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LONDON.

(prom ouh own correspondent.)

25th September, 1866. The second batch of mails tia Panama reached Southampton 12th inst., and the ordinary monthly arrived 14th and 22nd, informing us of the opening of your fourth Parliament ; the improved condition of the Colony; the increasing produce of the goldfields; the contemplated submarine cable connecting both islands; William Thompson's visit to the Governor; the prevalence of peace, except with the Wanganui fanatics. We notice that about one-half the troops have now left; and when we hear that you can safely dispense with the remainder, we shall have no fear for your future, and emigrants will not hesitate in adopting New Zealand with safe and sure quarters and good pay. The settlers are already in high repute, and well organised will henceforth be sufficient protection against .Maori presumption. London papers ere loud in their praise of the Colonial forces, and earnestly desire that some honorable reward for such conduct should be bestowed by the Queen. It being urged here that whilst valiant men like Heaphy, Yon Tempsky, M'Donnell, Jackson, Brassey, Fraser, Biggs, and others, come to the front in the perilous hour, the coveted Victoria Cross should not be restricted to the regular army. The ready pursuit and apprehension of Sullivan's murderous gang is also eulogistically commented on by our press, and much credit is given to Mr Jervis, the volunteer search rparty, and the Nelson constabulary, for their energy and tact : conduct which proves to demonstration that a vigilant watch is kept over life and property, and that bushranjjing or thuggism, when practised in New Zealand, will speedily bring condign punishment to the miscreants. Surgeons Anthony Dickson Home and William Alexander Mackinnon, 57th regiment, are promoted to the rank of Surgeon- Major for ability and zeal displayed in your colony. It is painful to read of the recent disasters on the Australian coast, and that the miraculous preservation of the 500 souls in the Netherby should have been so quickly followed by the calamitous wreck of the Cawarra; the inactivity of the Newcastle life boat | will, of course, be duly enquired into.

The Pacific Mail Steamship Company advertise the new service between California and Japan and China ; the first steamer of the line will leave San Fraucisco for Hong Kong, touching at Yokohama, January Ist, 1867, to be followed by departures once a month thereafter, according to contract with the United States Government. In England there is some talk of changiug our postal route to the East ; the idea being to substitute some port in southern Italy for Marseilles. The harbor of Brindisi I*9 the favored spot ; and as the summit railway over Mont Cenis will be completed in June, it is calculated that our mails may be thus conveyed between London and Alexandria in 150}-

The following vessels have arrived :—: — The Charlotte Giddie, Kent, Percy, Oriole, Ellen Rose, Punjaub, Stella, British Ensign, Maid of Judah, Wilhelmina, Eagle's Wing. The following are spoken : — The Maori, Matoaka, Glenmark, Celajno, Moulin, British Merchant, southern Cross, Blue Jacket, Mary Russell Mil ford, Water Nymph, Warrior Queen, Carasjah, Orient, Elizabeth, Trenton, Paramatta, Corona, John Duthie, Ethereal, Glenaros, Windward, Bruce, Lady Dufferin, Harwich, Swifcsure, Fitzroy, Walter Hood, Young Australia, Red Rover, Mermaid, Crest of the Wave,

Jason, Canterbury, Strathleven, Marie, Wansite, Sarah Grice, Lincolnshire, Hugh Matthie, D. Mackay, Forest Rights, Ardbeg.

The Adelaide Baker, for Melbourne, put back into Deal 10th inst. The Electric is advertised to sail 27th inst., with parties | for Otago and Auckland. The Holmsdale, with the 40th regiment from Auckland, and the Sea Star, from Sydney, with the mortal remains of Prince de Conde, arrived 9th inst. The Red Jacket, for Melbourne, left the Mersey on the Ist, having on board 100 selected young women, sent out by Miss R> c for domestic service. Another hundred will start for the same destination in October ; and it is said that the lady has L3OOO per month placed at her disposal by the Australian authorities for this special purpose. The Corona transport left Chatham 7th inst, with three or four hundred scoundrels for their penal home in Western Australia : and this at a time when we actually require them here. For want of convict labor, the Royal Dock at Cork Harbor is standing still — the Parliamentary grant expressly stipulating that by prisoners alone should the works be constructed. The notorious William Roupell remains at Portland ; Constance Kent is at Millbank.

Peace on the Continent (if we except the island of Candia) is un fait accompli, and all parties are satisfied, or, which we must accept as the same thing, they say they are : tall men shake hands right merrily,

and political prophets advise us to expect quiet times for a year or two, and to be proportionately grateful. So be it; but what then ? At the expiration of that time we shall all be so proficient in gunnery and musketry, and so well furnished with the choicest weapons, that there will be nothing to improve, nothing to desire ; and we cm only hope the world will be too wise for its peoples to rush en mutual destruction But let us be chary of our gratitude ; small reliance can now be placed on treaties, engagements, alliances, map 3or boundaries; and a casual glance at things in general tells us we are not yet in the Millennium. One dark cloud is chased away only to be succeeded by its fellow; angry comments on successful usurpations are still frequent, and a much more healthy tone of friendship in semi-official journals is required ere we can believe in the present situation Certainly economy in European States is boldly vaunted. We hear of reductions in army estimates, and of re-organisations; of utilising the forces, and of economically increasing their efficiency — things in all conscience much needed, and we should rejoice "were hundreds of thousands of men transferred from martial ranks to the profitable toils of commercial industry. But to admit of this there should be an absence of such continual discussion on the " rectification of frontiers;" and if we indulge in dreams that the terms now being arranged at Prague and Vienna will bring something more substantial than a ruinous armed- peace, which has too long clogged he wheels of prpgress, we may be deceived. Ancient and modern treaties are readily broken now-a-days, and are no longer binding than suits partv-purpose3. Again, the recent inaction of France and Russia n^ notjfor a moment be attributed to weakness ; and looking towards Turkey anxious thoughts arise. The Paris Exhibition may help to keep folks quiet awhile, but o ir own first great world's fair was quickly followed by Crimean events ; and without anticipating another season of horrors in the face of such pacific protestations, it requires a vast deal of philosophy to believe in any long continuance of peace.

Germany rapidly become 3 one happy fatnUy, King William paterfamilias; the Hanoverian Guelphs and other doomed potentates supplicate for mercy, and are blandly ull to bow with meekness to the will of Providence ; the victorious troops then march triumphantly into Berlin, aud nothing can possibly be more comfortible. Bismarck explains how he violated the Constitution expressly to destroy the effete German Bund, to drive the old fogeys from Frankfort, and to establish a seusible rule in Fatherland. The splendid result may speak for itself. He has annexed as he pleased. Hanover, Hesse, Nassau, Frankfort, and Schleswig-Holstein are fastened to the Hohenzillern Crown ; G-erminy is united from the Rhine to the Eider; two- j thirds of the nation are under Prussian I control, with a sure hold on the remaining third ; and Saxony is their own at any time. Well may the people rejoice in the reign of a King by Ri^ht Divine, and in the achievements of his wonderful Minister ; well may they so gladly accept the present situation, nnd treat bygone* as bygones. Prussia is Germany — Germany is Pru3sia. The little great war is made to pay it?e!f, and to put some millions from conquered States into the Berlin Exchequer besides, and the mighty nation now dictates to Europe. But amidst all this amiability the King and Parliament are again at issue : the Liberals in the Chamber opposing the Government on financial matters, and on the Electoral law for the German Parliament. Bisma'ck, however, can do as well without the country's sanction as with it — perhaps belter ; and as he ha 3 the King's permiss'on, he will make short work with refractory deputies whenever they dare to interfere with divine right. Austria, after a destructive campaign, is turned out of German Councils, and gladly enters on peace. Francis Joseph is now face to face with his heterogeneous subjects, and, his first deep sorrow somewhat mitigated, he resolves to continue his sovereignty as a great power. He inaugurates a stern system of retrenchment, proposes a personal union with Hungary, and promises to mete out to his people that justice hitherto withheld. And. it is well — the monarchy and the army alike have been described as a Babel of ten languages : hence its inharmonious action, its constant defeats in the field. And it remains to be seen whether dear-bought experience will teach the Kaiser a different study to that of worn out institutions, and whether there is left sufficient vitality to bring the Empire safely through the trials which cling i to the train of recent events.

Nearly 100,000 lives are said to have been actually sacrificed in the late short war ; the official numbers of " killed, wounded and mis3ing" are difficult things to obtain, but whatever the amount, the bullet and disease have done their awful work, and it is well ended. Now comes the tiresome day of reckoning. States which were hopelessly bankrupt before the war, are called on to pay huge indemnities, and finance ministers must have a

sorry time. One curiosity is that of Hanover, -whose prudent sovereign, on the eve* of hostilities, sent property worth about eight millions sterling to England, for safekeeping ; this property, Bismarck alleges - was not King George's, but the nation's ; and as Prussia has conquered Hanover, so • is Prussia the rightful heir to Hanoverian iroodsand chattels ; consequently, Bismarck: demands rtstituHon of stolen property aforesaid, and publishes a full description; of the same.

Italy h fearfully full of cholera, but excitinpr preparations are in hand for theKing'tf triumphal entry into Venice. The' cession of the ancient Hall of the Doges,, is unconditional, except that its public debt goes with it ; a reasonable rectification of frontiers is also anticipated. Thus are the aspirations of the young kingdom being realised. The two desiderata, Rome and Venetia. are secured, and the people's destiny is in their own keeping. The antagonism of Austria and Italy ended, industry and finance should now engross the thoughts of both, and they may cement a friendship which in after troublous times might prove inestimable. And yet we find uneasy spirits roaming, asm Sicily the stupid Republicans are attempting to organise insurrection. Neither will Mazzini be comforted. He refuses to be pardoned, and bullies alike the Pope, the Emperor, and the people, King "Victor, and all his ministers. Thus he acts, and calls it patriotism, instead of takin? a leaf out of Garibaldi's good book, and flying to help his country when called on. The surging waters still require calming, and true patriots are scarce as ever. But in spite of Mazzini, Italy is unified : Germany, also, in ppite of prophets of fifty years' standing. The French garrison is preparing to depart from Rome ; and -when gone, aforeign body-guard of 1500 men, commanded by a French colonel, and now" assembled at Viterbo, will be placed at thePope's disposal, and in his pay. But whether His Holiness will accept thisarrangement, or whether he will scorn any further outward aid, and at once place himself under Italian protection, or whether he will retire altogether, and select Malta or Spain as a refuge for the Papacy, no one knows.

Marquis de Moustier supplants M. Drouyn de Lhuys at the Tuileries. The Emperor and his minister part good friends, however, and the late minister is placed on the Privy Council list. His policy was rather too warlike for present circumstances; he would assist Austria and also retain the troops in Rome; whereas Naooleon considers that events must rnn their course without further interference. A French circular note just issued is being much canvassed. It endeavors to reconcile the people to the results of the German war ; and it emphatically reiterates V Empire e'est la paix. This remarkable document is generally approved of, although some hypercritical students point out certain paragraphs which mean mischief. The Emperor has at last gone to Biarritz ; his health is said to be improving, but much alarm and doubt exist. The long- continued mental strain ha* severely tried the great man, and as considerable hard work is yet before him, he must be very careful if he would live through it.

A plan is eventually accepted for deepening the Seine, which, under the Imperial Eagle's eye, will be pushed forward, and in the briefest possible spase Paris will be a seaport. The Universal Exhibition of 1867 is to be the wonder of the age. The building progresses apace ; and the Emperor is resolved no parsimonious considerations shall mar the sport, In addition to other attractions, handsome rewards are offered to natives and foreigners who, by their teachings or examples, have conspicuously enhanced' the well-being of the laboring classes. The Continental passport nuisance, likewise, will be meliorated for the occasion, if not altogether abolished ; a Congress being contemplated with that object, a thing which, ot itself, will give eclat to the opening. French literature again suffers; Roger de Beauvoir follows quickly to the grave his once gay rival, Mery, and at the age of 56 dies in poverty and neglect. Leon Gozlan is also dead. The Cochin' Chinese have been playing at revolution, but the game was rudely stopped, and the ringleaders are brought to Toulon to make the acquaintance of genteel Formats not much better than themselves. Ferdinand Lessens, after all, is a wonderfulman and a commercial hero ; his agents are advertising to receive goods next month destined for India, via the Suez Canal, which is pronounced a success, and to be forthwith opened for traffic.

The Russian Emperor, in common with others, accepts the present European situation, and moodily allows other people to mind their own business ; but bis eyes ate open though bis lips be closed. He looks to the East and he looks to the West — he ogles " the sick man" at Constantinople, whilst doing the hob and nob with American officials on the Neva. Mr Fox islionised to his heart's content. All con-

'eeivable exaggerations are reciprocated, and we have the Honorable Envoy's own 'assurance that there are no other two such -mighty nations on this earth as America and Russia. The interests of Republicanism and Despotism are identical, and the 'firmest alliance must be maintained. " Hail Colombia- 1" is the Petersburg toast. "We swear eternal friendship," iq America's response. Verily do extremes meet. Conjecture arises, and journalism makes the most of it ; but as diplomacy keeps it own secret, beyond conjecture we cannot «o. Bussian papers announce the arrival of the Princess Dagmar, from Copenhagen, and preparations for her marriage with the Czarewitch ; also, the death of the notorious General Mouravieff; also, that the 'Caucasian insurrections are quelled.' " Grim visaged war" being dead in Germany comes ominously to life in the Turkish dominion?, and the Sick Man again requires tending. How far Russia is engaged in stirring up this Greek fire is not known; certain it is that the Christian races in European Turkey are in arms. Mussulman rule is declared intokrable ; Candia takes the lead in open rebellion; the blood of Turk and Giaour mingle on 'the tands ; ships of all nations sail to the scene of action ; even the American tar shouts "Candia" — and altogether the Eastern question again bears a sinister aspect. Now, as all the Great Powers are interested in the relations of Cro«9 and Crescent, it is easy to perceive a limit to non-intervention in this serious m;Uter; 'various suggestions are already started, and reports are rile of very important changes. The Porte recently entertained an idea, of recruiting the exhausted exchequer by selling to America an island in the Gulf of 2Egina; an immense sum is said to have been offered for it, as the United States are extremely anxious for commodious statiors in the old world, although so jealous of European Settlements in the new one, and their glaring intimacy with Russia wa« doubtless made available in this instance ; but France and England are so decidedly opposed to the scheme, that Turkey dare not listen to the voice of the charmer. The incident, however, brings to mind a previous negotiation between America and Denmark, respecting a naval station on the island of St Thomas.

Mexico presents us with two pictures : one drawn m the western hemisphere represents Maximilian's golden dreams at the finish. His last official decree was to blockade Matamoras, but President Johneon ignored the Imperial act by proclamation, and the Republicans acquire a moral support which must prove invincible. In addition to this, Maximilian cow learns the final resolve of France to get her money back somehow or other, or to render no further aid ; he is thus powerless against the activity and increasing forces of Juartz, and his abdication and speedy arrival at Miramar may be looked for. Then, with the retirement of the Frer>ch army, Mexico will lose its one great chance of regeneration, and remain a howling wilderne c s until adopted by the Washington Government. Meanwhile the fate reserved for Imperial partizans is most melancholy ; and unless France and America agree on some effee'tual protection against the cruelty of •Juarez and his brigands, the very worst may befall. Parisian artists, however, attempt a brighter sketch. They tell us how Xapoleon has despatched his aide-dc camp, General Castlenau, to Maximilian's Court, to reorganise the military and administrative systems ; al-o how the money out of pocket (about 15 millions sterling) is secured by transferring to France one half of the receipts of all the maritime •Customs, but we are not -informed how this revenue is to be collected, nor how it is to reach the French exchequer, when Marshal Bizaine and his men have Tetired.

American news is eventful. Texas is restored to the Union by proclamation. Thousands of negroes are applying for free passage to Liberia. Political riots abound, and a contest is being entered on, which promises to be long and desperate, and the issue doubtful. It is suggested as very difficult to read the anomalous broad question of a Democratic Republic divided into two hostile sections of Democrats and Republicans ; but such as it is, the startling idea is before us, involving mighty issues. The National Union Conservative Convention met in Philadelphia, August 14th, to support the President's policy of admitting Southern members to Congress, stifling the revolutionary Opposition, and re-constructing the Union. This meeting being most hateful to Sumner, Stevens and Co. incendiary threats were openly published, and the utmost vigilance alone prevented conflagration and massacre ; it •was, however, a success. Delegates from Massachusetts and South Carolina entered arm in arm, and the main argument was confined to one point: "as no Sate can secede at pleasure, neither can it be ex eluded from the Union against its consent." This is Mr Johnson's policy; the Convention adopt it; and no Government patronage will be conferred on any one holding opposite notions*. The election* now pending must be influenced by thisimple procedure; in further support

whereof Conventions of soldiers and sailors are held, also mass meetings. And besides all this the President travereea the North and West, accompanied by Grant and Farragut, and in addressing the multitudes, he uses extraordinary and unmistakeable language ; in depicting the character of his enemies, he paints them in the darkest colors, and hurls at them a stout defiance. The Radicals, too, are active enough ; they also assembled at Philadelphia 3rd instant, and plainly avowed their policy ; they indulged in the utmost venom, called Mr Johnson 11 President by the Grace of Booth," pledgtd themselves to impeach him for treason, and to bant; him if they can. The fiery press hiss out " the Country iB in danger," at the same time taking aides with venomous utterance; party strife is at fever heat— civil war is a contingency; and the dangerous crisis is universally acknowledged. Should the people uphold their Chief Magistrate, Radicalism will be defeated, and the 40th CoDgrees will have before it the gratifying task of Reconstruction ; and we now can only wait the issue of this final struggle, a Conservative or Radical majority — an issue in which the whole world is most intimately concerned.

The Union Pacific Railway is being opposed by the Indians, who declare war to the scalp should the iron road be pushed through their favorite hunting grounds; but they bad best be careful. The United States have offered them liberal term?, and will brook no obstruction to the scheme.

Spain continues to furnish the gloomiest accounts. Such a reign of- terror and despotism exists in the dominions of Her Most Catholic Majesty $s is birfely conceivable. Freedom of the Press is completely abolished; political executions are constant, together with wholesale deportation to Fernando Po and the Philippines of persons obnoxious to the Bravo-Narvaez Government ; and the only consolation left to the affrighted people, is that the present regime cannot possibly endure. The papers recount further captures of English ships, bound for Chili, with contraband of war ; also that the Allied Republics are persevering in a retaliatory war upon Spanish commerce; that the coast defences are procnedin<r vigorously, that large purchases of heavy ordnance are being negotiated in the United State?, that Admiral Tucker of the American Confederate Navy is appointed commander of the Chilo- Peruvian fleet, that Costa Rica still refuses to join the Alliance, and that the Spanish squadron is heard of at Rio and Tatiiti.

Monte Video, August 17, sends news of great battles in Paraguay; and as little quarter was given or received, the losses were heavy, nine or ten thousand men being the computed number hors de combat. The results were nil, but both armies were preparing for the final crash ; and as the Paraguayan reinforcements are supposed to be exhausted, the allies are confident of ultimate success. They have nevertheless found a foeman worthy of their steel. For nearly two years their power has been contested at all points, and whatever may be the backslidings of President Lopez, it must be admitted he is a warrior of no ordinary stamp. Canada is threatened with another Fenian raid. Tho United States AttorneyGeneral having abandoned his prosecution against the leaders of the last invasion, j General Sweeney and Co. think themselves at liberty for further operations ; and until the domestic politics at Washington are more clearly defined, we shall not be freed from danger on the Canadian border. But a warm reception awaits the vagabonds, as, in addition to the colonists, there is now a constant patrol of gunboats on the lakes ; whilst four extra regiments aud three field batteries are on the way from England, and General Michel is sent out to take command of all the forces. Colonel M\Dou«all, the Adjutant-General of Militia, publishes a report on the military organisation of Canada, which is considered highly satisfactory, and the martial spirit of the colonists beyond dispute ; but as under present circumstances the most manlul resistance may not prevent the Province being overrun, the report recommends fortified depots, a liberal supply of arms and other prime necessities, artillery instruction and proper ' rifle and target practice, together with a regularly orgauised commissariat ; and, as a general independent feeling of self-deftnce is known to prevail, the Colonel's pamphlet is re- assuring. L.»rd Monck, on proroguing the Parliament, spoke in flattering terms of the Colony's progress, and <-.f the hopes inspired by the speedy amalgamation of the Provinces. It is understood that England guarantees a loan of four millions sterling, secured on the revenues of the Confederated Colonies, to purchase the territorial rights of the Hudson's Bay Company, and to construct an ;nter- colonial railway between Halifax and Quebec.

Cape news is tolerably satisfactory. There is no war, and the Basutos appear contented with the terms imposed. Trade ia represented as gradually improving.

Bishops Gray and Colenso are still at hard fighting in the law courts. Abyssinia sends terrible news, which we can only hope is untrue. It is said that on the 30th July, Emperor Theodore, with 95,000 men, fought a pitched battle with a still greater number of the insurgents ; that the King lost half his army, and, rttributiDg the disaster to English influence, ordered Mr Rassam, Consul Cameron, and all the male captives, to be instantly put to death. The particulars are sent by Count Bisson, a French resident in Abyssinia, who says further that the prisoners were at Gondar, and might yet be saved if a petition could be presented in time to the Empress, who, a* Regent, had the power to delay the execution—may she also have the will !

Sinister intelligence also comes from "Western Africa. A vagabond chief Darned Mabba being worsted in a fight with the French troops of Senegal, diVcted his hostile course towards our establishments on the Gambia. The English Governor of Gilifrey ac?vanced to meet him, and, after a sanguinary battle, was forced to fall back on a fortified post, which the enemy was preparing to attack; but assistance was expected from Senegal, and as Mabba would thus be placed between two fires, his chance would be a poor one. It is, nevertheless, most deplorable to lose valuable lives in such miserable skirmishing. From the coast likewise, we hear of pestilential ravages on bo#rd our squadron. The case of the ship Bristol is the most flagrant instance of many where our sailors are perishing whilst uselessly employed in watching the so-called slave trade. The Guinea coast is unenviably noted as the grave of our fleet ; and it is suggested that a roving philanthropy in which we have so long indulged should now cease. We cannot muster hands to man our ships ; recruits for the army are equally scarce commodities, and Sir John Pakington will have to answer a serious crime if he persists iv exposing our sailors to the risks of an occupation no longer needed.

India still tells of the Oris?a famine end its countless horrors, and from Calcutta and Madras we hear of the utmost difficulty in feeding the starving myriads. The present situation is awful ; for the future we must look to a system of roads, railways, irrigation, and improved land tenure, together with wholesale sanitary reforms. Government have consented to the formation of a railway line from Lahore to Attock. Russia and Bokhara have come to terms ; and it is said that a rising of the tribes hostile to England is being organised at Cabul, and that we are to be attacked at Peshawur via Kohat. The military scandal alluded to in my former letter resulted in actions at law, brought by Captain Jervis against Sir William Mansfield, and a court martial on the Captain, all which are now pending ; and the Calcutta papers complain that while our supremacy i 3 being threatened on the frontiers, the Commander -in -Chief is " immersed in frivolous litigation about pickles and sauces." Affairs in the Persian Gulf appear more promising, the usurping Imaum of Muscat retains the ascendancy ; foreign merchants are unmolested ; quietude prevails ; confidence aud security return.

Japan is represented full of domestic war. The powerful Daimios in arms against their Emperors, the sacred person of the Mikado in danger, &c, &j. What effect all this will have on foreign relations we must wait to know ; but commerce with the " outer barbarian" is gradually gaining popularity, and every mail is now replete with interest, however contradictory the news may be.

China sends word of rebel successes and cruel reprisals, the Nienfei seeming to be beyond Imperial control. Another expedition against the pirates resulted in further destruction of their hideous junks and the capture of their head-scoundrel. The annual clipper- ship tea race from China has brought victory to the Taeping, which ran neck and neck with the Ariel, and drawing less water, entered the docks half an hour in advance, the Ariel having to wait for tide. The distance is 14,060 milee, and it occupied 99 days. Nine vessels were laden with the earliest teas of the season ; and an additional freight of 10a a ton waa guaranteed by the consignee of the cargo to the first ship arriving in dock. The prize this year amounts to about L 500; Last year's prize was won by the Fiery Cross in 109 days.

Jamaica is yet before us. Governor Sir J. P. Grant has arrived out. His Commission establishes a Legislative Council and a Privy Council, the Legislative Chamber choosing its own president. Several officers are also sent out to form a court martial, and investigate the conduct of Mr Eyre'a subordinates. Sir H. Storks is in England giving an account of his stewardship^ whilst ex- Governor Eyre prepares for criminal charges at the Old Bailey. In connection with this subject two societies are organised : the " Exeter Hall Jamaica Committee" as prosecutors, the ''Eyre defence aid fund," led by Carlyle and Ruskin, aa defenders.

The Atlantic Cable continues well at work, but the high charge for transmission, is unpopular. America grnmblee awfully^ and refuses to pay more than a dollar per word ; but as another wonder is recorded this month, and a second cable laid, the tariff will probably be lowered. The Great Eastern, Albany, Terrible, and Medway, after many disappointments, have succeeded in picking up the 1865 cable, and splicing it to each shore end ; and Captain Anderson has brought the Great Eastern safely back into the Mersey to tell the wondrous tale. And now the great work is done : two electric lines are established ; the lowest depths of the wild Atlantic are successfully probed, and science achieves another glorious triumph. Banquets are preparing in honor of the gentlemen connected with this undertaking, and it is rumoured that several of them will presently receive some mark of her Majesty's approbation. Telegraphic coding by shorthand is being introduced ; it saves time and expense, and ensures accuracy ; messages in any language may be sent irrespective of the clerk understanding it, and the simple system can be practically explained in five minutes ; Captain Bolton ia the inventor.

Ireland is quiet ; the troops can well be spared, and so they are sent on Fenian service to Canada. And as this is Great Britain's holiday season, the old argument is newly revived — " Why don't the Queen or the Prince perambulate the Sister Isle ?'* The Press no longer mince the matter, but boldly urge that as no just cause exists why they should not, there are many reasons why they should. Politics aside, the country itself is not devoid of charms, and a hearty welcome would at all times await the Royal Family. How difficult, then, to* account for the systematic absence. Indeed, the question takes a wider scope In recent writings, and the duty of the Sovereign to her neglected subjects is, amongt other paragraph?, placed before us in good old English type. Mr J. E. Walsh, Attorney- General, is expected^ to be appointed Master of the Rolls. * The Rev. W. C O'Neill, of Shanes Castle; Mr John M'Clintock, of Drumcar ; and Sir William Verner, Bart., a Waterloo hero, are announced for the peerage. The Hon. and Yen. James Agar, ot Kilmore, has died aged 85; also, Alderman Dillon, M.P M aged 60.

i Scotland is full of Royalty, and the Highland} never were so gay ; less noble sportsmen too are there, and they all send us very good accounts of themselves and heir doings. The Queen and family are well ; they patronised the Braemar gathering 6th inst. Tne Prince of Wales, as Honorary Colonel of the Sutherland and Caithness Volunteers, will command them at a grand review next week at Dunrobun The Roseneath estates of Argyll have been purchased by an eminent sugar merchant of Glasgow for LIBO,OOO. Colonel D. C. Buchanan, of Drumpellier, Coatbridge, has given a large piece of ground. at that place for a public park. The Lord Rectorship of the Aberdeen University will be contested by Mr M. E. Grant DufiV M.P., and Mr Geo. Grote, the historian; Earl Russell's term of office expires in November. The Caledonian Mercury \ said" to be the oldest r.ewspaper across the Tweed, i 3 sold by Mr Robie to an English firm, and is now published daily for one halfpenny. The It gal question between the Duke of Hamilton and the Marquis o£ Abercorn as to the right to the French Dukedom of Chatelherault is decided in. fivor of the Duke, the Marquis being mulcted in all expenses. The Dundee Advertiser announces bad prospects for the magnificent fleet of steam whalers which last left the Tay, and which is now in. Cumberland Straps. Eleven vessels are out, each carrying on an average 60 men; thu3 nearly 700 families are directly interested in the result of the year's fishing ; and from the news just received from the distant scene of operations, a total failure is apprehended. Trades Unions in Scotland, are causing much unea3inets ; the operatives ia. Greenock proceeding to extraordinary lengths, and only stopping this side o£ murder. A terrific boiler explosion occurred recently, at Rigby and Beardmore's. iron works, Parkhead, Glasgow, killingseven men, and wounding several others. The Queen's statue at Aberdeen, was inaugurated by the Prince of Wales, 20th inst. The figure, Bft. 6in. high, on a pedestal of red granite, is placed in the angle of the junction of St. Nicholas and Unioa streets, and is one of the finest productions of Alex. Brodie, the native sculptor. SirAlex. Anderson, the Lord Provost, presented the Prince with the freedom of the city, and welcomed H..R. H. as the youngest burgess of Bon accord; then came some graceful speechifyirg, supplemented by a luncheon, and the Heir-apparent returnedin high spirits to his deer stalking at favored Abergeldie. Lord Brougham's 88th birthday was celebrated in Edinburgh 19th inst; he was born in 1778. Joha Hall Maxwell, E*<j., C.8., of Dargavel, Secretary of the Highland and Agricultural Society, has died, aged 54 ; also Sir Archibald Islay Campbell, Bt. of Garscube*

-41. Sir A. P. Gordon Gumming, Bt. of Altyre, 50. G..W. Duff, E=q , of Hatton^' -52. Charles Ma^laren, editor of.the Scotsman 84. Robert Stew art, Esq., of Omoa, formerly Lord Provost of Glasgow. The; Bey. James M'l>tchie, D.D. of Edia- t burgh. 64. The Rev Dr Macbeth, of the Scotch Church, Halkin street, London; and Major Macdonald, 77th Regt. Glasgow, Manchester, and Liverpool are leseeching the Queen on her return Journey to inaugurate the Albert memorials now ready for unveiling ; but Her Majesty declines the Corporate in,v>titi.ins one and all as too much for her strength. It is feared, likewise, that Royal fatigue pervades Abergeldie, as not even the Prince can be prevailed on to represent Her Majesty at those interesting ceremonies

London theatres shew -resh signs of life, and the poor player's dead time ia ending. Mr Slous has gained the first T. P. Cooke prize with a nautical drama called " True to the Core," which is produced at the Surrey with tolerable success. The Olarance Holts are at the Lyceum. Old Drury opens with Barry Sullivan, Phelps, Helen Faucit, and Herman Vtsin ; also, Sims Reeves, and a large staff for ballad opera. Ballad concerts have been successfully given at the Crystal Palace, and are to be continued; in addition to which. English opera is to have another chance at Her Majesty's and Covent Garden. In Glasgow, the study of music is being promoted, Wm. Ewinjr, Esq. president of the -Andersonian Institution, contributing funds for permanently endowing a lectureship and other necessary expenditure. The 143 rd meeting of the three choirs of Worcester, Hereford, and Gloucester, was held on the 10th instant, at Worcester. A new Dramatic College, &<• training school for histrionic aspirant?, headed by Henry Leslie, is beinc; founded. The Howard Pauls, Lydia Thompson, and Arthur Sketchley go to America. Mr F T. Walmsley, well known in the musical world, has died, a^ed 84; also Fritz! Beckmann, the famous German comedian, ! aged 63. The Royal Academy is being erected at the back of Burlington- house, Piccadilly, and Sj'dney Smirke is the chosen architect. A first attempt has bei n made in Paris at selling literary ard musical compositions by auction ; the auctioneer aud ivory hammer are in ■position ; the composer plays hi 3 piece ; and a bid is requested for the copyright. This is called a step in the right direction to emaicipate authors from the tremendous drain on their profits involved through the medium of publishing.

Doncaster races commerced 11th inst. Caithness won the Great Yorkshire Handicap ; Endi:leigh, 2nd ; Sundeelah. 3rd The favorite, Lord Lyon, won the Great St. Leger , and like those other giant ■quadrupeds, West Australian and Gladia« teur, thus secured immortal fame as the three year old wonder of his time. The Two Thousand, Derby, and St. Leger of 1866, are now posted to Lord Lyon's credit ; but as at Epsom so at Doncaster, the Bribery colt (Savernake) was only beaten by a head. Lord Lyon, 1 ; Savernake, 2 ; Knight of the Crescent, 3. For the Doncaster Cup, Rama came in Ist; Ackworth, 2ad; Lard Lyon, 3rd. This week U held the Newmarket first October meeting ; the Great Eastern handicap was won by Plutus ; Out and Outer was 2nd; Actma, 3rd. The Czirewitch and C imbridgeshire are the " big fixtures" next month at Newmarket. Frederick Liilywhite. the cricketer, dkd 15th instant, a^ed 38. Mr Stephemon notifies that there will be no Australian team sent out this year.

Our wits will insist that London now is out of town ; but although famed orators court the provinces, they cannot be accused ■oi idlenefs. The working season ended, there is ytt much to talk of in our seagirt isles. Social science holds sway all over the land. Again, to perpetuate the poetry and music of Ancient Britons, we have the Welsh National Eisteddfod, where many other arts are discussed besides those of the Muses. Then we see St. Stephen's warriors fight their battles o'er again. John Bright and his trusty lieutenants beaming up for recruits under the franchise flag ; and thu9 we beguile the dreary wet vacation. Edmond Beales, Esq., Q.C, Revising Barrister for Middlesex, one of the leading fire-brrnls iv the popular movement, is dismissed from his office ty the Lord Chief Justice. Election bribery is called a trade by some :olks, and, if it be so, all must agree that it ie

very profitable one. Four Ko\al Commissions have long been engaged in analysing the notorious practices of M.P's. and their agents at Yarmouth, Eeigate, Totnes, «,nd Lancaster ; aad a more disgraceful procedure was never revealed. Unbluihlng, wholesale bribery has prevailed in those towns for many years, and the question is, how best to punish candidates, agents, and vote:3. Purity of election is simply an idle dream under existing rules and regulations ; Tory, Whig, and Radical, the Bar, the Profession, and the Pulpit, sll engage with equal arJour in the race of corruption ; and when eminent statesmen next venture u> discuss Parliamentary re-

[ forci, they will do well to give early atten- ! tion to some means of cia r licating thie foul stain from England's escutcheon, ere they prate and Jabber to excited audiences on expending the franchise. The cattle plague is fast declining, and we are relieved from all dread of much further loss. In Ireland it was ever confined within the narrowest limit?, and now it is not known. Scotland 13 entirely freed from it, and an Order in Council prohibits the introduction there of cattle or other animals from England or »Vales. Indeed, the plague is now only heard of in a few English counties, and the weekly number of cases is below 60. Since the commencement of rinderpest io Great Britain we have lost about 209,160 beasts.

Cholera, too, is sensibly diminishing ; we have only a few deaths daily, aud those occur in the most neglected localities. Our fortunate escape from previous horrors may, under Providence, be attribu'ed to a vigorous executive and a generous community ; but it is a serious warning to all, and henceforth the elements of life may not be neglected. Air and water must be purified in England as well as in India, if we would hear less of these terrible visitations. Liverpool has suffered severely — viewing the place statistically — audit is no wonder, fox it is notoriously the most unhealthy .town in the Kingdom, having also 3200 habituat drunkards ; and, as a consequence, irs weekly mortality has recently averaged 5S per thousand. The report of the Cholera Conference is published,- aud the conclusion arrived at is that the disease is contagious, an.l that a strict quarantine is at all times absolutely necessary. From Italy, Germany, liussia. and America very h-\d accounts arrive Brussels, too, records 5000 cholera deaths, and consequently, postpones the Tir National which was announced for this we.k.

Several sickeniog cases of hanging have again been necessarily resorted to in Great Britain, and another long li«t of murders awaits judicial enquiry. From France, female convicts are being sent for alliance with prisoners at Cayenne and New Caledo da, where, to such vagabonds as are of tolerably good behaviour, a grant of land zil an agricultural loan are presented as the wedding dowry. Your readers will recollect something of the recent devastating fire at Ottery St. Mary, Devon. Since that time, the picturesque ruins have been allowed to remain ; and on the 2ad inst., some of them fell whilst a lady was preaching on the summit, many poor creatures being killed, and others seriously injured.

The Cornish miners are undergoing a very severe trial. Their occupation is reported as nearly gone; and now, after a long and patient sufLrHsr, which has scarcely been noticed outside their own county, we hear of an exodus truly startling — they are leaving their hornet by thousands ; and those who cannot find the means for emigrating to the Colonies are forced to setk employment in our coalfields.

In scanning the subscription libt3 now open in London, headed — Indian famine, Austrian wounded, Hanoverian ditto, Italian ditto, cattle plague iudernnity, cholera relief, cholera hospitals, cholera convalescent homes, cholera orohaua^e, Governor Eyre's prosecution, ditto defence, wounded police, Capt John Cas=ey's relief, Shetland Isks relief, and others, we see that philanthropy as well as politics ha^ its votaries. Two more cas^s are only jnst creeping into notice. Joseph Oliver, who fought "at AVaterloo in the 95 th Rifles, is now, at 74, an inmate of WoodsiOjkwoikhouse. James Ilogbea, who for ten years past, ns coxswain of the Ramsjate lifeboat, has ris!:ed his life to save othtrs, is quite used up, aud the Union starts him in the face ; and now the poor Cornish miners might tqually well be included iv the list.

The alteration at Greenwich Hospital does not work well. Siilors know but little of domestic economy, and left to their own guidance, money goes ere they are aware of it. The consequence is that hundreds of our veterans having "overrun the constable," are applying for parish re'ief. It is expected, however, that when tired of out-door life, the stray sheep will be allowed to return to the fold, aad we shall ail be glad ones more to s-Cf our old familiars where they ought to be. for without them the splendid river palace loses hall its charm.

"Parry's life saving raft" lias successfully stood seme very severe tests, and is pronounced the best life raft yet produced. Its composition and qualifications are thus briefly described : — Air-tight cylinders, with inflating bellows, and a series ol thwarts or planks with lope lashings. It weighs 400108, and when stowed on board occupies a space of 18 inches in diameter by 1 1 feet loDg ; it can be prepared for use in six minutes, and has a buoj'am capacity of SCOOlbs, with a dock surface for passengers of 180 squire feet; and it can be easily launched without the possibility of being capsized or stove in under any combination of circumstances.

A new great gun has come to light, invented by Major Palliser, fired with

• 43lfes of powder, and a 250 pounder, and I called "the nine-inch muzzle-loading ' wrought- iron Woolwich rifle gun." 1 Cbilled-iron shot and shell ate used, and we are provided with an arm -which can 1 send the strongest iron-clad to the bottom. It has performed such marvels as make it in professional estimation superior to anything extant ; it can be carried easily in broadside, and is considered heavy enough lor all purposes of artillery. We are to have no rest until railway carriages pass in unbrokei. line from Dover to Calais. The latest idea comes from Mr Charles Boutet, who, at a cost of sixteen mi'lions sterling, promises to bridge the channel, and provide «afe transit for train*, vehicles, and pedestrians, together with efficient light-houses as guides to mariners This ci^an tic undertaking, he says, may be ! completed in five years, and the incredulous are reminded of the wonders already achieved in our time. This month has brought us the 200 th anniversary of the great fire of London. Ancient records t -11 v* how it broke out at Padding lane, near London Bridge, 2nd September, 1666, and ceased not raging till it reached Pye corner, in SmithU'eid ; how 13,200 houses, ninety- eiyhc churches, and Ll 1,000,000 worth of property were destroyed, how 200,000 people were rendert-d homeless, and bow all fo'.ks, both young and old. were soared nearly out ot tdeir wits. The most miraculous part of the history being that only sis live* were lost. Garrruvay's Coffee House, Cornhill, so j celebrared as the place where tea was first told in England ; also, as the head quarters of the South S.a bubble, and other giant swindle?, and mammoth mercantile transactions, closed its noted career last month ; it will speedily he pulled down, in deference to my Lord Mayor's mandate touching certain city improvements. We have dismal tales of harvest home throughout the country, and there is too much reason to fear the returns will be belo.v average ; France and Germany send similar accounts ; America also. We t-hall have to import largely, and our chief re - I liance for breadstuff's- will be on Russia. Wheat is now 10s a quarter more than it was this time last year, and should the staff of life rise much in pi ice, following so closely on the heels of rindtrp.-st and cholera, the coming winter will indeed be gloomy. The weather in August and September has been fickle and inclement. Iv rainy places our cereals are drovvned, and sprouting sets in ; besides, hands are short, and numerous fields iv the northern and midland counties remain uncut. We are emerging from our protracted monetary trouble, and with the easement afforded to the markets, confidence returns. The English and Swedish Bank calls its creditors together, but has not yet collapsed, and liquidation may yet be avoided. Tne British and Cahfornian Banking Company contemplate a voluntary winding up ; no calamity bting anticipated. The Barik of Upper Canada suspended payment 2 1st inst. Several large failures are announced in India ; at the ho ad of the sorry list stands Premchuud EoychunJ, of Bombay, whose engagements alone amount to five millions sterling. The Royal Back of India is to be wound up, and reconstructed six months hence. The East India Trading aud Bauking Company is also wiuding up. 32 new Joint Stock Companies ar^ register, d. Alderman Mechi, ot Tiptree Hall notoriety, has reigned his civic gown ; unfortunate commercial speculations being a-signed a^

the cause.

The London Gazette, 11th instaut, contains a treaty of psace, friendship, and commerce, between England aad Madagascar, which was duly ratified July s:h. A monetary convention betweeu France, Belgium, Italy, aad Switzerland, is regulariy signed, seiled, and delivered, and it is ia full working order ; it will be a boon to the traveller, and will vastly increase the intercourse of the people. The coinage (excepting copper money) of Belgium, Switzerland, and Italy, will be assimilated to the French system ; the gold pieces ranging irom sto 100 francs ; the silver pieces "from 20 centimes to 5 francs, the money of each country to be a legal tender in all the others. Tnis with the possibly near iden:itieation of the weights aud measures of those four nations, and the consequent approximation of commercial iuterest, may safely be left to teli its own tale.

Obituary. — Lord Ponsonby, aged 59: Lord North brooke, 71 ; Sir Gr. E. Pococli, Bart., 74: Sir J. P. Willoughby, Bart., 67 ; Genet al Sir VV. R. Clayton, Bart., 80, aud Major Sir E. F. Agar, Knight, SG, (two Waterloo heroes) ; Lieut-Coionel C. Kelson, 74 ; Major Samuel Charters, 82 ; Colonel M. G. White; Vice- Admiral C. Rich, 80: Captain Daniel Geale, R.N., 71; Rev. Dr. John Edgar, (Irish Presbytery), 69 ; Venerable E. Woolnough (Archdeacon of Chester), 73 ; Rev. James Ridoie, M.A., 50; John Kuott, Esq. (Committee of Laymen), 74 ; George 11. Francis (London press), 50 ; Edward Tinsley, the publisher ; J. W. Hindmarch, Esq;., Q.C, 62; James Mauniug, Esq., the Queen's ancient Sergeant at Law, 85 ; Mr

James Breen, F.R.A.S. (Greenwich Observatory) ; Mr Charies Halliday, the Irish Archaeologist, 81; Mr S. X.. Solly (artist), S5.

26th Sept. The Bank rate fell to 6 per cent. 30th August ; and on the 6th instant it was reduced to 5 per cent., which now obtains. Consols are quoted for mouey 89£, aad for the account 89£. Fighting in Candia is still reported; mutual defeats announced.

Insurrection in Palermo quelled. The French Emperor left Paris for Biarritz -20th int-t. ; be is reported very ill, and strict order** are id3ued that he be not annoyed by officials. His bosom friend, relation, and trusty counsellor, Count B iciocciii, is dead.

Count Bismarck is likewise very ill, some say dangerously.

Alarming accounts of inundations come from France to-day. The Allier, Loire r and Yonne, continue to use. Telegraphic communication is partially interrupted.

The integrity of Belgium, Holland, and Switzerland is being onstantly alluded to ia continental writings; but aa neither France nor Prussia condescend to speak plain English, we cannot quite comprehend' tb.Em.

Tnere are occasional interruptions of telegraphic communication between New York and Ireland, arising from the land lines on. the American side of the Atlantic, being unworkable in heavy weather ; but as they are being reconstructed; the difficulty will be obviated in a few weeks. The cables remain in perfect working order.

The West Wanganui Mining Company have completed tueir ar angements, and formed theufelves under the provisions of the Limited Liability Acts of New Zealand 1 and Victuria. Contracts to supply coal to Nelson and Wellington h.ive been entered iato that will leave iha o>mpany a handsome p r ofit. Nelson lias been supplied by the Corni»ui5 T 's coal f r two raouth.B, where it is realising handsome prices.

We extract the follnving from the •'Arpu*:" — "In the Mipreme Court, Mel.bourne, before Chief Justice Stawell aad a jury of twelve, ycs'e.-day, the trial of the action of Lewis v. M'Mulien (inspector, &?.) was fi i'-hed. In it the Union Bink was sued for the value of L 10.450 worth of Viet rrian dtbeatur^s, which were stolen from the bank r>y Augustus George Fletcher, in 1864, Fletcher was cashi«r of tli3 bank, and hid unbounded confi^eace placed in him. He vas aware of the deposit of the debentures ia the bank for safe custody by Mr Lewis, of Tasmania, an old and wealthy customer of the bank. Mr Lewis used to come over periodically to cut oiF his eonpins and receive the interest. In October,. 1363, being: a red, aid shunning the frequent journey, he cutoff the coupons both for April md for Oc ober, 1864, aud gave them to Fletcher to collect for him, and deposit the cash tv his credit. He took receipts for the i/oUfOns. But in June, 1864, coming over a?aui, he foun 1 his debentures gone from the tjox in which th-^y had hitherto rested, in the eus:oTier.-)' vault' of the Union Bank. •Fk-t.-her hnd gone home to Er gland in August, 1863, 'on leavr,' and without a suspicion ou his honc j s r y. It is now known that he ha>l d^friU'led Dr Playne, a resident here in 18.4, who went to England and left Fletcher his agent here - r and that Fletcher stole Lewis's dtbsntures and sold t'iem here aad ia England, and paid his debt to Dr Playne with pnrc of the proceeds. The questions fought in the ea«e were, firstly, whether the deposit with the bank was a merely cratuit jus one, or one in respect of which ihe hank received any 'hiro' — any sort of necessary benefit, either diiect or indirect— because the duty of a ' bailee for r.ire ' is s; rioter than that of & mere ' gratuitous bailee ;' and secondly, i me deposit were not L* hire, but purely gratuitous, whether or not the bank bad bteu guilty of ' gross negligence,' as distinguished from the les3 degree of negligence which would mike it liable it the deposit had been a b.-ultnenc for hire. 'Che jury were di-.ch.T.r£<.d, having been unable to agree to a verdict."

The " Argus " of the 3rd says :—": — " A clever arrest of tares housebreakers was made yesterday, in Gertrude s'.rtet, Fitzroy, by Dt tectives Black, Hwrtney, and Kilfcdder. The officers had f r t.ome time been watching the rnoveme.its of three men, named James Kk-hanl<on alias Morgan, Jims Blacklord, aud Harry Bryan, all old oftjnders, and at a little beiore 0 ..e o'clock they observed them make a s'.and ia front of tue shop of Mr Robertson, draper, SG, Gertrude street. A pidclodc, •vvhi.jh bud evidently beea pre\iou.=ly fitted to the lock, was app'ie'J, the door was opened, and Kichardso;i entered the shop, and closed the 4oor behind him. The deiectives immediately arrested the two fellows outside, and then, to avoid the crowd which soon began to collect, the street being tt eu filled with, people returning from church, they took their prisoners to some adjoining premises and handcuffed tbera. Bmck then returned to the shop and lightly tapped at the door, and having succeeded in attracting the attention of Kichardton he gave a whispered signal, whiuh induced the burglar to partially open the door. He was iustuntly collared anp conducted to th-j place where his mates were under detention. The/ were then brought nito town, and locked up in the city watchhouse, pending their appearance this morning betort tue Bench."

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Bibliographic details

LONDON., Otago Witness, Issue 782, 24 November 1866

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9,158

LONDON. Otago Witness, Issue 782, 24 November 1866

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