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AGRICULTURAL AND PASTORAI. NEWS.

The representative of the firm in London which sold a shipment of oaten hay chaif exported to London by the R.M.S. Britannia some weeks ago has written to the Victorian Secretary for Agriculture on the subject of further shipments. He states that favourable opinions as to the quality of the fodder were expressed, and inquiries were being made by those who gave it a trial for i'urbher quantities.

If fodder could be sent in a compressed form without injury, the freight would be lowered to an extent that would admit of a profitable trade being developed. One shipment was not sufficient to give the fodder a - chance of establishing itself '-in the London market. There should be four or five shipments at about fortnightly intervals. The present season, it waa stated, owing to the high prices ruling for fodder in London, offered a very favourable opportunity for starting this trade. The Gear Meat Company, Wellington, declare the usual dividend of 10 per cent. The annual report of the South Australian State Forest department atates that, in spite of difficulties, the year's planting has been a marked success. The department has been successful in ripening dates at Hergott. A million vines have been reared for free distribution to bona fide farmers, fruitgrowers, and blockholders. There is a substantial return from timber grown by the department this year. Great interest was manifested in connection with Arbor Day. In connection with the finances the report states that great difficulty has been experienced in getting in rent 3 for land leased under the Forest Act. The total forest reserves comprise 215,000 acres, of which 10,500 acres are enclosed for planting. The total number of trees planted for the year was 342,000, of which 85,000 (or 25 per cent.) lived ; 326,000 trees were distributed to 1370 applicants, and 142,000 vines to 619 applicmts. A special feature was the extent to which vinegrowing had proved successful in outlying places in the north. The revenue of the department amounted to £4700, and the expenditure to £9800. ! The annual meeting of shareholders in the Nelson Farmers' Co-operative Association was held on Saturday, when a dividend of 7 per cent, with a bonus of 3 per cent., making together 10 per cent., was declared. It is proposed to increase the capital and extend the operations of the company. The shareholders of the South Canterbury Refrigerating Company have accepted the offer of the Islington Company, Christchurch, to lease the works for three years at £3000 a year, with a purchasing clause at £25,000, and a penalty of £2000 if the option is not exercised, and no compensation for improvements to the value of £2000 to £3000 which are to be undertaken. The offer of Nelson Bros, to lease it for three or five years on the same rental was declined. The following clipping from a San Francisco journal will give an idea of the dimensions to which the fruit industry has attained in California: — "Sixty-six carloads of fruit were hauled over the summit of the Sierra Nevadas yesterday on their way east, while the daily average for some weeks has been between 50

and 60 cars. Six 12-wheel compound locomotives are doing little else but hauling these fruit shipments. It generally requires two of these big locomotives to pull 20 loaded cars up the steep grades and through the snoweheds. Each car contains 24,0001b of fruit and six tons of ice, while the weight of each car is about 22 tons. Recently 1550 carloads of fruit were sent east from Sacramento. For the same period last year the cars numbered 1100, or an increase for this year of 450 carloads. This large increase is attributed to the fact that the fruitmen, being unable to sell much fruit to the canners this year, are selling as much as they can in the eastern markets. The increased shipments have made it necessary for the railroad to haul hundreds of cars back from the east empty to fill the demand for more cars here." Mr M'Cormack, of Wheeo, believes («ays the Sydney Mail) that he has discovered, in conjunction with another gentleman, a cure for fluke and worms in sheep. The importance of the discovery to the pastoral industry, should the remedy prove effectual, cannot be overestimated. No dressing is required, but the remedy is placed in the salt on the field. Mr M'Cormack is convinced that he can, after four or five months' treatment, cure fluky sheep that are not too far gone, and guarantees jto kill worms in any Bheep in a week. The remedy operates also as a preventive. An investigation is being conducted by the stock branch and some 20 sheep supplied by Mr G. D. Hay, and 10 belonging to Mr M'Cormack, are now being treated at tha latter's place. Mr M'Cormack states that he has successfully treated sheep of his own. The following advice by the Adelaide Observer applies quite as well to New Zealand as to South Australia: — "It is very desirable that each occupier of land should watch for the appearance of any new plant in hn neighbourhood, and ascertain its nature and properties. A small patch of any noxious weed will soon inoculate a large area. At first a few shillings or even pence would pay for i^s suppression, but after a year or two of neglect the whole revenues of tha colony would not enable us to eradicate it. One scabby sheep l«st loose and neglected would infest all of Australia ; one pair of rabbits or of sparrows can increasebeyond computation within a very short time. It is tho duty, as well as the interest, of every true colonist to endeavour to prevent the iutroduction and spread of noxious weeds, and of all pests." Here is the choice fashion in which the Chicago Times talks of the Jerseys at the great exhibition : — "Signal's Lily Flag lay on a'pile of straw aud chewed her cud just as calmly as if she were nob the champion Jersey cow on the

earth, and worth 15,000d0l at that. A group of cow men stood about looking awesomely upo» her ladyship as Bhe chewed, and talked with respectful voices about how she had produced 104-71b of butter in one little year — for that is Lily Flag's record. There was one coarse fellow from Missouri who wanted the Lily punched up so he could look at her legs. But Superintendent Davis gave him a look that went through him like the trenchant thin blade of a Columbian guard. And the Lily chewed and chewed. Lily Flag is not the only cow on the grounds, though. There are three barns full of them already. All cows — there are no cattle there. [!] Blue-blooded and aristocratic cows, with poetic names and pedigrees longer and more specific than the pedigree of a Spanish grandee. It would not be a good place to go to buy a cow or two. You can get a new and very wobbly-kneed calf out there for lOOdol or 200dol, but if you want a whole cow in full blossom you will need a pocketful of Government bonds. Bach of the barns is a warm, light, well-ventilated building, and each contains a double row of stalls with abundant aisles for feeding and milking purposes and the passage of stablemen. In the Jersey barn are 53 high-born and dainty Jerseys. They come from 18 States. They are worth not less than 50,000 do), enough to buy a whole range of Texas steers. Each of them has abundant clean straw for a bed, carefullyregulated quantities of ensilage, carrotp, and such like to eafc, and there are plenty of obsequious attendants to see that all is comfortable. Twice a day each cow is respectfully milked, and some of the milkers wear creased trousers and diamonds. If a cow chances to be lying down when milking time comes, the milker politely takes off his cap and taps the highpriced creature gently until she chooses to rise. There are signs on the walls like these : — ' Do not disturb the cows when lying down.' 'Do not talk to the milkers.' " Mr Hull, local stock inspector, asks us to publish the following recipe for mixing poison for rabbits: — "Dissolve one stick (equal to 2oz) of phosphorus in one quart boiling water. Dissolve 4-lb sugar in another quart of hot water. Mix both well together, and stir in 101b pollard, until the whole is quite dry and stiff like very dry dough. Cover up until cold, and lay on sods like phosphorised grain in pieces aa large as a broad bean. Do not lay in very hot or wet weather." Mr Hull informs us that he has found the above very successful, as the rabbits eat it greedily. The poison should be laid if possible in the evening, so that it may be taken before the heat of the sun causes it to burn.— Clutha Free Press. Mr CoghlaD, official statistician/Queensland, estimatss the revenue from taxation in the Australasian colonies for 1891-92 aa follows :— In New South Wales, £2 18s 5d per head of population, or an increase of 12s 2d per head in 10 years ; Victoria, £2 14 a lOd per head, or an increase of 8s 9d ; Queensland, £3 103 per head, or an increase of 8s lOd ; South Australia, £2 9s lid per head, increase 6s 3d ; Western Australia, £5 7s Id per head, increase 28s 3d ; Tasmania, £3 7s 5d per head, increase 7s 6d ; New Zealand, £3 18s 2d per head, increase Is 7d. The general average is £3 2a Id per head of population, the increase during the 10 years being 8s 7d. We (Melbourne Weekly Times) append below the yield of milk and butter of the 13 cows entered for competition at the Kynetort show. The testing was performed by Mr C. C. Lance, secretary of the Buroa Butter Factory, and Mr W. Rogers, secretary of the Kyneton Butter Factory. The competition included quantity of milk as well as butter which the milk would yield. In one or two instances the cows did not give down their milk freely, owing, no doubt, to the disturbance of their leaving their own pasturage and standing in the show grounds. It will ba seen that the percentage of butter fats in several instances ia low. American farmers contend that a, cow which gives less than 3 per cent, is not profitable. With them 5 per cent, is not infrequent, and occasionally as high as 7 per cent, is obtained. The first three in the accompanying list in their order are first, second, and third prizatakers :—: —

One gallon of milk should weigh lOilb. In a recent issue of the American Cheesemak°r, Mr George B. Newhall, an experienced cheesemaker, has an article on "cheese flavour," from which we make the followiug extract : — ■ " Don't forget to cook the curd thoroughly and evenly to make the cheese hold its flavour. Afterwards sour it to a medium degree, but not so as to make a hard diy cheese. You want a cheese cooked enough so that there will be no moist places ; sour enough so that it will be firm and close of texture and yet mellow ; and salted enough, say t 2^.lb to ths 1001b of dry curd, to give it savour and preserve its quality without hardening its texture. Cheese that will begin to ripen in a few days from tho hoop, aud is old strong stock at two months of age, when it ougbt to ba right in its prime, is not true Cheddar chee?e at all. It is the duty of makers to stand minfully up to tha vat and make cheese on what they know to be true principles. The trouble ia that half of the consuming public do not know what a real good cheese is because they get a chance at so littlo of it." Mr Pike, of Mainddtnp'e Park, in the Mansfield district, is (says the Melbourne Leader) conserving a considerable quantity of native grass this season by making it into ensilage. A 1-horse mower and rake constantly at work cutting grass has kept three men carting the green stuff in and stacking it. Mr Pike adopts the system of stack ensilage. ( Continued on page, 11. )

Name of Owner. Milk lb. Fat per cent. Butter lb. Mrs J. "W. Robertson . . . J. Donovan ... • D. H. Adams E Gamble J. Slattery P. G. Hobbs G. E. Rogers James Forater J. Gleeson P. Crowe Mrs J. W. Robertson . . . J. Gleeson P. Crowe 30V 21 231 1»J m 26 i 25} 224 21 1 m 19 U1 9 38 4-6 35 39 45 2'B 2-6 3 0 28 1-6 1-3 13 2 0 128 1-03 0-88 OSS 0-88 OS2 071 0 7L 0 61 0 32 0.24 0 19 019

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AGRICULTURAL AND PASTORAI. NEWS. Otago Witness, 14 December 1893

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