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ACCOUNT OF THE MASSACRE OF WAIRAU, AND SUBSEQUFNT EVENTS.

The two chiefs who took the most prominent part in the massacre about to be related are Rauperaha and Rangihaeata ; the former one of the most influential, the latter one of the most ferocious of the chiefs of New Zealand. They both signed the treaty of Waitangi, by which their sovereign rights, were surrendered to the Queen of Great Britain. Their tribe has resided latterly at Porirua and the neighbourhood, about 12 miles N.W. of Wellington. There they have resisted all attempts of the Settlers to occupy the land professed to have been purchased of the Natives by the New Zealand gCoirtpany, and have occasionally made aggres<n'«ii^' upon th 6 Settlers on the Hut't, and ■ drivjiei them from their clearings. Upwards of a year ago Rangihaeatia attacked! some Settlers who rented larid" near Poriruk, destroyed their houses anqi drove them off. Applications were made' to the Police Magistrate of Wellington, who refused to interfere. At the subsequent Assizes an indictment was found against Rangihaeata for the offence and a Bench Warrant for his apprehension applied for. This the Chief Justice refused, alleging that it lay in the discretion of the Court. Whether after an indictment found, the granting of a Bench Warrant is discretionary with the Court, or a •matter of right on the part of the Prosecutor, we shall not stop to enquire. Rangihaeatia remained at large and the next thing heard of him is the part he took in the massacre at Wairau. It is the common opinion that if the first aggression had been met with firmness and punished with a reasonable and lawful severity they would not have beeu repeated. The Natives resemble spoiled children ; the timid deference shewn to them by the authorities, and the impunity extended to all their criminal acts, have encouraged them in the belief that the Government is either unwilling or unable to control them, and has led them on to the commission of excesses which have nearly ruined the Settlers, and terminated in the massacre. From the temper they have manifested since that event, it is to he feared that harsh measures must be resorted to, before they will pay obedience to the law. In addition to the lands claimed by Rauparaha and his tribe in the Northern Island, they laid claim also to a portion of the Southern Island, extending inward from Cloudy Bay, and including the Wairau plains. These plains had been professedly purchased by the New Zealand Company, and were being surveyed as a part of We Nelson Settlement by its surveyors.- Rauparaha and Rangihaeata had, some time since, threatened to prevent their occupation, and an arrangement had been made by them to meet one of the Land Commissioners (Mr. Spain) upon the spot, nominally with the view to the adjustment of the matter. Before the time appointed (as it is said), they went over from Porirua to Cloudy Bay in a schooner .belonging to Mr. Toms, of the former place, who himself accompanied. them. A very importariLpoint to be ascertained in enquiring into the merits of the case, is the temper which the Natives manifested on their arrival. It does not appear to have been such as indicated any peaceable intentions on

their, part, but very much the contfary. T«he following particulars on this point have been communicated to us by John Dorset, Esq., M.D., who accompanied the Magistrates when they investigated the massacre on the spot,, and who was present when the depositions were taken ; its correctness has been confirmed by one of the Magistrates,' also present at the investigation —

From the information I gatherel from the whalers, and the depositions taken at Cloudy Bay, it appeared to me that the natives came fully prepared for mischief.

The person oh whose testimony I placed most reliance was a Mr. Cave, who has been resident there for the last seven or eight years, and who had been always, up to that time, on the most friendly terms with the chiefs Rangihaeata and Rauparaha : a knife and' fork always being placed at his table for them, on their visits to Cloudy Bay. But this time he noticed a peculiar ferocity about their bearing, asking for things in a way that brooked no denial ; and, seeing Mr. Cave sharpening an axe, Rangihaeata forcibly took i t from him and struck him. Mr. Cave tried to find out what they were after, but could not succeed; and his impression was that they were bound over to secresy on the evening before they landed — on which occasion they had a feast on board Mr. Toms' vessel where they all got drunk — Mr. Toms being the only European present with them as far as I could learn. The natives left spies behind, one of' whom went up with and among the English party, and counted every man, and a short time before the fight he crossed over the brook to his own party and gave the required information and then joined in the fight one of the foremost. The following account of the Massacre. was drawn up by one of the Magistrates who attended the examinations of the witnesses both in Wellington and Cloudy Bay ; its general accuracy has been confirmed to us by . other Magistrates who were present, and who have perused. the original depositions : — ; MASSACRE AT WAIRAU. On the 15th of April, Messrs. Cotterell, Parkinson, and Barnicoat, surveyors, having contracted with the New Zealand Company's ?Agent, to survey the- tanSs '-at "iTCaTratijTeflr Nelson with about 40 men, and landed at Wairau on Tuesday, April 25. After this, Rauparaha and Rangihaeata being at Poriruain attendance on the Court of Land Claims, made know their. determination to prevent the survey from proceeding, and Mr. Joseph Toms repeatedly stated tbat he understood from them that they would make a stand at Wairau, and lose their lives rather than allow the white men to take possession of that place. Mr. Spain used his influence to pacify them, and obtained a promise from them to do nothing before hia arrival. He undertook to meet them there as soon as possible after the adjournment of hia Court on the 18th June. Mr. Toms said he would take Rauparaha and Rangihaeata in hia schooner to hia own place in Queen Charlotte's Sound, and keep them there until he received a communication from Mr, Spain. The survey was carried on with some slight interruption from a small party of Natives, not resident at Wairau, but collected from all parts of the Straits, until Rauparaha and Rangihaeata arrived with a body of Natives on the Ist June. They were brought by Mr. Toms in his schooner, and lauded at Port Underwood, in Cloudy Bay. They visited Mr. Cave and other settlers, some of whom had resided iv that place many years, snd declared their determination to burn down the surveyors' houses, and drive them off the land. They began to put their threats into effect by burning down the house of Mr. Cotterell, having first removed his goods, which they restored to him : they then in a similar manner destroyed Mr. Parkinson's house, and compelled all the surveyors to remove to the mouth of the river. Mr. Cotterell was then dispatched by Mr. Tuckett to Nelson, to inform Captain Wakefield. An information was then laid before the Police Magistrate, Mr.-Thomp-son, who granted a warrant against Rauparaha and Rangihaeata on a charge of arson. Having been informed that the Natives were armed, and in great numbers, the Magistrate determined to attend the execution of the warrant himself, accompanied by an armed force, and expressed his opinion that such a demonstration would prevent bloodshed, and impress the Natives with the authority of the law. It is clear, from subsequent events, that no one anticipated any resistance. The men of the labouring class were not armed at Nelson, nor selected as fighting men. They were sent down as a reinforcemwit to the surveying staffj and on arriving at Wairau, arms were distributed, but up to the last moment, no one had any thought of a serious encounter. There were about 40 men of the labouring class, most of whom had never handled a firelock. They consisted of surveying men and eight boatmen, left at Wairau, to which Mr. Thompson brought an accession of force, consisting o£ four constables and 12 men, who were engaged as additional labourers in the survey department. Mr. Thompson was acompanied by Mr. John Brook as Interpreter, and the following gentlemen, viz., Captain Wakefield, Captain England, Mr. Tuckett, Mr. Richardson, Mr. Patcnettj Mr. Howard, Mr. Cotterell, Mr. Bellairs> Mr. ,Ferguson, and Mr. Barnicoat. The whole party' consisted of 49, of whom Messrs. Tuokett,- Cotterell, and Patchett, were unarmed, the other gentlemen had nothing beyond two or three

pistols and one fowling-piece among them. It appear* that the party left by Mr. Cotterell at Wairau had been compelled by, the Natives to follow him on hia way to Nelson, in the Company's large boat, "but were met. by Mr. Thompson » party, and returned with them to Wairau, some in the boat and some in the Government brig Victoria, which brought the Magistrate - from Nelson: ' The whole party landed on the 15th and 16th,, of June, and proceeded on the afternoon of Friday, the 16th, about five miles up the banks of the river to a wood, "where they expected -to ■find the Natives. Muskets and a cartouche box qf, ball cartridges with each, were distributed on the Friday evening and Saturday :nv>rning, and cutlasses to as many as choose to ' /avail -themselves of them. The whole party slept at a wood called Tau Maatine. It appears that the movements of the party were 'watched and reported by scouts, in consequence of which the Natives had moved further up the river, and that they were joined, in the night, •by two canoes full of people. They then consisted of about 80 or 90 men, 40 of whom were armed with muskets, the rest armed with 'tomahawks, besides women and children.' On Saturday morning, before sun-me, two boats having been brought up the river, the Europeans embarked in them and ascended about four miles further up. They then found that the Natives were posted on ' the right bank, of a * deep<rivulet called Tua Marino, about 30 feet wide, not fordable, and flowing into the Wairau •on the left bank of it. The Europeans advanced 'and placed themselves opposite to the Natives on the left bank of the rivulet, with a hill behind them covered with fern and manuka, and sloping upwards with several brows or terraces. The Natives were on about a quarter of an acre of cleared ground, with a dense thicket behind them. The Police Magistrate called upon Eauparaha and Rangihaeata, and requested a canoe to be placed across the rivulet to form a bridge, which was done by the Natives. The magistrate with the constables and interpreter and some of the gentlemen crossed over, and entered into a parley with the Natives. In the meantime the men on the other side, under cover of a small thicket, were divided into two parties, under the command of Captain England and Mr. Howard. Mr. Thompson, through the -interpreter, explained the contents of the warrant. He said that he was the Queen's representative, that it had nothing to do with the land, and called upon Rauparaha and Rangihaeata to surrender ; Mr. Thompson was very much excited, and pointed to the armed men. The Native chiefs refused to surrender; they -said that they would not fight, that they expected the arrival of Mr. Spam and Mr. Clarke, •and would have a talk when they came; The •warrant was presented to the chiefs two or three times, and on each occasion about 16 Natives, why had been sitting, sprung upon their feet and levelled their 'muskets at the Europeans. Mr. Thompson then ordered the men to cross 4he river, which they began to do, using the canoe as a bridge, when one of them stumbled, andftis piece went off accidentally, but did not kill or wound any one; directly the report was heard, the Natives jumped up, and poured,fnftfAfy amongst the Europeans. The gentlemen attempted then to re-cross the rivulet by a can oe, and in so doing met their own men, which created confusion, and several fell wounded into the water. Captain Wakefield called upon his men to retire up the hill and form on the brow. They began to do so. At this moment it is .ascertained that the Natives were on the point of taking to flight, when Rauparaha seeing the retreat, excited his men, and raising a war cry they darted across the rivulet and pursued the Europeans, the majority of whom never halted, but fled round the sides of the ■hill and escaped. The gentlemen, who were ■unarmed, accompanied by a small number of the men, formed upon the hill and lay down' to await the arrival of the Natives. They then exhibited a white handkerchief as a token of peace, which was understood by the Natives. Captain Wakefield then ordered the Europeans to deliver up their arms, which they did, and became prisoners in the hands of the Natives. They were standing quietly in a group, when Rangihaeata, who had just discovered that one *of his wives had been killed by a chance ball, ■came up and said to Rauparaha, " Don't forget your daughter." Rauparaha sat still and contented, and Rangihaeata, with his own hand, put to death the whole of the prisoners. Some of the survivors found their way to the beach through the swamps, and were picked up by whale boats the same night, others wandered into the mountains and lost themselves several days. The last of these reached Port Underwood on Wednesday, having tasted no food but three turnips, which he picked up on Tuesday. As soon as the Natives had perpetrated the .deed, they rifled the bodies of a few articles, «nd retreated to the mouth of the river. They shortly after abandoned Cloudy Bay, accompanied by all the resident Natives. On the Saturday afternoon, Mr. Tuckett, and others who had escaped through the low grounds to the beach, set sail for Wellington to procure assistance, and arrived in the night. A public meeting was called the first thing on Sunday morning, and 70 volunteers enrolled, to proceed to Cloudy Bay; the brig sailed the same morning, but it coming on to blow a violent gale from the S.E., she was obliged to anchor for two. days, when the mode of proceeding was .altered, and a deputation from the bench of .Magistrates returned in the brig on Wednesday. iOn their arrival at Cloudy Bay, they found that Mr. Ironside, the Wesleyan Missionary, had jprocteded with two boats' companies of '.whalers to inter the bodies, which they did on the ground where they fell. ' It appears that .the Natives were seized with great terror, jmd .had formed the determination of retiring -up the Manawatu, to a fortified pah in the interior, there"' to await the vengeance of the white men, which they fully expected, would follow. , The following is a list of the killed, wounded, find missing .— KILLED. Captain Wakefield, •Xaptain .England, . Mr. H. A. Thompson, r- G, R. Richardson,

Mr. Patchett, ; - ' > — James Howard, — Cotterell, — John Brooke, Interpreter, — William Clanzay, !— Thomas Ratcliffe, — William Northans, ~ Thomas Pay, • — Coster, — James M'Gregor, — William Gardner, — Ely Croßper, — Henry Bomforth, — Thomas Tyrrell, — Isaac Smith. — John Burton. WOUNDED. Mr. William Bomforth, Mr. Gapper, . Mr. Richard Burnett, Mr. James Henry Smith, Mr. Robert Crawford, Eram or-Ramee, a Native, And several others who went on to Nelson, but whose names we were unable to learn. MISSING. Mr. Malen, Chief Constable, Mr. Edward Stokes, The following account agreeing in all the material facts with the last, appeared in the Nelson Examiner, and is understood to contain the substance of the statements of some of the survivors. HORRIBLE MASSACRE AT THE WAIRAU. The tragic and altogether unanticipated event which has deprived Nelson of so mauyvof its most valuable residents, has so overwhelmed us, that we find ourselves unable at present to do more than briefly narrate the principal facts, which have been carefully collected from the best sources. We must postpone to a future number the remarks which it calls for. It- may be necessary, for the information of our non-resident readers, to state that the Wairau is an extensive plain, intended to form a portion of the country sections of this settlement ; and that the river' which runs through it, and from which it takes its name, empties itself into Cloudy Bay, at about eighty miles distant from this place coastwise. The surveyors employed there had — in consequence of the forcible interruption of the survey and other acts committed on them by the chiefs Rauparaha (by some called Raupero, by others Raubello) and Rangihaeata, his son-in-law, and their followers — applied to the Police Magistrate for protection. On Monday, June 12, wan-ants were issued, on Mr. Cotterell's deposition, for the apprehension of these chiefs on a charge of arson ; and on the following day the Government brig left Nelson with what was then considered a sufficient force to execute ■the warrants. The individuals who composed the party were: — H. A. Thompson, Esq., judge of the County Court and Police Magistrate ; Captain A. Wakefield, R.N.J- the New Zealand Company's Agent for this settlement; Captain .England, J.P.; G. R. Richardson', Esq.; MrJ fi CottereiT, surveyor ; Mr. James Howard; four constables, and several special constables. Whilst in the Gulf, the brig fell in with the Compa*y* w bj}it on her return from the Wairau with M\. Tuckett, chief surveyor, and Mr. Patcheqf, who, with .the boat's crew, were thus added to the number already embarked in this fatal expedition. , On the evening of the following Thursday most of the party landed at the mouth of the Wairnu, and were joined the next morning by others, when arms were distributed, and the whole body proceeded up the right bank of the river. They soon met a chief, named Puaha ([nephew of llauparaha, and the individual who is favourably mentioned in Colonel Wakefield's early despatches under the name of Eboa,) and some resident Natives, who said they had been engaged in clearing land, but had been stopped by Rauparaha, who had proceeded higher up the river. Puaha and his followers were considerably alarmed on seeing an armed force; but their fears were somewhat allayed by Mr. Thompson informing them that they sought only Rauparaha and Rangihaeata, whom he had come to apprehend on a charge of arson. Puaha, at the request of Mr. Thompson, then undertook to go forward and acquaint these chiefs with the arrival of the magistrates, and that they had come to take them on board the brig, where the charge would be investigated. Higher up the river, another party of resident Natives were met, who were similarly informed of the object of the expedition. Here the magistrates and their followers encamped for the night, and were joined by the remainder of the party, which now amounted to about fifty, and who,, with the exception of four or five of the gentlemen, were all armed. On the following morning, Saturday, the 17th, the party advanced a few miles further, and, observing some smoke issuing from a small wood, they concluded that the chiefs were encamped there. Proceeding towards the spot, they discovered that they were separated by a narrow but deep stream from the Maories, who amounted altogether to about 120, including women and children. They were scattered about squatting on the ground in groups, with their canoes hauled up on the bank of the stream occupied by them. At the request of the magistrates, Piccawarro (a Native) furnished them with a canoe, in which Mr. Thompson, Captain Wakefield, Mr. Tuckett, Mr. Cotterell, Mr. Patchett, Brooks (the interpreter,) and Maling (the chief constable) crossed over. The Police Magistrate addressed himself to Rauparaha, explained the nature of the charge brought against him by Mr. Cotterell, and desired him to go on board the brig, with such of his followers as he chose, where the matter should be investigated. This Rauparaha refused to do, but stated his willingness to have the matter investigated there, and to pay for the damage he had done, if he should approve of the Magistrates' decision. On the/ reiterated refusal of Rauparaha either to go on board the brig or to surrendej himself prisoner, the Police Magistrate threatened that, if he di< not surrender, he and hisjparty should be fired upon. This was no soonerinterpreted to him, than sixteen Natives sprang on their feet and presented their muskets, and Rangihaeatia,

\rho, until then, bad not been visible, stepped forward and defied the Magistrates' power. Words running high, Puaha interceded, and, with a Bible in his hand, prayed there might be no strife. Captain Wakefield, seeing the neces- | sity of uniting the whole party, proceeded, by < the consent of the Natives, to lay a canoe across the stream, to enable -those who had crossed over to retire : but, whilst, thus engaged, it is conjectured that the chiefs were told they had done wrong in granting the use of the canoe, And that they would, on the uniting of their op- ■ pohents, be immediately fired upon ; we say conjectured, for, on seeing a movement among the 'Maories, the nature of which we have not been able to ascertain, an order was suddenly given for the men to advance. Four or five only did so, and the gun of some one went off, it is believed accidently, as no order to fire had been given. The Natives instantly discharged a volley, which was returned by their opponents Those who were placed between the two fires now hastened to join their friends, and nearly upset the canoe in passing over it. The firing continued brisk on either side for some little time, when the greater part of our countrymen retreated up a hill, and were followed by the Natives, who had now crossed the river. Here the most strenuous efforts were made by Captain Wakefield, Captain England, and Mr. Howard, to induce their party to act in concert, but altogether without effect. Captain Wakefield therefore, in order to prevent a further sacrifice of life, ordered the firing to cease, and Captain England and Mr. Howard advanced towards the Maories with a white handkerchief, in token of peace. Those in advance of the retreating party, however, kept up a running fire, which was returned by the Natives on the whole party indiscriminately. Captain Wakefield and the gentlemen about him were therefore compelled to proceed further up the hill, in order, if 'possible, to put an end to the conflict. Mr. Cotterell, after accompanying them a short distance, stopped, and, in the hope of assuring the Natives of the sincerity of his party, . waited their coming up an d surrendered himself; and his example was followed, on the next eminence, by Captain Wakefield, Captain England, Mr. Thompson, Mr. Richardson, Mr. Howard, Brooks, Cropper, and M'Gregor. Puaha again endeavoured to become a peacemaker, and urged on his countrymen that enough blood had been shed. This was acceeded to by Rauparaha, and the two parties shook hands. They were soon joined by Rangahaeata, who, having already killed the wounded on his way, demanded the lives of the nine who had surrendered. To this Rauparaha at first objected ; but, on being informed that his daughter (Ranghaeata's wife) was killed, he, offered no further opposition. As no resistance appears to have been made by our unfortunate friends, it is probable that they were, through their ignorance of the Native language, quite unconscious of the horrible fate that awaited them. Standing in the midst of a large number of Moaries, they were easily separated ; and whilst in this defenceless situation, perhaps without even a thought of treachery, the monster Ranghaeata silently glided round, getting behind >aßeh singly, and, with his tomahawk, brained tJfeni all in succession. Mr. Tuckctt, Mr. Barnicoat, and a man named Gay, left the party after the first ineffectual offer of surrender, and, with seven other men whom they subsequently overtook, one of whom was badly wounded, reached the coast, where, with great difficulty, they obtained a boat from a whaling station to put them on board the brig. Two boats were then dispatched to the shore, to pick up any who might reach it, but, none appearing, the brig, shortly after dusk, sailed for Wellington, to obtain surgical assistance for the wounded, and aid to rescue such as were believed to be prisoners. The brig reached Wellington early the following morning, but, a foul wind having sprung up, she was unable to get out of the harbour before Thursday afternoon. Colonel Wakefield, Mr. Spain, the land commissioner, the Police Magistrate, Mr. Dorset, surgeon, and several other gentlemen returned in her, and, on their arrival in Cloudy Bay, weie immediately apprised of the dreadful deed which had placed their lamented countrymenbeyond the reach of succour. They were prevented by the weather from entering the mouth of the river until Saturday, and, on arriving at the fatal spot, found that Mr. Ironside, the Wesleyan missionary stationed at Cloudy Bay, had preceeded them, regardless of the personal danger which others shrunk from; he had discovered seventeen of the dead and (having no alternative) had already commenced the interment of the bodies on the spot. Two more were afterwards found and buried. To have removed the bodies would have been difficult; and such a procedure must have delayed the departure of the brig, and the 'important evidence which was afterwards obtained in a searching investigation pursued by the magistrates would have been unknown. The brother of our lamented agent had previously expressed his approbation of such burial under the circumstances, and all felt that this field of death was a fit place of sepulture. Thus, in death, they will perhaps achieve for us their survivors that object which, in life, they failed to accomplish. If the spirits of the departed are permitted to interest themselves in the affair's of morality, the thought may afford them a generous satisfaction : to us, such an acquistion of the Wairau must ever be a subject of melancholy contemplation. The bodies of the murdered nine were interred near the spot where they fell, as were also those of Bumforth, Coster, Pay, and Gardiner, who fell at a short distance from them. Mr. Patchett, who was struck early in the fray, while standing at some distance from either party, was buried alone. Smith, Terral, and Northam were in another grave, and Clanzie and Ratcliffe in a foui th. The body of Maling, the chief constable, was not found, though known to -be severely wounded. It is probable he crept away into the bush, and there expired. Two other men, named Stokes and Burton, have not since been seen, but it is hoped they may yet be safe ; and, in order to assist them, should they be attempting to get round by land, persons have been sent out with provisions, and with instructions to keep up large fires. Such pf the men as were not wounded in the fray.

and did not reach the brig, remained hid until l Rauparaha and Rangihaeata departed with their followers, when they went down to Cloudy Bay, and waited the brig's return. When Rauparaha and his party- left Cloudy Bay to cross the Straits, which they did on the following Tuesday, Puaha remained in Tory' channel until -the -return of the brig, to see if any violence would he offered to the Natives in Cloudy Bay and Queen Charlotte's Sound, who had taken no part in the fray; as it was believed, in accordance with their own custom, that the murder of our countrymen would be avenged on any natives who might be found there. Finding no violence was offered, he hastened after Rauparaha, to prevent any bloodshed which might arise out of that belief. It should not be left unstated that Mr. Spain, the land commissioner, had engaged to meet Rauparaha at Port Underwood, within a certain period, to investigate the title, of the New Zealand Company to the Wairau, and the chiefs did not enter the plain until after the expiration of the time appointed. Such are the best accounts of the Massacre of which we are in possession. The depositions which were taken by the Magistrates at Nelson, and which we print below, fully corroborate them. The depositions taken in Cloudy Bay and at Wellington, are in the hands of the Police Magistrate, who has refused copies of them to the other Magistrates when they applied at the request of the Corporation as will be presently stated. In the meantime however the Police Magistrate (Mr. M'Donogh) published the following document as a correct account of the affair. To the Inhabitants of Wellington and its Vicinity, and to the British Settlers in Cook's Straits. After the contest at Wairau, between a party of armed Settlers from Nelson, and a body of the Natives, which has been attended with such a melancholy loss of life, I feel it to be my duty to lay before you a statement of the results of that contest, and of the information which I have been able to acquire. Although I have not at present any authenticated accounts of the number of persons who have been slain, I am compelled to believe that it has been very numerous ; and there is but too much reason to apprehend that Mr. Thompson, the Police Magistrate, and Capt. Wakefield, the Company's Agent, have fallen. No one among you can regret more sincerely than myself this fearful sacrifice of human life, or can feel more deeply the loss which the settlement has thus sustained ; but I should fail in my duty did I not declare my conviction, after obtaining evidence from all quarters, that the affray was not the result of > any premeditated design on the part of the Natives, but that ou the contrary they sought by every means to avert it, and did not fire a shot until live of their party had fallen, including the wife of Rangihaeata, wlio at the moment bore his own son in 'her arms. Upon receiving the disastrous intelligence, feeling it to be of the first importance to obtain autnentic ' information of the Natives, I immediately put myself in communication with those persdns Who were in a position to furnish accurate reports on the subject, and I have the satisfactiou of informing you that the Natives of Waikanae, at which place Rauparaha first landed, refused to allow him to remain among them, lest the friendly relations which had previously subsisted between them and the English Settlers might be destroyed ; and that I have every reason to believe these feelings to be shared by almost all the Natives upon the coast. No apprehension, therefore, of any aggression on their part need to be entertained ; but if from any circumstance a hostile purpose should be cherished by them, I have made arrangements, which will immediately put me in possession of the facts, and enable me to make all necessary preparations to resist it. In order to strengthen this friendly feeling, I have published an address to t.he Natives in their own language, and have caused it to be distributed in all parts of the country, which I trust will have that effect, by maintaining a confidence in the justice of the Government and in the impartial administration of the law. At the same time I have taken measures for the protection of persons and property in this place, ana the immediate vicinity, by increasing the police force to an extent which will I trust be sufficient to meet the present exigency. I have deemed that the recent occurrence was of so serious a nature in itself, and in its probable consequences, as to call for the immediate interposition of the Local Government. I have therefore forwarded to Auckland all the information I have been able to collect, and I feel assured that, immediately upon receiving the intelligence, a portion, at least, of the troops at the disposal of the Government will be sent to this place, that a full and searching investigation will be made into all fhe circumstances of the transaction, and that prompt justice will be done. I will not conclude without expressing my > sense of the promptitude and zeal which you have displayed in coming forward to strengthen the hands of the Government, and to he prepared to resist any aggressions on the part of the Natives, should such nave been contemplated* i I am happy in'being able to assure you that ; there is no probability of your being called upon for actual service, but should such an occasion , arise, I shall feel that I may rely with confi- , dence upon .your support, and I shall be proud to place myself at your head. At the same time I would earnestly impress upon the importance of not doing anything which may . - create unnecessary, alarm, or may destroy the [ confidence of the Natives in our justice and for? , bearance — by leading them to imagine that the purely defensive measures in which you are ' engaged are designed to be afterwards employed , in aggressive warfare. Arthur Edward M'Donogb, Police Magistrate of the Southern District of \ New Zealand, and Cooks Straits. Wellington, June 26, 1843. ! ADDRESS TO THE NATIVES ALLUDED- [ TO IN THE LAST DOCUMENT. l Port Nicholson, June 24, 1843. r Frienps,— Listen to what I the Police Ma-

gistrate of Port Nicholson have to say to you. Remain quiet on the subject of this lamentable event at Wairau ; for I, and all the white people of this place, regret most sincerely this painful occurrence. We are not about to moke war with you. I wish merely to learn the real truth of the whole affair, to submit the same to the Governor, that he may cause it to be investigated. Do not fear that any white man will injure you in the slightest degree. Remain at your several positions, and pursue your intercourse with the people of Port Nicholson as usual. Ail the Chiefs of Port Nicholson fully •understand what I have said above to be our feeling towards them. Friends— This is all I .have to say to you. (Signed) M'Donoqh, Police Magistrate. Port Nicholson, June 24, 1843. Friends, — Listen to the above saying, and >do not mistake. Good is the saying of the white man ; to search out the truth of who is to blame : perhaps it is the white man ; perhaps it is the Maori. Do not spread false reports respecting the matter : do not talk much about it. And let all the Maories at every place know this. From your friends, (Signed) William Tako, Moturoa, POMARE. At the time when the above documents were promulgated by Mr. M'Donogh, he had in his possession the deposition of Mr. Tuckett, one of the suvivors, which differed in every material point from the statement put forth by him ; and the statement he thus thought proper to give to the public was understood to xest on no better authority than a loose hearsay tale collected from the Natives on the coast by a missionary who retailed it to the Police Magistrate. A strong feeling was, naturally expressed by the settlers at the publication of the Native account as an authentic statement, in preference to the solemn deposition of a respectable survivor from the massacre, the more particularly as the former threw all the blame upon the European party, while the latter cleared them of it. The public press called the Police Magistrates attention to it, but without success ; and it was not till the return of Col. Wakefield from the investigation in Cloudy Bay, some weeks after its promulgation, that Mr. M'Donogh was induced to notice the subject. The following correspondence then ensued: — " Wellington, 15th July, 1848. Sir, — My attention has only this moment been called to an address, published by you, to the British Settlers in Cooks Straits, relative to the late affair at Waiiau, in which you declare your conviction that "the affray was not the result of premeditated design on the part of the Nttlveifc but th*t, on the contrary l , th*y sought by every means to avert it, and did not fire a a shot until five of their party had fallen, including the- wife of Rangihaeata, who at the moment bore his own son in her arms." As you have now received authentic information, from the depositions taken by the Magistrates at Cloudy Bay, in corroboration of Mr. Tuckett's evidence, which you then had, that " after an accidental shot from a white man, a volley was discharged from each party," I trust you will see fit to correct the statement in your address. Sanctioned by your official character it is oalculated to have weight with the public in England, and to greatly distress the relatives of our unfortunate countrymen who have fallen and who, it is distinctly proved, had no intention of commanding an unprovoked attack upon the Natives, as is implied in the passage of your address which I have quoted. I have the honor to be, Sir, Your obedient humble servant, (Signed) W. Wakefield. To A. E. M'Donogh, Esq., Police Magistrate. Wellington, 14th July, 1843. Sir, — I do myself the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of yesterday's date, calling upon me to correct that portion of my address to the inhabitants of Cook's Straits, relative to the late melancholy affair at Wairau, in which I stated, as being my conviction, that " the affray was not the resxilt of premeditated design on the part of the Natives, but that, on the contrary, they sought by every means to avert it, and did not fire a shot until five of their party had fallen, including the wife of Rangihaeata, who at the moment bore his own son in her arms." •In answer to which, I beg you clearly to understand, that at the time I published the above address, it was my firm belief, from all information I had then been able to collect, that every thing therein contained were facts. However, from the depositions taken by the Magistrates on the spot, which documents have since been placed in my charge, I find from a careful perusal of them, that I had been misinformed on the following points, namely — that five of the Natives had not fallen previous to their returning the fire, neither does it appear at what period of the conflict Rangihaeata's wife was accidently shot, who it is proved had not at the time an infant in her arms. I likewise find by those documents that no order was given by the Europeans to fire on the Natives, but that the general conflict originated from an accidental shot from one of the European party. Trusting., that the above communication (which you have my full consent to give publicity to) will in some measure alleviate the grief of the relatives of our unfortunate and .ever to be lamented countrymen who met so untimely a death. ' I hjave the honor to be, Sir, Your most obedient humble servant, (Signed) Arthur E. M'Donoqh. Police Magistrate. •Colonel Wakefield, Principal Agent of the' New Zealand Company.

Much .stress has been laid upon the accidental death of the woman alluded to in the above documents. That she had a child in her arms is we believe untrue ; and that she was a favourite wife of Rangihaeata, or stood in a relation towards that chief calculated to touch by her death any feeling in his breast except covetousness, is generally disbelieved. It is stated on very good authority that she had till very shortly before the ' Massacre been living with a party of whalers, an arrangement by which the chiefs gain a profit, but to which they never subject a wife of any character, or for whom they have any regard. He had just removed her (as it is stated) from one whaling party in order to barter her to another, which accounted for her being in his company. She was so little regarded as a wife of Rangihaeata, as to be known among the whalers as Mrs. — , the name of the party with whom she had long cohabited. The true ground of the cold-blooded Massacre which occurred after the encounter, is said to have been the natural ferocity of Rangihaeata, and a feeling (expressed by him) that as he and Rauparaha would certainly suffer for what they had already done, it became them as chiefs to have payment for their own anticipated deaths, in the blood of the Chiefs of the white party ; a feeling which is known to accord with their usual habit of thinking. On the arrival of the Victoria in Port Nicholson bringing the sad news of the massacre, and before her departure for Cloudy Bay to enquire into the result, a public meeting was held at the Exchange in Wellington, at which the late lamented George Hunter, Esq., Mayor of the Borough, presided. At this meeting arrangements were made for the defence of the settlement, the nature of which will be best gathered from the report of the Committee of Public Safety then appointed, and which was adopted at a subsequent public meeting on the 10th of August. REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY APPOINTED AT THE PUBLIC MEETING, HELD ON THE 19th JUNE, 1843. In laying before this Meeting an account of the manner in which the Committee of Public Safety, has hitherto executed the trusts reposed in it, it is necessary to call to recollection the proceedings of the Public Meeting held on the 19th June last, at which your Committee was appointed. At that Meeting his Worship, -the latfr* lamented Mayor of the Borough, being in the Chair, a resolution was passed to the effect, that Memorials should be prepared and forwarded to her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies, to the Auckland Government, and to Sir George Gipps, the Governor of New South Wales, detailing the melancholy news of the massacre of the Chief Police Magistrate of 'Nelson, and his assistants, in the execution of the Queen's warrant, and setting forth the defenceless state of the Settlements in Cook's Straits, and praying that immediate protection for life and property, might be extended to them. Your Committee have now to report that such Memorials have been prepared by them, and that those addressed to the Local Government, and to the Governor of New South Wales, have been forwarded to their respective destinations ; that addressed to the Home Government, will be forwarded according to the official rule, through the Local Government. To the Memorial forwarded to the Local Government, the following reply has been received: — ~ Addressed to the Worshipful the Mayor of Wellington, dated Colonial Secretary's Office, Auckland, July 10, 1843. and signed, William Connell. Sir, — I have had the honor to receive and to lay before the Officer Administering the Government, the Memorial from the Inhabitants of Wellington, forwarded by your letter of 28th ultimo., and in reply I am commanded by his Excellency, to convey to you the expression of his deep regret at the disastrous nature of the intelligence contained therein, and at the same time pis assurance that every means at the disposal of the Government, shall be used for the effectual maintainance of the tranquility of the town. With this view the Company of the 96th Regi • ment, quartered at Auckland, is under orders to proceed in the Government Brig to Port Nicholson, a measure which it is hoped will relieve the memoralists from any apprehensions, and restore that confidence between the Natives and the Europeans which hitherto existed. For the expressions contained in the Memorial, and for the offer to place at the disposal of Government their " best means and energies to { carry out any measures which may be deemed advisable on this trying occasion," I have to return to the subscribers his Excellency's best acknowledgements, and I am earnestly to recommend to them a continuance of that forbearance, which has up to the present moment, been attended with such beneficial results in their district, and a departure from which by a body of the Settlers at Nelson, has brought about the recent fatal occurrence. A fact exists in connexion with these. Memorials, to which* your Committee think proper to advert. The Corporation of this

Borough deputed three of the Local Magistrates, to request of the Police Magistrate Mr. M'Donogh, copies of the depositions taken before himself and some of the local Magistrates relative to the massacre; two applications were in consequence made by the Deputation, tKe first a request that copies might be furnished them — the second that they themselves might take copies ; both of which were refused ; had the copies been granted your Committee might probably have had access to them, and have been able to prepare the Memorials fromthe most authentic source of information. Your Committee are not aware on what ground these applications were refused, but have heard a fear expressed lest exparte statements should get abroad; but if this was the ground of refusal, it comes with a bad grace from Mr. M'Donogh, who published on authority as the most authentic version of the massacre a loose hear-say tale of the natives, at the time when the solemn depositions of Mr. Tuckett one of the survivors taken before himself and other Magistrates distinctly contradictory of the Native tale was in his possession ; and which Native statement he has since seen reason fully to retract. In the absence of more ample information your Committee have to express their obligation to Dr. Dorset, who was present at the examination of the witnesses at Cloudy Bay, and who kindly communicated its substance to your Committee. Pursuant to another resolution passed at thej Public Meeting, your Committee took immediate measures for the best defence ' of the settlement which circumstances enabled them to provide ; for this purpose, the town of Wellington was divided into three districts. The number of men desirous of bearing arms in each, and the quantity of arms in their possesion was ascertained ; and the concurrence of Mr f M'Donogh the Police Magistrate having been obtained, a large proportion were sworn in by him, and other Magistrates, as Special Constables. Corps were then formed in each district, under the command of Major Durie, Major Baker, and Captain Sharp ; the Wellington Rifle Club was added to the forces, and the whole united body placed under the command of Major Durie ; such members of the force as did not possess arms were furnished with them, under the express direction of Mr. M'Donogh, from the stores of the New Zealand Company. Daily drills, and weekly musters of inspection ,siave_taken -place. The total number of men Enrolled is 669, the number nsually attending muster between 300 and 400. Your Committee have also to report that a Battery has been erected on Clay Hill, under the superintendance of Captain W. M. Smith, R.A., and three guns placed therein. Another Battery on Thorndon Flat was in. progress at the period of the arrival of the military from Auckland, but has not been proceeded with since. In carrying into effect these preparations for defence, your Committee appointed a military Sub-Com-mittee, consisting of Captain Daniell, Captain Sharp, Captain Smith, Major Baker, Major Hornbrook, Captain Robinson, Dr. Dorset, and Mr. Lewis, to whose activity and ability the rest of your Committee beg to bear testimony. An application has been made by Captain Smith, at the request of your Committee, to Mr. M'Donogh the Chief Police Magistrate, to ascertain whether the Government would pay the expence incurred in the erection of Batteries, and the purchase of a small quantity of gunpowder and ammunition which it had been thought expedient to provide ; as regards the Clay Hill Battery and the ammunition, Mr. M'Donogh declined pledging the Government, but said he would transmit the bills to Auckland. As regards the Thorndon Battery, the Police Magistrate undertook to charge Government with the cost of its completion, provided he was consulted in respect thereto. A local subscription has meanwhile "been entered into to meet the expences, which is now in course of collection. Your Committee will merely advert to the arrival of the' Government brig from Auckland, bringing 58 soldiers of the 96th ,regiment. On the day succeeding that arrival, a letter was received by Major Durie, Commandant of the Volunteer Force, signed by the newly appointed Chief Police Magistrate, Major Richmond ; which was immediately laid by Major Durie before your Committee, of which the following is a copy. Dated Wellington, July 25, 1843. (Signed) M. Richmond. Addressed to W. S. Durie, Esq. Sir, — In compliance with your request, I herewith transmit, in writing, the communication I made verbally to you yesterday, it was in substance as follows :— That as a sufficient force had arrived from Auckland for the protection of the town, it was no longer necessary for the inhabitants to assemble for that purpose ; this I requested you, as the head of the armed associations, to convey to them, and likewise to add— "that as I found Mr.. M'Donogh had enrolled the names of all who had so promptly come forward to aid the civil power during the

excitement created by the late melancholy affair at Wairau, I should retain the list, and be happy, to avail myself of their services aa Special Constables, in the event of any emergency occurring which required it." I feel persuaded that you will cause my wishes oh this subject to be attended, without further delay. I have the honour to be, &c. Your Committee held 'a meeting on the 26th of July last, when, on the perusal of this letter, and of that received from the Auck- , land Government, in reply to the Memorial | as before reported, the following resolutions were passed :—: — Proposed by Dr. Dorset, and seconded by W. Fox, Esq., and carried unanimously— j Resolved — That this meeting does not consider 53 soldiers adequate to protect life and property in the Town of Wellington, and suggests the propriety of a general meeting of the Magistrates being called,to consider whether I the Settlers can in safety lay down their arms. Proposed by Major Baker, and seconded by Major Hornbrook, and carded unanimously — Resolved — That this meeting cannot separate without deprecating in the strongest terms the uncourteous manner in which the Corps of Volunteers for the defence of' Wellington, in support of her Majesty's Government, and raised by/ consent of the Police Magistrate, has been attempted to be disbanded. Proposed by John Smith, Esq., and seconded by W. Lyon, Esq., Alderman, and carried unanimously — Resolved— That this meeting dissents from the opinion expressed by his Excellency administering the Government, in his communication addressed to the late Mayor of Wellington, that the melancholy event at Wairau was the act of the Settlers at Nelson, as the evidence shews, that it arose out of an attempt to execute a warrant issued by the Police Magistrate of that place. Proposed by Edward Johnson, Esq., and seconded by Capt. Rhodes, and carried unanimously — Resolved — That a Sub-Committee be appointed to draw up a report of the proceedings of the General Committee, to be submitted to a public meeting, and that his Worship the Mayor ac requested to call a public meeting at the Exchange at an early day, to receive such" report; and that such Committee consist of Wm. Guyton, Esq., Mayor, Doctor Dorset, Win. Fox, Esq. and E. Johnson, Esq. In pursuance of the last of which resolutions, this Meeting has been convened by his Worship the Mayor. Your Committee beg likewise to state, that they have added some Members to their aiumbers, and thsA it at present consists of following gentlemen, viz. — W.Guyton, Mayor, J.P. J. Lewis, Captain Daniell, J.P. J. Watt, W.Fitzherbert,Al.J.P. R. Park, W. Lyon, Alderman, N. Levin, J. Johnson, Alderman, Geo. Hunter, It. Waitt, Alderman, K. Bethune, Captain W. M. Smith, ' C. Suisted, It. A., J.P., H. Boss, Major D. S. Durie, C. Penny, Major R. Baker, J. Boulcott, Major Hornbrook, B. Polhill, Captain Robinson, K. Mathieson, Captain Sharp, W. Fox, Captain Rhodes, A. Hort, sen., Hon. J. Dorset, M.D., Aid., Secretary. fri consequence of a proclamation which has appeared under the hand of the present Chief Police Magistrate, stigmatising the musters of the volunteers as illegal assemblies ; and which though subsequently retracted, may meet the eye of many who may not see the retraction, your Committee feel bound in this most public manner to state, that their proceedings have had the full concurrence of the late Police Magistrate Mr. M'Donogh, until he was superseded, by the arrival of Major Richmond, as well -as of the late lamented and present Mayor of Wellington, and of all the local Magistrates who are not in the employ of Government ; many of whom are members of the various corps, and have taken a most active part in the assemblies stigmatised as illegal. At the meeting at which the Report above printed was received and adopted, W. Eitzherbert, Esq., Alderman, in the chair, (the Mayor being absent through illness,) the following resolutions were passed unanimously :: — ■ 1. That this Meeting considers the accounts of the late lamentable affair at Wairau, published by the Auckland Government and its representatives, as incorrect and unjust— That it is not true that that 'affair was merely " a contest between armed Settlers from Nelson and a body ' of Natives," nor that, " both parties were in the wrong," but that the evidence in the hands of the Government at the time those false accounts were published, proves distinctly that it was an act of resistance to the Queen's autho- . rity, and a savage massacre of those who were lawfully and officially engaged in maintaining it; and that this Meeting agrees with the inhabitants of Nelson, in their expressions of disapprobation at all attempts to gloss over or palliate the savage enormity of the crime committed. 2. That this meeting considers 53. soldier* a" totally, insufficient protection for the settlements in Cook's Straits, or even for Wellington alone, and regards the attempt to put down the volunteer Force of this settlement as imprudent and uncalled for, and that this meeting requests the Committee of safety to take the opinion of the Local Magistrates upon the propriety of the

Volunteers continuing to meet and drill as heretofore. 3. That this meeting expressesits surprise and regret at the haste evinced by the Police Magistrate, Major Richmond, in the attempt to put down the Volunteer Force, and' at the arbitrary manner in which he proceeded to do so without consulting the Local Magistrates who had authorized its formation, or even intimating to them his arrival in the settlement; overstepping thereby the limits which both the law and Magisterial courtesy prescribed to the exercise of his official authority. 4. That this meeting regards the issuing of a Proclamation, signed by the Chief Police Magistrate, designating as "illegal assemblies" those musters for drill of the Volunteer Force, which had the sanction of the late Police Magistrate, the late and present Mayor of Wellington, and all the Local Magistrates not in the pay of Government, as a gross insult to the inhabitants of this settlement; and that the apology offered by a public officer enjoying a public salary that the false allegation wai made '• inadvertently," is as insulting as the charge itself. 5. That the refusal of the late Police Magistrate to allow depositions to the Local Magistrates who applied for the same, at the request of the Corporation, was unjustifiable, and this Meeting begs to express its thanks to the authorities of Nelson, for the copies of depositions taken by them, and forwarded to the Mayor of Wellington for public use. 6. That this Meeting frankly but firmly declares it as its opinion, that the system hitherto pnrsued of delaying to settle the Land Claims of the Settlements in Cook's Straits, not an acre of -which has yet been adjudicated upon, has been the primary cause of the recent lamentable events, and at this moment is ruining most valuable Colonists, and that is not enough to be told after four years delay, that the very simple question of value, of 150,000 acres of land, and how much has been paid for it, could not have been ascertained after going over the ground, in a few hours. And this Meeting believes, that it was the paramount duty of the "Governor to have seen that it was settled, even should it have required his personal presence, and is well convinced that it will be so considered, in other lands, as it is here, to be a denial of justice.

7. That this Meeting is of opinion that a wise and judicious policy and in the end an economical one, would have suggested a force of ut least 500 men, which would have enabled the Local Government both to protect, and to open by their means a road through the interior of ..the country, the utility and importance of which cannot be disputed.

8. That the thanks of this Meeting be tendered to the gentlemen composing the Committee of Public Safety, for the manner in which they 'have exercised their office, and that they be requested to continue the same, watching with especial jealousy all attempts made by the .Police Magistrate and the other Government functionaries to encroach upon .the legitimate 'powers of-tho Local Magistracy. 9. That a copy of the foregoing resolutions be forwarded to his Excellency the Officer Administering the Government, to be by him transmitted to her Majesty's Secretary of State for the Colonies, and that copies be also sent to the Sheriff of Nelson, and the Chairman of the Benches of Magistrates at Wanganui and New Plymouth, and to Auckland and Bay of Islands.

The attempt of the Police Magistrate to put down the volunteer forces, alluded to iv the above report, naturally gave great dissatisfaction to the Settlers. The very small number of soldiers sent from Auckland, could in case of tin attack from the Natives, have done no more than defend their own position. Under any circumstances 400 trained volunteers would have proved a great assistance to the regular troops, particularly in opposition to the Natives, who think little of military discipline, and only count musket for musket. The forces had been formed under the directions of the previous Police Magistrate, the Mayor of Wellington, and nearly all the Local Magistrates ; they had been guilty of no irregularities ; their sole object was to afford protection to their wives and families whom Government had left unprotected, and no reason could be discovered, why such a summary attempt should be made .to put them down. It was known also that the Police Magistrate had no lawful power to act as he attempted ,in opposition to the sanction and authority of the other Magistrates. Till, however, the opinion of those Magistrates could be taken drilling was discontinued. But the very next day a Proclamation appeared under the hand of the Police Magistrate, of which the following is a copy :—: — PROCLAMATION.

Whereas divers Persons in the Borough of Wellington have unlawfully assembled together for the purpose of being trained and drilled to arms, and of _ practising Military Exercises : Now I have it in command from his Excellency the Officer Administering the -Government, to give notice, that if any persona whatever shall henceforth so unlawfully assemble, for the purposes aforesaid, or any of them, in the Borough of Wellington, or elsewhere, in the Southern District of New Ulster, the assemblage of such persons will be dispersed, and the Persons so unlawfully assembling will be proceeded against -according to law. Dated this 26th July, 1843. M. Richmond, Chief Police Magistrate.

This charge of illegal assembling brought against the Settlers, -who had acted with the concurrence of all the lawful authorities in the place, and whose only object was to defend their lives and property, and to maintain the Queen's authority, excited sufficient indignation, which led to the subsequent retraction jof tn« charge in the following letter —

To the Editor of the " New Zealand Gaztttt and Wellington Spectator." Sir, —In the, Proclamation issued by the Chief Police Magistrate, giving notice that any future assemblies for the purpose of drilling will be put a stop to, the former assemblies for that purpose are characterized as unlawful. As my attention has been called to this expression, I feel bound, in justice to Major Richmond, to state that its use is solely attributable to myself, and that it was used inadvertently. I am, Sir, your obedient servant, R. Davis Hanson, C.P.

July 28, 1843. This Proclamation and retraction are what are alluded to at the conclusion of the above report. The necessity for a militia or an armed Police force, has been apparent from the .first foundation of the Colony. Successive Colonial Ministers, as well as Sir George Gipps, while the Colony was dependent on New South Wales, sanctioned and encouraged the formation of such bodies. The neglect of the Local Government on the subject is most culpable. Not a step towards affording any protection to the 10,000 Settlers in Cook's Straits, has ever been taken. The following extracts from the dispatches of Lord Normanby, Lord John Russell, and Sir George Gipps, prove what were their sentiments oir the point: — Lord Normanby says, 15 August, 1839, — I am perfectly aware of the great advantage which you might derive from a military force, and of the inconvenience to which the want of it may expose you. This however is a difficulty which must be encountered. It is impossible at the present time to detatch any of her Majesty's troops to New Zealand, nor can I foresee any period at which it will be practicable to supply that deficiency. It will probably therefore be necessary to raise a militia, or to embody an armed police. But this is among the questions which must be reserved for consideration after your arrival, and upon which it will be your duty to consult with the Governor of New South Wales. Blue book, 1840. Sir George Gipps, the Governor of New South Wales, contemplated the establishment of a militia so far as to provide instructions relating to the appointment of its officers. Blue book, 1841, p. 4. Lord John Russell also says, "It appears to me that the establishment of a militia would be a beneficial measure, but on this subject I propose to address you in a separate dispatch. In the meantime, I wish you to consider the prasticability of forming a small body of Police, armed similarly to the police force of Ireland, and on whom dependence might be placed. — Dec. 25, 1840. Blue book 1841, p. 23. Some of the Natives resident in and about Wellington, have shewn considerable alarqj lest Itauparaha, should avenge himself upon them for their adherence to the Settlers ; and they are so satisded of the inability of the latter to protect them in case of any such attempt, that a number of them have lately sailed on board the Brigand, for the New Hebrides, in the hope of finding a refuge there ; and in the case of their doing so, it is understood that the rest of the tribe will follow. The fact is mentioned to shew the opinion the Natives entertain of our unprotected state ; and of the power of the hostile tribes. | By the Government brig, when she brought the detachment of Soldiers and the New Police Magistrate, copies of the Government Gazette arrived, containing the following Proclamations, which were speedily dissemminated among the Natives — PROCLAMATION. By his Excellency Willoughby Shortland, Esquire, the Officer administering the Government of the Colony of New Zealand and its dependencies, and Vice Admiral of the same, &c, &c, &c. Whereas, it is essential to the well being of this colony, that confidence and food feeling should continue to exist between the two races of its inhabitants, and that the Native owners of the soil should have no reason to doubt -the good faith of her Majesty's solemn assurance that their territorial rights would be recognized and respected. Now, therefore, I, the Officer administering the Government, do hereby publicly warn all persons claiming land in this colony, in all cases where the claim is denied or disputed by the original Native owners, from exercising acts of owner-ship thereon, or otherwise prejudicing the question of title to the same, until the question of ownershipshall have been heard and determined by one of her Majesty's Commissioners appointed to investigate claims to land in New Zealand. Given under my hand, and issued under the Public Seal of the Colony, at Government House, Auckland, this twelfth day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-three. Willoughby Shortland, the Officer administering the Government, by his Excellency's command, (for the Colonial Secretary,) William Connell. God save the Queen J Mr. CLARKE'S PROCLAMATION. The brig Victoria has arrived from Port Nicholson — the horizon is dark, the day exceedingly dark. News from above has reached stating that a conflict has taken place between the natives and Europeans — some have fallen on both sides— with us both parties are wrong, according to the laws both of God and man. The particulars of the conflict, in which Europeans and Natives have fallen, we ar,e not in full possession of, but we are seeking information as to the origin of the affair — for this purpose the Governor had sent some officers to the Natives in order that he may hear what they have to say, and thereby be fully acquainted with the circumstance. Let us wait to hear the correctness and truth of this matter ; until which do not let us prejudge. " To us ihsj

appear both wrong — blood has been spilt on both sides. It is cause of great regret that the blood of our fellow creatures should be shed.

The Natives and the Europeans both agree that the origin of this quarrel, (in which twenty lives have been lost,) was" about land. Island more valuable than the life of man ? The Europeans of Fort Nicholson say that Rauparaha and Rangihaeata proposed that Mr. Spain and Mr. Clarke should settle the case concerning the land ; after which they tore np the flags, threw down the poles, that had been set up for marks, burnt down the Surveyor's houses, and sent him and his men off the land. This led the Surveyor to the residence of the Europeans — to the Police Magistrate, informing him that the Natives had not kept their word in leaving the matter to the Commissioner ; at which the Police Magistrate and the constables went to take Rauparaha and Rangihaeata to the residence of the Europeans, to investigate the case. But Rauparaha and Rangihaeata did not yield to the summons ; they would not go. Then the Police Magistrate called the armed men to come forward and arrest them. Just at this time a gun was fired from the Europeans, and a conflict ensued, in which several fell on both sides. Captain Wakefield observing this, called out " cease shedding blood." The Europeans laid down their arms, stood still ; some of tlie natives did likewise, suupposing that tne conflict was over. — At this time Rangihaeata, as the Europeans say, came up from the pursuit, enraged at the loss of his wife, and thereupon slew with his own hand several European gentlemen. The Natives' tale is as follows : — That they had never sold the lands, it is their own land j and that when they saw the flags and marks erected, supposed that their land was taken from them ; they therefore pulled them down, in order that the Europeans might understand thereby they had not sold their lands, or promised to do so. In their estimation it was presumption on the part of the Surveyors to erect houses, to cut lines on lands that did not belong to them, and they considered they had a perfect right to do as they pleased with what was growing or standing on their own lands. The Surveyors would not listen to their remonstrances, and therefore they burnt the hut. They had no intention to fight, nor had they a thought that way ; — it was the sight of the guns, the firing of the Europeans, and the falling of their friends that aroused them, and call every body to witness that it was the Europeans who commenced, by killing three Natives, and they returned the fire, and the struggle began. But there is one feature in this affair peculiarly bad in the estimation of the Europeans — the conduct of Rangihaeata towards the gentlemen who, it is said, had surrendered, supposing the fight to be over — at his killing them thus, the Europeans are horrified. Now, the Europeans and Natives have, for four years, lived together very quietly, and in order to continue peace and maintain that good feeling, the Governor has sent down some troops to prevent the necessity of either Europeans or Natives carryiug arms — they are alike for the protection of Natives as well as Europeans. That promise that was made to you by the late Governor your lands, will be strictly adhered to. The Governor says, the lands you have not sold, shall not be taken from you — quietly leave your lands to be settled by the Commissioner, who shall decide equitably. I am comma uded by the Governor to write you this assurance, and call your special attention to his Proclamation in anot her part of this paper. George Clarke, Chief Protector of Aborigines. It was naturally to be expected that such documents as the above, particularly as the first, would operate as an official invitation to the Natives to commence further aggressions. A day or two after their publication in Wellington such aggressions took place, and respectable industrious Settlers who had cleared several acres on the Hutt, and sown a crop of wheat, were driven off their land by a body of Natives with the Proclamations in their hands. The name of the Settlers alluded to is Manson, They applied to the Police Magistrate at Wellington, who refused to take any steps to reinstate them. The Natives threaten to pursue the same course with other Settlers, and nothing but habits of forbearance towards the Natives has prevented these Proclamations leading to extensive bloodshed* The fact asserted in the Chief Protector's Proclamation, that " both parties were in the wrong," is certainly not borne out by the evidence ; unless, indeed, those are in the wrong who obey the lawful command of a Magistrate to aid him in executing a warrant. The statement that " the Europeans say" that Rangihaeata massacred the survivors of the encounter with his own hands, is also untrue. The fact rests not on the authority of the Europeans, but is found in the depositions of two Natives who were present at its execution, and no European witness, it is believed, deposed to the fact. Of course the testimony of the Natives against their own Chief is strongest. It should be . remembered that, when this and the other false statements were promulgated, correct information was in the possession of those who promulgated them. Petitions to* her Majesty and the two Houses of Parliament have been prepared, in pursuance of a resolution passed at a meeting of the Council of the Borough, and are in course of signature — the following are copies of them — To her most gracious Majesty Victoria, Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, P of the Faith, the humble Petition of the undersigned Inhabitants of the Borough of Wellington, in New Zealand, and the neighbourhood. Shewkth, — That the European population of New Zealand amounts to about 13,000 persons. That about 10,000 of these reside on the shores

of Cook's Straits and the southern part of the Northern Island, so near together as to possess a common interest, and to form one community. That the other 3000 persons are resident at -Auckland, Hokianga, the Bay of Islands, and other places from 400 to 500 miles northward of Cook's Straits ; that they have scarcely any common interests with the Settlers in Cook's Straits, and cannot be regarded as the same community. That the only means of communicating between Cook's Straits and Auckland is by sea, and that the voyage there and back occupies from one to two months, rendering the distance between the two equivalent in practise to betwten 2000 and 3000 miles at the ordinary rate of travel. That the Settlements in Cook's Straits were founded first ; and that Auckland was not selected as the seat of Government till more than a year afterwards. That it is impossible that the Settlements in Cook's Straits should be well governed by an Executive Government resident at Auckland, and a Legislative Council in which they have no representative. That the community in Cook's Straits have contributed in taxes to the expence of the Colonial Government, at the rate of nearly j£12,000 a-year, nearly the whole of which has been carried to Auckland and there expended, without any advantage being derived from its expenditure by those who contributed it. That certain disputes relating to the title to Lands hav.e arisen between the Settlers and the Natives. That a Commission was appointed by your Majesty in the year 1841, to adjudicate on the disputed claims. That in the neighbourhood of Auckland upwards of 600 claims have been disposed of, but not one in the neighbourhood of Cook's Straits. That in consequence thereof the Settlers on the shores of Cook's Straits, have been prevented from cultivating the lands they purchased before leaving England, and have been obliged to live on the produce of foreign countries while their capital has been wasted and themselves nearly ruined. That a Police Magistrate in the act of exeeating a lawful warrant, and upwards of 20 other persons lawfully aiding him therein, (among whom were several Magistrates of the territory, a Crown Prosecutor, a Chief Constable, a Commander in your Majesty's Navy, and a Captain in your Majesty's Army,) have recently been massacred on the shores of Cook's Straits, by an armed body of Aborigines resisting your Majesty's lawful authority. That previously to the late massacre it was known to your Majesty's Government, at home and in the Colony, that differences had arisen and aggressions been threatened by the Natives. That notwithstanding this, all the military forces in the Colony were kept at Auckland, where no hostile demonstration had been made by the Natives,, and not one soldier was afforded for the protection of Cook's Straits. That had a military force, however small, accompanied the Police Magistrate who fell in the massacre, it is generally believed that that event would not have'htfppened. ' '; your Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State for the Colonies have sanctioned and encouraged the formation of a Militia and an armed Police Force in this Colony, but that the Local Government has taken no steps towards the execution of these views. That the only Police Force in Cook's Straits consists of a few petty Constables in each Settlement, (in Wellington 12 in number), who are not the slightest protection against the Natives. That the primary cause of all the evils under which your petitioners suffer and pf the late massacre, has been the non-settlement of the Land Claims, and the want of an independent Government. That the annual expense of the Protectorship of the Aborigines, is about j£3,000 a year, while not one penny is expended in protecting the settlers against the Natives. That your petitioners believe that not one instance can be adduced of any aggression committed by settlers in Cook's Straits upon a Native. That the Protector and Sub-Protectors are persons totally unfit for the offices they fill, and that instead of having contributed to the mutual harmany of the two races, they have exercised an influence over the natives, which we believe, to have led in a great degree to the hostile state of feeling now existing, and the late unhappy events. That immediately after the late Massacre, the Settlement of Wellington was threatened with an attack from the tribes who had been engaged in it, and that in consequence a body of Volunteers was enrolled, armed and trained to military exercises, under the express direction of the Police Magistrate, the Mayor of the Borough, and several of the Magistrates of the Territory. That, in a month afterwards, a Proclamation was issued by the Police Magistrate, stigmatizing these musters as illegal, and threatening to disperse them. That this charge of their illegality has been retracted, and admitted to be false. That erroneous accounts of the Massacre were promulgated by the Police Magistrate, which have also been retracted and admitted to be false. That a Proclamation has been issued by the Chief Protector of Aborigines, containing false statements, which has not yet been retracted. That when the false statements alluded to were promulgated, the parties who promulgated them had in their possession true accounts of the events they referred to. That a Proclamation has been issued by the Officer Administering the Government, which was calculated to act as an official invitation to the Natives to commence further aggressions, which with the Proclamation in their hands they have actually done, and driven industrious Settlers in consequence off their lands. i That your Petitioners have always been and will continue loyal subjects of your Majesty, and will endeavour, as their fellow Settlers endeavoured at Wairau, to support and maintain your Majesty's lawful authority in their Islands. <■ That your Petitioners therefore pray that your Majesty will be pleased to enquire into the true state of this Colony, to vindicate the memory of the dead and the character of the living from the obloquy which has been cast upon them, to visit with just punishment them who have broken the law or abused the offices to which your Majesty

has appointed them, and to- take such measures for the protection of your Pstitioaers and the ad.•vancement of their welfare, as to yotfr Majesty may seem wise and expedient. And your Petitioners will ever pray, &c, TO THE RIGHT HONORABLE THE LORDS SPIRITUAL AND TEMPORAL IN PARLIAMENT ASSEMBLED, The humble Petition of the undersigned the Mayor, Aldermen, Councillors, and other Inhabitants of the Borough of Wellington, in New Zealand, and the neighbourhood, Sheweth,— That your Petitioners are resident at, and in the immediate neighbourhood of Wellington, in New Zealand, on the northern shore of Cook's Straits, that the British population resident on the shores of Cook's Straits, and on the southern coast of the Island of New Ulster, as far northward as New Plymouth, is computed, to amount to ten thousand persons or thereabouts. That this population is surrounded by, and intermixed with the Aboriginal Inhabitants of New Zealand, whose numbers have been calculated at one hundred thousand or thereabouts, who, in the life-time of the existing generation, have been notorious for a character of the utmost ferocity, and who are extensively armed and provided with an abundance of ammunition, in the use of which they are thoroughly acquainted. That, on the formation of this Settlement, the foundation of an amicable intercourse with the Aborigines was laid, based upon the moral influence of the civilized portion of the community, and the moral interests of the two races, to the continuance of which there appeared no prospectof an interruption till the establishment of the Local Government at Auckland in the northern part of this Island. That shortly after the establishment of the Local Government, the Natives, acting partly on their own shrewd observation of the conduct of the Local Government towards the Settlers in Cook's Straits, ana partly, it is feared, instigated by wicked and interested persons, began to regard the Settlers as intiuders and opponents to her Majesty's Government, and relying upon the neglect of that Government towaida the Settlers, they resisted their occupation of the lands, and in many instances, commenced violent aggressions, which, though brought before the authorities in a proper manner, were passed over unreserved. That the result has been the almost entire cassation of the progress of colonization, except iv the immediate neighbourhood of the Towns, and has recently led to the deplorable massacre of a number of British subjects, among whom was a Police Magistrate in the execution of the duties of his .office, That it is in the power of the Aborigines at any time to massacre the whole of the British population in Cook's Straits, and that Rauparaha, the. principal chief engaged in the late lamentable bloodshed, has been known to declare that he will do it. That the< Settlers in Cook's Straits, and on the coast as far- as New Plymouth', have contributed to the expense of the Local Government since its establishment at Auckland the sum of as nearly as can be computed, almost the whole of which has been expended at Auckland, but little benefit being derived from its expenditure by those who contributed to it. That since the establishment of the Local Government at Auckland, it has had at its disposal a considerable body of troops of the line, as your Petitioners are informed, and during part of the time a mounted police has, in addition, been maintained there at a heavy expense. That the British population at Auckland and in all the northern part of this Island, is computed at not more than two thousand five hundred persons, and that the in general amicable footing with the Natives has rendered any protection unnecessary in that district. That from the period of the establishment of the Local Government to the present hour, the Settlers in Cook's Straits have been left without any protection, except the presence of a Police Magistrate and a few constables (in Wellington twelve) in each settlement ; and, inconsequence of the recent alarming events, they have been obliged to prepare for the defence of their lives and property by arming the population, and forming themselves in to corps of military volunteers, which, however, affords little more substantial protection than is derived from the empty display of force in the eyes of the Aborigines. That your Petitioners conceive, that having contributed so largely to the maintenance of the Colonial Government, they are reciprocally entitled, as a matter of right, to the protection of such an ample military force resident among them as may secure their lives and property, and wipe from the British name the dishonourable stain which tarnishes it so long as a large portion of the British population is left unprotected and in imminent peril. Your Petitioners therefore pray that Your Right Honorable House will be pleased to institute an enqury into the unprotected state of the Settlers in Cook's Straits, and to take such steps for providing for their future protection by the residence of an ample armed force among them as shall seem meet. And also, that Your Right Honorable House will provide for such an fcnmediate settlement of the disputed claims to land as may enable the Settlers to occupy that to which they may be entitled. And, lastly, that Your Honorable House will provide means for the' equal administration of British law between the Aborigines and the Settlers. And your Petitioners will ever pray, &c.

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Bibliographic details

ACCOUNT OF THE MASSACRE OF WAIRAU, AND SUBSEQUFNT EVENTS., New Zealand Gazette and Wellington Spectator, Volume IV, Issue 277, 2 September 1843, Supplement

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ACCOUNT OF THE MASSACRE OF WAIRAU, AND SUBSEQUFNT EVENTS. New Zealand Gazette and Wellington Spectator, Volume IV, Issue 277, 2 September 1843, Supplement

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