of prepared Cocoa." — Briii.ih Medical Journal. M A R A Y I L L A COCO A.— Tho Globe says— "Taylor Brothers' Maravilla Cocoa has achieved a thorough success, and supersedes every othor Cocoa in the market. Entire solubility, a Jolicate aroma, and a rare concentration of the purest elements of nutrition, distinguish the Maravilla Cocoa above all others. For Invalids, Dyspeptics, we could not recommend amora agrpeabloor valuable beverage " IiqUCKOPATHIC COCOA.— This original preparation, which V* attained such a world-wide reputation, i s manufactured by TAYLOR BROTHERS aider the ablest homouophntic .idvico aided by the still and experience of the inventors, and will bo fouid to combine in au eminent degree tt»o purity, fine aroma, and nutritious property of the Vvpsh nut. SOLUBLE mado in ono minute without boiling. The above articles are prepared exclusively by Taylor Brothers, the largest nianufacturors in Enrope, and sold in tin-lined packets only, by Storekeepers and others all over tho world. Rtoatn Mills, Brick L.me, London. Es-jjo>-t Chicory Mills, Bruges, Belgium. 2/9 ap 15 73

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HINTS TO BREEDERS OP CATTLE AND DAIRYMEN. Taranaki Herald, Volume XXI, Issue 2082, 22 March 1873, Supplement

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