THE MOTOR WORLD.
y \- ■ " ' BY FOCUS. • /,
MAIN JiOADS. -' v It recently took a service car four hours to travel from Paeroa to Hamilton ■ .to the rough condition of the road,, the car averaged about 10 miles an hour. ~.
Owing to big; slips ion the road at Waione 'access, by car from Thames to Coromandel ; has been made exceedingly difficult. " ' .
The top of the Parnell rise would be all the better for a little attention. from the road repair gang. The holes are gradually getting deeper, whilst the surface between the tram tracks is in a very rough condition.
The road between Hamilton and Cambridge lias long enjoyed an unenviable reputation on account of its even, hard surface. Lately, however, the heavy traffic has worn many potholes, and the road is in need of repair.
Good progress continues to be made with the Great South Road. The tram tracks are well forward and tar macadam has been laid and rolled for a considerable distance from the Junction. The overhead wires for the tram service are erected and the first section should shortly be ready.
The knowledge that the brake on the mental cog wheels of the Government has been so far released as to authorise an extra expenditure of £15,000 for .this year on the Rangiriri Hills Road and thavine work is to be. accelerated was received with much satisfaction by the motor interests in the; Auckland province.
A correspondent asks for a little elucidation on one point in connection with the Prime Minister's statement!, and that is, what work is to be done this year on that section of the' main Kangiriri Road beyond tho deviation which will still continues in use, and which contains some very bad places. There seems to be no answer in the statement issued last Tuesday.' The' query is quite an important one.-. ■' ; ' ',-
THE ACTION OF LUBRICATING OIL. -'• A better understanding of the import- . ance of lubrication can be gained if one will consider 1 the action of oil upon steel surfaces, explained as follows by an ex- , pert •on lubrication : . : ' . ' ." Even the finest; steely polished up to a mirror finish, if placed under a strong V microscope, will -show thousands of jagged points like the teeth of a saw. - - When two , pieces are rubbed together, these teeth lock with , each. other. They ; are ripped, cut, twisted, and others are pulled into their places. Something must must bo interposed between the surfaces to keep I them from tearing each other to . rack -and ruin. And that something is oil. ■ *< W-- .'■'■■• v-;' ■'■.' • Oil not only, fills up the thousands of ; minute depressions, but it actually inter;be :■ interposed . between 'the surfaces The moving parts' of an oiled machine ; : do not rub against each other, but against sides'- of » thin film of oil which ■> keeps the jagged teeth of steel from \ coming; ']' in contact with each . other. The mole-" •'. cules which compose oil are ;V perfect ..globes. So, as - a lubricant, : oil not only '.has. the advantage of being; liquid, and '.« therefore flowing , freely, but .it practically } .; places ball-bearings between \ all moving, parts and . reduces friction to . the mini- '•- mum." ,' : !.;• ' ''!.' " ' It is important, l above all,, to remember that' oil actually, wears out 'and it is for r ' this : reason that'; the crankcase and trans- ... mission; must be; drained, cleaned, and refilled at regular intervals.
STARTING-UP DIFFICULTIES. yA:'AA. ,"■■•' ■■::'■-■<":■'■ ■/'■ : ..' -,- A'-'A A Even with the relatively, quality petitil: wo are now able to obtain, there is rnuo.h ' discontent ever difficulty ■'■ in starting up from cold when the thermometer is low. This particularly is the case with, small engines, and as' a result owners are f prone to use their electrical starters so . persistently as to bverstrcss them... The '. reason why small engines, or al least the small four-cylinder types, are difficult" to start we believe arisesfrom the fact that the Volume of mixture under compression is relatively so' small that' the heat arising from com-, pression is dissipated by the cold engine almost •as fast as it is generated, while,* of course, the gumming up of the pistons, due to congelation of the lubricating oil, lias ; a ' greater effect in small ,than in large diameter cylinders. The result, is, as we have, said, the electrical starters are overworked. and cause trouble and so much grumbling, states- the Field. Of course, it is' always possible to secure relief, by applying heat in some way to the induction; system, such as a rubber hot water-bottle placed on the induction manifold • for a few minutes before cranking over, and' in obstinate cases the radiator is partly emptied 'and refilled with boiling ..water'!; ; But— general attitude is l. that. we' ought not to be driven to such primitive means in these days, and as the" public always contrives to secure what it wants if it persists in demanding it, the British"makers of small cars would be well advised to take this matter into serious consideration. Wo have known owners to invest' in three or four different carburettors in the desire to ease the physical stress of starting, and others to refrain from taking out their cars because that would entail a quarter of an hour's heavy physical effort on a bleak morning. * .The carburettor has a decided influence, but its extent and direction depends on engine, and as a rule the carburettor that assists one to start up is not just the' most economical in consumption.' ..■•.'-•*»: ''.■;-•;. ■..,." >'•'.■■
/'j'.'X.' ''■ NOTES. ,••'.-•-■ Salesmen report that business in Hamilton has been fairly good lately and in the repair departments the garages are all fairly busy. , •'.,.,,,:.
To date 3052 motor vehicles 1 have been registered in Hamilton, there has been a considerable increase in the number registered recently, and on two days last week 17 new licenses were taken out.
Two tendencies" that have been observable in the automobile industry in the United States during the past few years have been the special development of lowpriced cars and the increasing demand for and production of closed cars.
The New Zealand Automobile Union has only 2000 registered members,, whereas the South Island Union has 5000 members, was a.statement made at last week's meeting of the Otago Motor Club. The suggestion was also made that it was time the N.Z.A.U. altered its name to North Island Union.
"No vehicle shall he left unattended'in any street or public place unless.the same is clear of and at least six feet distant from any water plug for fire extinguishing purposes in < any street," is one ..of Auckland's city by-laws which is not so often observed as it should be.
-According to estimates given by the rubber industry in the United States, approximately 42.000,000 tyres will be required during the current year. This figure is made up of two estimates of 14,000,000 tyres for new. cars, and 28,000,000 tyres as replacements for cars already in use.
The total value of passenger car& exported from tho United States in 1922 was £10,209.923. and the number was 66,790, as Against a value of £6.506,745 and number of 30,950 in 1921. Australia was the best market as regards number, taking 11.236 cars, with a total value of £1.743,386, while Canada took the largess value, £2,113,896, for ,10,214 cars. : ;.
It is understood that more British motor manufacturing firms are contemplating the adoption of the four-wheel braking .. system. In this matter the Continental concerns have led v the way, and have done much trying out of the various types, available and gained technical information that should be of advantage to our own makers. Let it be said that the idea behind the adoption of four-wheel brakes is not to allow of any increase in the speed of cars but to enlarge the present factor of safety. It is claimed for. this system that :t eliminates, if not absolutely, to a very great extent, the possibility of skidding, which is one of the dangers all drivers sooner or later have to face. .
Professor A. ;M. Low is apparently not only an inventor; he is also a prophet, for his voice was recently heard by many hsteners-inMo the London station, of the ■Briton Broadcasting Co., giving his views on what the world may be like one hundred . V .? hence. He touched : upon the probable future of motor cars, and drawing an inference from what has occurred within the past twenty-five vears, anticipated that in 1 a century from now a lourseater' would be amply engined v with a power • plant of- six Hnominal: h.p., probably arranged where "■ the . gear box > generally is - .installed to-day. He. also contemplated as' not imprqbaole the propulsion ; of . road ' vehicles by wireless power.' Professor Low's ;?',?£? was admirably heard bv many thousands throughout the country '■=■■
MOTORING CAUSERIE. :' v .'-':"■ ■'■ ' ,'■ - : I
~:_._, [by OUB BRITISH correspondent.] Air Lighthouses. ' - M Experimental night-flying, between London and Pans—a preliminary ;to a reguIt- "'g' l * ?ervice—is to be - carried out by the Air Ministry to test the airway search- < lights.:, On the English side there will be four lighthouses,'', between London and the coast—each with a different form of beam— also an ; emergency landing ground, on the Downs for use in thick weather:-V This; will utilise a T-shaped beam, which will always point down-wind, to enable pilots to alight against the wind 1' resh and. special Continental air-services are ■; announced : every week—the latest being a non-stop jaunt from London to Lausanne (Switzerland),'in four and a-half hours., This enables devotees of alpine sports to breakfast in London, fly to Lausanne and, after participating in the ice and snow festivities, to return to London for dinner. Bit by bit air travel is ■becoming a regular factor in our iife, and the r fears that because of its'-, cost and risks it must die of inanition, are disappearing. All credit to those who.have nursed the industry through its anxious early days. London Traffic. ' , Of all towns in Britain, I like driving through London best—despite the heavy volume of traffic' The - system of police control is delightfully simple. There is onlyi the more obvious code of rules to comply with. The chief asset of the point policeman in London is his entire lack of emotion, and his unerring methods with the unhappy wight who disobeys. Even as the quietly consistent parent is a better disciplinarian than the irascible sire, so also, and by similar methods, does the London officer ' cxcell. He never- waves his arms wildly, and he never contradicts with his right hand what his left hand is indicating In fact, he scarcely uses more than" one white-gloved Tiand. . When he makes a motion, there is never a doubt that it is imperative. One imagines that his serenity is infectiousSo implicitly "and exactly do the drivers conform. " Suaviter in modo " is always better than "for-titer-in re." > .
'r"': 'MOTOR-CYCLING. The woman side-car taxi-driver can be seen in several towns in England.; ; >^ :
'',' A scheme is on foot to provide Birmingham with a motor racing track. If carried out- the cost will be £80,000.
Such action as the, use of the open cutout"' in the city only ' helps to ":* bring . motorcycling } in general into disrepute.
; '•■ Five ladies! competed in the recent English A.C.U. trial, an indication of the growing interest of the fair sex in the sport of motor-cycling. .-'"
Work on the Waimauku-Muriwai Road is progressing nicely, the new metal having almost reached the top of Cooper's Hill on the- east side. ~ -
-.The flexible side-car used so commonly in America to-day is really, an English invention. Mr. Appleby, of Birmingham, patented a flexible design in 1909.
Some exceptional bargains are being offered in late model second-hand machines. ■ New motors, however, are still in keen demand in spile of the approaching winter.
When running down hill it is always courtesy to give way to the machine coming up. It is one of the little rules the observance of which increases the pleasure of motoring. . -. -
The sediment so quickly formed by ' using a poor oil not only has no lubricating value but when it appears friction and wear quickly follow. Scored cylinders and fouled spark plugs result. j
Always . detach the cover of the back wheel on the side opposite that of the chain, taking care that the" air -tube is fully deflated before. doing,, so, and that it does not come in contact with oil that may be on the chain or , bearings.
Oil the little roller on the curved arm carrying "The needle valve on the schebler carburetter. It lias a tendency .'to become gritty and stick so that its knarled edges cut a ridge in the curved cam. This will cause bad running and "stammering "clue to an irreguluar mixture.
: First Motorist: "What do you .think of my new machine?"'. f , \ Second Motorist:' " I don't care for square:, pistons.!' First Motorist (caught /' napping) : "They are a bit of a nuisance."
To save" tyres.— not accelerate or brake suddenly; drive on the throttle not the brake; take corners slowly, and declutch when running over loose stones or metal. When changing gear,.'endeavour to get a smooth change free' from jerks: high speed causes excessive wear. •"!,' '
A broken valve lifter : ■ will sometimes make ,it appear impossible to start up the engine.- The difficulty: can: almost always be overcome by putting 'the machine into gear and moving it backwards until the engine comes up against ,' "-compression." Then place"« the gear lever in neutral" and give the kick-starter a. vigorous dig; this will nearly ; always bounce ;the. engine over compression, even in the case of a'big single-cylinder with a high compression. A half-penny wedged under the exhaust ,valve stem may also help. ■- ..-. *-
r ENGINE EFFICIENCY. '■' .' :■ The high speeds of to-day have .-'often caused efficiency to ■;'; be confused ~withi power. As ' a matter .of : fact, ; these are „ . totally different - things. ' The, most:', efficient engine ■ is ' the one> that ; will convert . the . greatest proportion of fuel supplied ito it into ; work or power at the ; pulley shaft. The most powerful engine is the one that can' convert the greatest quantity; of fuel into work at a given time. : -It will be seen, then, that power does • not necessarily mean > efficiency,; and although efficiency* always increases power,. the latter may. be ' '.obtained v without . ; ; efficiency. 1 ; The proportion of .power ; available at t. the, pulley shaft to the power or pressure on" the ; pistonVhead (i.e.; indicated power)' represents the mechanical . efficiency .of an engine. Of recent years, owing to improved piston design, and ball and roller bearings, mechanical •;, efficiency is very high ■at moderate speeds, reaching over 90 per cent., but decreasing at high speeds; in some cases.it is probably not over 70 per cent. . r : Heat Conductivity. ; - The introduction of aluminium and other light metal alloys into engine manufacture has had a great effect }' upon weights, and also upon mechanical 1 'efficiency,, but it is not alone ; the reduction of weight that accounts for the popularity 'of alloys when applied to pistons, their greatest service, perhaps, being in - the direction of heat conductivity. The (usual alloy of a small' ; percentage of I copper with aluminium is now somewhat j improved l by the addition of magnesium.
EXPRESS OMNIBUS SCHEME. ;' ; , i ' : •"'. ■..;■ ' / ■";•■■ -' • -■. ■' A somewhat interesting scheme of "express" omnibus services for relieving congestion during busy hours, 'is being considered in Paris. It is proposed that the /'express" vehicles should adopt a different route from that followed by the normal service, and that they should be run without conductors, tickets being issued at the starting point. As a complement to this proposal, it is also; suggested that. a certain number of omnibuses on the ordinary service should leave the starting places empty, being reserved for picking up waiting passengers at intermediate points.
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THE MOTOR WORLD., New Zealand Herald, Volume LX, Issue 18403, 19 May 1923, Supplement
THE MOTOR WORLD. New Zealand Herald, Volume LX, Issue 18403, 19 May 1923, Supplement
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