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MAORI NOMENCLATURE

, THE WEST COAST. ' • No. n. (By W. H. S. Roberts. Oamaru.) Tho River Mana-kai-aun, not Mana-kai-liau, meaning "The divine authority of the priest who eats the portion of food set apart for the Atua," runs out a littk) north of Makawhio Point. A range of mountains here has tie name of Karangarua (two attendants), Tlk Taoroua River is a tributary, from tho south, of the Kai:anga-rua River, sometimes incorrectly spelt Karanga-roa or Karingarua, at the mouth ot which is the town* of Raleigh, ." whore tho trans-alpine route from Mount Cook Hermitage joins the track from Bruce Bay to Hokitika. Near the junction, on the bank of lie Karangarua, Mr A. Scott in tie sixties settled on a farm, which he has shxc hewn out of the dense forest, and> with bis son's help has built a oommodious form house with totara sawn by themselves."—(Otago Witness, Mairoh 21, 1906.)

A small tributary of the Karanga-rua from the north is Huwai Creek. Tho Copland River is also a tributary of the Karanga-rua, the saddle at its headwaters being the Fitzgerald Pass, .named after ihe man who firet. succeeded in climbing to tho summit' of the lofty AorangT. Hs was accompanicd by tho Swiss guide Zurbriggen. The first ladies who travelled from tho Hermitage over this pass walked across in April, 1903. Their names, which aire worthy of being recorded, were Mrs Thomson, Miss Barnicoat, and-,Miss Perkins, their guide being Mr Clarke.—(The Golden Coast, Westland, P. W.), .

Further • north are Oine-tamatea, which should be O-hine-tamatea (the daughter of Tamatea), and Utu-Moa (compensation for a moa) Rivers. Then a yellow bluff kuowm l as Parapara (a saored place) Cliffs and the oreok Wai-Eapuka. (water, and tho tree Greselina littoralis), which are nearly west of Mount Cook, or Aorangi, which may be translated- "light of heavon," "cloudsof heaven," or " light from tho sky," but certainly not "cloud pierc-er." Aorangi is in latitude 43deg 36 S., longitude 17Meg 12 E., and rises its snow-clad peak 12,349 ft above the level of tho Pacific Ocean. Mr Frederick Chapmap wrote:—"Aorangi is a personal name; thus all the learning spent on attempts 1o translate the beautiful name of Mount Cook is spent on the wrong track when it is attempted to connect it with tiho appearance of the peak, or its height. It is not ' Cloud Fiercer," as the poot affirms, but the name of a man; indeed, like Captain Cook, of a navigator.'*

Tlw Rev. David M'Kee Wright in one of his poems thus eulogises Mount Cook:—

Thou alone, unaltered, stilf shall stand Fresh from the great Creator-Sculptor's hand,— A mighty emblem of Eternity. With every'icy precipice and chasm

To mark the passing of a world of time. 1 ' Aorangi was the name of- ono of the chiefs who arrived in the. Middle Island from Hawaiki in Uie canoe Ara-i-te-uru (stay the west wind) about 1320, whioh was wrecked south of Moeraki oil the East Coast. Two other immigrants by this canoe were Eirikiri-katata and Aroa.rokaihe. The nam© Kirikiri-katata. (near gravel) was given by tho Maori explorers to the' Mount Cook range, whilo A'roarokaihe was bestowed upor. one of the icy peaks of Aorangi. Tho peak now knownas MoUnt Tasman i11,467fi high) was at the same time named Hore-koau' pi«d shag bird). The terminal face of the' Tasman Glacior is 2460 ft above.sea'level. Acrangi was the term usually applied to Mount Cook by the Maoris on the West Coast, while those on the eastern plain-; called it Kirikiri-katata. Although said to be originally a personal name, it is signißcont that these words may bo used-' to denote a fissured or cracked mountain sida of gravel,' which would exactly describe the deep, erodedi couloir-rivem end 6f the Mount Cook range, as seen from the Tasman Valley (Trans. N.Z. Inst., .V. 38.) Tho first attempt to climb Mount Cook- was made by Dr Haast in 1662. ' ■

Tho pile of mountains dominated by Mount Cook is .drained on fcho cast by the Waitaki River, as it receives the waters of all streams running into Lafe Ohou and Pukaki. On the west the water is conveyed to the sea by the "Waiho (to ba left), alias Wai-au (swirling water or water onrrent),: the. Cook, Kanvnga-rua, awl Landsborough Rivers and their affluents, lap great Tasmin Glacier -was - Hau-pupa .(wind flat). The ,river now called We-heka (tho place of parting) was Wai-weka (water for the wood hen); the diggers named it Cooke River. Oook's Bluff was \Ye-heka; it 16 500 ft high. A tributary of, the Weheka is Fox River, which issues from tho iox Glacier only 11 miles in a. straight line'from, the tea, tho altitude of'the ter minal face bemg only 670 ft above water. A little below oji the southern bank of the Fox River a fine hot spring gushes out of the shingle. The Hon.' William Fox, while Premier of New Zealand, visited the West Coast in 1872, when the Chief Surveyor, Mr Mueller, nam«d the glacier and river in his honour. • Prom the Fox Glacier the traveller may take the trans-aipine route to the Mount Cook Hermitage by way of' the Karshgarua and Copland Valleys and Fitzgerald Pass -(6863 ft high), throe days' journeyman Kartmgarua. The next point, Yellow Cliffs, 13'Otorokua, ' sometimes incorrectly spelt Oturokua, or Otaro-* kua, A river, there isWai-kohai; thenKaoraihi point, now . known «s' Gflleepie's; Wai-koo Creek;-'- Wai-tapi Greek'; :and Hauraki Brock, all very short' streams, which run.through tho Moonlight Beach; ■beyond them is the River Wai-kuku-pa (woocl pigeon water p.a), or Gibb's, now sometimes erroneously named Wai-kupu-kupu (water to speak frequently). It has worn out for itself by the friction of ages a way through a rough mountain gorge. A small lake close to the Wai-kulnt-pa River, on its southern bank, is named Mueller. Then the River O-moe-roa (the place of tho long sleep): Another Wa'-hau (wind water), or maro. likely Wai-lio (dropping water, or to. be ieft), about 17 miles r.orth of the' Fox River,'running through a rata forest from the Franz Josef Glacier, named by Hochstet-ter in 1859 after tho Emperor of tho faco of\ which in a straight line is only 10 miles from the coast, and at the low altitude of 700 ft above sea level. A horse can be ridden oiose up to the_ terminal faco of tho glacierJitlQ water is ioy cold, yet there are hot springs clceo by at Mount Mueller, and near the Spencer Glacier. < Tho whole course of the Waiho is only 14 miles from' en?i ® , cr fie sea, and has a fall of 50ft to tlic mile. Not fdr from the Waiho township, Mid only 20 yards from tho icycold river, there is large pool of -hot water, which has curative properties. A Jake north of a river sometimes called Totara, tho proper name being Atu-pauj all have gone), nl jd. west oi Lritke Slapourika, is named Alpine by Europeans. James Creek, rich with gold, was Poko-rua (a pit); then come tho Rivers Pereka, (tho burnt dart) Totara and Totara-kai-torca (tho totara. tree where tho oyster catcher ■ was eatenjf. Long Point, mine miles south-west of Alms Head, was Kohuamarua. Bluff. Okarito (to stab a plant to tho heart) is a river and small bar harbour called a lagoon, S5 mdes south-west of Hokitika, with which ills connected by a good- road. Okarito was sometimes spelt. Ilokarita (hoka means projecting sharply upwards, and rita an evil spirit. The Okarito River runs cut of Lake Mapourika (the namo of a small pittosporum tree), about 85 miles south of Hokitika.

«A % r °? ky '"mediately south of Okarito was Hohu-hau-toru. Oil the north sido of it ther© is a large lasoon known as Okarito or Okarita (to stag an evil spirit). The ake is seven miles lons a.labyrinth j of tidal creeks and sandbank and, small islands, separated from the coean by a bank of sand covered with coarse grass and flax. Lake Wali a -po ( a voico at nightjar, more correctly, Whahapowmetimea misnamed Waihaka,. is abdut

North of Okarito are the Oka-tua and Ota-roki Streams, which flow into the Ok i Lake Windermere is north of Okanfe ..Lagoon, close to the seashore. Ivear by is the River Waitangi-taona (weeping water to dash him down). OnttisX settlement of AVaitangi, locally known at "I!-l west ° f Wataroa (full of long holes), which should be Whataroa (long storehouse) River, and settlement tw r \V^ U n l small se ttlement 011 !m„)l T a i S R ? hutu ( tilo name of a small tree, mvrtus oboordata). The Wataroa receives its principal waters from tho aiow and ice fields of the main range. A aslQr kdistanoo inland is Roto-kino (eul lake), which discharges into the Wataroa River by the Roto-kino Stream. Abut noa® was named by tho Admiralty because it'appeared to be at tho end of tho land; 'beyond j it is W ai-roa (l ong water ) Hiver Lagoon.. Poera' means those dark, but the name should be Po-c----rua (by tho dark pit). A little further is Wanganui River, the correct spelling of ■which is W'hanga-nui (large bay). At the mouth of it is tho town of Clifton. Lake

•'Matahi (the Maori namo for the first and second months of their year, equivalent to, our Juno and July, or perhaps Mata— "point or source" find tahi—"ono") isi on a tributary of tho Big Whanganui near tho present road from Ross to Okarito. It has tho English namo of lanthc. Hondo's accommodation hoiiso is on tho south sido of the WJicmganui River, wliioh is a largo and turbulent-snow, river, issuing from a magnificent gorge. Close to this stream, in tho vicinity of' Kendo's Ferry, there are several hot springs, also at five miles abovo tho ferry. A littlo north is a. small brook named Wai-koi-koi (koikoi is ii. "5. m which to catch mussels), tno Puku-tu-aro 'Cliff and the Opuku (?; the stomach)' Cliffs, also the 71 mm 0 (tho extended fence). TT '™<t nas Kaniiwnata. A place near there was Para-mata (uncooked food). "Just t t Hoadi and 15 miles southcst from tho town of Ross, the River f V al ;' nha ( wot «r i« a calabash) runs into „ t I .. \ ' Maps have Waita in error, '(one vratoi-i \ cr,roncoi ! s b' called Wai-tahi X i nCW ? e °wr the.WaiMr Ricliari & T nWl r by the Premiel " 10 J^ rd utWfiL on t ua^ 9 ' f 4 ' are named Waiteha, necessitating'"the dIV tiliguishing adjectives bic and i; h„ J! actively. But tho S^ 1 ' £ error, as the proper namo o{ & m " stream is Kakapo-tahi (one-night «aSStnngora habroptilus), whew (ho had a kaika Uaitalia was the nanie of ancient people who were very numerous in the Middle blind during the sixteenth century, but were conquered and nearly destroyed by ttio (the <iants of tho long sieepors). In an Tjasterlv | direction is Mount Rangt-toto (blood red sky) About 50 -miles inland,' in- latitude 43.10 S. and longitude 171.40 east, south of the Bealey, is a high mountain, pyramidshaped and snow-cappcd, named- Kai-Matua (food for a parent). Somo maps print in error Kai-matau, which would mean " eat Hie right', The English mtnio js iianiiltoii leak. Strcamsnm from its' ioe fields eastward to the Waimakariri (winter water or snow-fed- river), and south-west-ward to Lake Colendgo, wliioh ,was Wakainatau • (fishhook in a canoo, or a canoo on the right hand). Tho Midland railway aftor crossing tho Southern Alps, passes through a striking bit of river scenery, at Utarama, (green torch), where the ffaiittakariri forms a succession of bends and curves m forcing its tortuous course down tho densely wooded valley. Tho headquarters of tho Ngati-wai-ran?i tribe at the niout-H of tho Hokitika River in the early part of the nineteenth centuiv. -Jfc was there that To Puoho rested during his journey down the West Coast to destroy tho southern Maoris, and they gara him a guido to show the pass through the mountains, via Haast River to Laka v\anaka, as well as warriors to assist him in. conquering the Ngati-mamoe.' But .To ruho and his taua were nearly ..all. killed at Tutuiau -by Tu Hawaiki or Tu Awaiki. Gold was first discovered on the West Coast by Mr John Rockfort's survey ixirtv 1? The Maoris found gold in the Buller in 1860. Mr James Mackay, of Waltapuaka, Nelson, came to' Nelson- in January, 1845, at the ago of 13 years.. Ho commenced tho exploration of t.he West Coast m 1855, and in, 1E57 with two Maoris wt'iii from'the Kararoea to tho Kawatiri. now called the Buller River. Tho Maoris gave Mt Mackay the ijiariie of Karamea. • Mr Mackay purchased' the AVesfc Coast from the remaining 110 : surviving "male Maoris and paid them 300 gold sovereigns at Greymouth on. May 21, 1860.' On Mav 21, 1860, a deed of conveyance to her Majesty l>y tho Ngaitahu residing on tho West Ccast, province of Canterbury (irow -Wesilnnd), " 10 boundary commencing at Milford Haven, thence inland to Mount Tatimaru; themoo inland to Mount TioriPatoa, Mount Cook (Hoorangi), ■To Kai-b-Tama.; thenoe to the saddle at tho' 60UTce of ifCie Toromakau; thence to. Mount Wa'uurewa; , thence to Lake Rotoroa; thence to source of Riveirs Karamea. andWakapoai; thence by a- straight lino to Kaurangi our the sea ccast; thonce. by (3io ocean to Milford Haven (all this land except reserves namedvira schedule to d&od), ete-,„The country thus, purchased include;! all Westland and part of Nelson, Milford Sound bentj in latitude 44.36 south, longitude 157.48 cast, and.Kaurangi about latitude 40.46 south, longitude 172.12 east, a distance north and south of 230 miles, i m a ™ a ? tliTO about 340 ,miks: Tho hill To Kai-o-Tamu, (Tama's food) has • reference to the legend of . Tamatea, looking for his wives. The Maoris reserved the prinoipal portion of the town of brcymooth for themselves. From the town !p:nL' y '' m reoeived 1 about MUUO in rents, which European industry "I •! cn J; er P rlSo J la d rendered so valuable, white tho Maoris Jivefl-,in,idleness.at the Arahura. Aratera-may moaji to "find a path. AWufc sev-en the Hokitika K-lwr arc the rich farming arid..pastoral lands of the Kokafahito, or, more correctly, • Kolca-tahi, (one coaree mat.), with its-dairy-ing industry. In 1902 the Government repurchased from. Mr Dedrich about 5000 acres, which were cut up info small fanms for ■ sattlemcnt., A largo tributary to the Hokitika from- the eastward is Koka-tahi (oiio coarse mat). A iwaterfall near Hokitika is known as Touroha (spread out openmg,'or continually spread out). Kanieri means to danoe before a screen, but sonic translate it '"underdone."- It is a goldfields town on a river, of the same name, an affluent of the Hokitika River, andi a lovely lake seven and a-lialf miles by thrca miles a short distance inland, 12 miles from the town of Hokitika; Kaniori atiftrst was called Five Miles Township by the' gold diggers. It is also th© name of a mountain near tho source of tho Waimakariri. A. mountain and range, at the' head of tho Hokitika River, w«e named Meta by draughtsman,Mr.Withev aftor his daugihter mvr }y pa l[ tly tWs that iur lVlatlHas found a pass from Canterbury \° , t J I ? Wert C^ B - 31 . via- Rakaia Forks and Jlathias River. There are at least fivo passes through tho Stmtliern Alps,' connecting Westland with Canterbury. ' Though i Mi I'.dward Dobson, 0.E., in an address at tte Philosophical Institute of Canitorbury delivered on November. 5, ,1866, said:— "Tliovo aro only three real ]>asses through the Southern Alps from .Canterbury—viz., The Hurunui Saddle dividing the sourrcts of the Hurunui and the Toromakau; Haast's Pass at.tho head.of Lake Wwiaka, which leads over a.very low saddle, which is only 638 f- a-bove Lake. Wanaka or 1612 ft above sea 'level,_ into the-valley of tho Haast River, which falls jnto tho sea near Jackson's Bay; and the third Arthur's Pass, which is-nothing..more than- a great fissure running in a tolerably direct line from the valley of tho Waimakariri to that of the! Tcremakau. The so-called;. North Rakaia Pass has no real claim to the title, its eastern face being simply a wall, rising abruptly from the valley to a height of 1500 ft, and being quite impracticable for horeesi or cattle; besides being at so great an elevation as to be buried deep in snow during eight months of tho year." (Trane. 'N.Z.I vol I, p. 188.) The fivo passes I refer to aro as follow:—

(1) Whitecombc's Pass, which connects the Bouthom branch of tho Hokitika River with; the Rakaia. Mr Whitcomb® discovered tho pass in 1863: He was unfortunately drowned in' tho Teremakau ■River, but hig companion, Mr Louper, returned in safety. A rivor issuing from the glaciers about Whitcombcls Pass is named 1 after Mr Loupor. • /.•:> -• (2) The North Rakaia, or., BrOvminy'a pass, connecting the'lCokat&hi (one flax mat), or north branch of the'Hokitika Rivor, with tho AVilberforre, a brancii of tbe Ratalia, but its elevation is too resit for general traffic. Tho diggers' track from Hckitifci. (o tho Forks,; or confluence of tho KokatahJ I was eight milts. Up the Kokatahi to the | junction of the north-east -branch, Brown* ing's River, or which Mr C. P. Cabill, surveyor, named tho Styx in June, 1865, seven miles j thence following the Styx to ita source on a low saddle which leads to tho Arahura, 11 miles (26 miles), then to top c<f pass six miles, and four miles further to tho eastern side of Rakaia Pass (36 miles in, all). Browning's Pass was known to the Maori as Noti Hokitika. It was first discovered by a half-witted Maori woman named Raureka, about 1700. She wandered' away from tier homo on tho West Coast, ■and following up tho Hokitika. River, crossed the Pass, and proceeded eastward till she cams to a Maori settlement named Horo-whenua (earth swallower), on the Canterbury Plain. She showed the Maoris a picce of greenstone, which was tho first', they had seen. Wishing to obtain some, they sent- a party over tho range by the same pass to securc the valuablo pounamu. Browning and Griffith rediscovered it in May, 1865, starting from Major Scott's station, at that- time tho highest residence up tho Rakaia River. From the pass to Glen, thorhc sheep station is 20 mites down the Wilbcrforce Valley. <

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Bibliographic details

MAORI NOMENCLATURE, Otago Daily Times, Issue 14927, 1 September 1910

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MAORI NOMENCLATURE Otago Daily Times, Issue 14927, 1 September 1910

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