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Horticulture and Floriculture. — In order that our friends at Wellington may form some idea of the number of persons in the United KingJom who will feel an interest in the progress of the Horticultural Society there, we copy from the critique on Mrs. Loudon's book, in the last number of the Quarterly Review, a paragraph as to the statistics of the subject : — , - "It is "now only thirty-three years since the foundation of the London Society, the first comprehensive institution of its kind. There are now in Great Britain at least two hundred provincial societies, founded more or less upon its model. We find merely in the Gardener's Chronicle for last year, notices of the exhibition of one hundred and twenty different societies. " Everything else connected, with gardening has increased in the like proportion. There was at that time not more than two botanical — and those strictly scientific — periodical works ; there are now at least twenty monthly publications, each entirely devoted to some branch or other of botany or agriculture ; and what may perhaps still more surprise those of our readers who live apart from the influence of the gardening world, there are, or were very lately, published, every week three newspapers, professedly monopolised by horticultural subjects. Even during the last year two new societies have sprung up in the -metropolis — the London Floriculturaliandthe •' Royal Botanic— each taking a line of its own, distinct, though not antagonistically so, from that of any previously formed institution, and both we believe prospering, and likely to prosper." W. — New Zealand Journal. Economical Cadin Passages. — The publication qf two letters from correspondents, on the subject of the reduction of cabin passages, gives us an opportunity of adding a few words to what *we have already written. In the first place we may state, once for all, that, the plan is univer- , sally approved of. We are in a position to hear •* Opinions in all directions — friendly criticisms, that would not be publicly made, often reach our cars—and we can state our belief that the New Zealand Company, in the whole course of its career, has done nothing which is so universally popular as this great leform. We have even heard persons connected with shipping admit, that if a moderate scale of cabin passages could be generally introduced, they themselves would be greatly benefited. But there is an impression amongst them that the class of cabin passengers must " fare sumptuously every day." This we take to be a mistake. The majority have prudence on their side. Plain, wholesome fare, well served, is all that is necessary ; and their real difficulty, as our correspondent Tasman points out, is the invidious distinction between cabin and intermediate passengers, and the conduct of ignorant and vulgar-minded cabin passengers and shipmasters towards the humbler class of passengers, often their superiors in every thing except the imprudent and senseless craving for distinction by the only means within their reach — a lavish expenditure. We admit that many excellent men have not the moral courage to resist this assumption of superiority, aided by ridicule, and even to those who can resist it, it is sufficiently annoying,* and it is for this reason that the abolition of the invidious distinction, by carrying economy into the cabin, will obviate all the heart-burnings to which our correspondent alludes. We hear on all sides that men of " gentle " birth, of refined education and habits, and with means sufficient to command the respect of the vulgar, rejoice in'the opportunity thus afforded them of economising their means, without abatement of substantial comfort or disparagement to their station in life. . The cabin berths in the Phabe are all, or nearly all engaged by person? of great respectability, of whom few, and, perhaps, even none would have taken an intermediate passage, with equal or even superior comforts. We. are not among those who condemn, as unwise, the feeling which recognises such distinctions. A decent pride of station is the parent of many virtues. Men who guard their position in society with watchful jealousy, are not very likely to bring disgrace upon themselves and families, and he who is callous to inferiority of position, even though that inferiority be conventional or ideal, is not likely to be very sensitive touching distinctions which carry with them real degradation. To the right-minded, therefore, the intermediate passage must and ought to give pain, and we have not -the slightest doubt that many who would have been deterred from emigrating, by the necessity of expending £200 or £300 tor the passages of their families, will at once seize the opportunity of placing tbemv selves and families in New Zealand for fcss than half the amount previously necessary,: " ! . We have reason to. believe that the suggestion contained in our last, ; as'to the duty of setting an example, has not been thrown away.- One

or two gentlement who are about to emigrate in the spring have stated to us that on no consideration would they so far neglect the duty which they now consider they owe to the Colonr, as to adopt the expensive mode should the two offer themselves at the same time. They will do all in their power to bring the economical system into good repute, and in both the cases to which we allude, the station of the parties is sufficient to enable them to set ridicule at defiance. It should also be impressed upon the master of the Phabe, that he has a great and honourable duty to fulfil. The execution of an important reform is entrusted to him, and not a word or a sign should be permitted to escape him calculated to exalt expensiveness above economy. , Since our last, we have made some inquiries about the expense of cabin passengers, and we find the reduction of the price to fifty pounds by private shipowners is perfectly practicably. For that sum there need be no reduction in the quantity or quality of the provisions; fresh mutton and pork, poultry, potatoes, even soft bread and milk, indeed every thing that can be pomprised in the phraze good wholesome plain fare, may be served to the cabin table, leaving the passengers to purchase such wine and spirits as they may require, at a fixed tariff. Let us earnestly recommend to shipowners the good policy of adopting this system. It will swell the stream of emigration, and add to tlieir aggregate profits, by leaving a good remunerative freight lor the space occupied by the cabin passengers. As far as one trial can justify a conclusion, so much of this experiment as relates to cabin passengers has admirably succeeded. But this success is nothing to that which may be anticipated, when the system has become extensively known. It takes some time to effect this object. Two, three, and perhap3 even more ships must leave England on the same plan, before the emigrating portion of the public will come to regard the system as irrevocably adopted. Before we close the observations, we venture again to urge upon the Company the necessity of attaching a condition to all their contracts for the conveyance of steerage passengers, that the owners do covenant and agree to take cabin passengers without wine at £50. It may be urged that this would raise the price of the steerage passage. We do not think so. The objection clearly proceeds on the assumption that j650 would not pay the shipowner, and that, therefore, they must make up the deficiency elsewhere. Our posi ion i«, that the difference between £50 and £70 will be made up by doing away with useless luxuries, and the increased numbers who would emigrate at the low sum would, we believe, make the shipowner's aggregate profits greater. Once more inviting the respectable shipowners to co-operate in this matter, we conclude. — Ibid.

Sixth Repoet of the Directors of the New Zealand Company. — 1. This Court of Proprietors having been specially convened for the purpose of considering a dividend, your Directors will confine their Report to the special object of the meeting— reserving, as on former occasions, their general exposition of the affairs of the Company.for the annual meeting in May. >l "- 2. For particular information respecting the assets and liabilities of the Company, your Directors beg to refer you to statement C, appended to their Fifth Report, submitted to you in May last. In paragraph 22 of that Report, directing your attention to the statement iv question, you were apprised that the universal stagnation of enterprise, depressing most seriously every interest connected with the shipping, the commerce, the manufactures, and the general domestic industry of this country, and extending, with still more mischievous effects, to the Australian colonies, had restricted those sales of land— from which, apart from the progressive enhancement of the value of your territorial possessions — the annual income of the Company, must be derived. The six months that have elapsed since the Fifth Report was laid before you, have produced, as you are well aware, no general improvemeinent of the condition of any of the great intererests referred to ; and it would be vain to expect that at a time when the active and industrious classes are struggling with unparalleled difficulties, their attention should be directed towards colonial investments or adventures with the same earnestness as in a period of national- prosperity.

3. In truth, the transactions of this Company are necessarily of such a nature as 1 to render it very unlikely that its returns in money should be steady and equable enough to admit of the payment of a dividend unvarying in amount. Your Directors are convinced that in the adminstration of affairs of such magnitude as those of the Company, it would be the most shortsighted policy to grasp at immediate large profit, at the expense of neglecting the permanent improvement of your possessions ; and they are happy to state that they have been able to give full effect to these views. During the six months under review, whilst emigration to the old Colonies of Australia has been almost entirely suspended, that of this Company has been carried on without interuption,' and up*>n a great scale. The result of these energetic proceedings have been most favorable. The vessels chartered "for the conveyance of free emigrants, have also carried out a large proportion of capitalists, — the employers of labour. The latest accounts from your, settlements represent them as eminently nourishing. Despatches received on the the 6th instant, from Nelson, state that the lands reserved for the Company in that settlement have . already acquired considerable value from the general prosperity of the colonists. , And during the period under review, an arrangement has been made with her' Majesty's Colonial Department, which will add no less than 100,000 acres to your possessions. ' ' ' • 4. Still, as your actual income from the sale of land has been but small i as the general aspect of the times is not yet materially improved: and as it is obviously prudent, under sucbucircumstances, to husband your resources until, there shall be a clearer prospect of- a return of general prosperity; your Directors are dfxopinion that you will dd well to limit the dividend for the half-year-last past to 2| per cent, being at the rate of 5. per cent per -annum. ' They are convinced rthat. by. taking this cautious course;.

you will not only add to their power of carrying on your affairs with energy and advantage ; but that the public at large, contrasting this forbearance with the vigour and magnitude of your measures of emigration, and with the uudiminished support extended to the sett'ements which you have planted; will be disposed to regard your proceedings with increased favour, and to repose the greater confidence in your judgment and integrity. New Zealand House, Oct. 10, 1842. A t the conclusion of the reading the Report, Mr. Lance moved its adoption. He said that he had always objected to the dividend of 10 per cent. : he had hesitated to belong to the Company in consequence of the large dividend, which seemed to put it on a level with the bubble^ companies. The motion was carried unanimously. The Chairman stated, in reply to- questions, that since the formation of the Company's settlements, not fewer than 8,473 persons had beensent by their means. Since the junction of the Plymouth with the London Company, 50,000 acres had been sold in the district of Taranaki. Thanks having been unanimously voted to the. Chairman and Directors, the meeting separated. River Gtist Mills are in universal use on the Continent. There are thousands of them on the Po and the Danube. They may be seen on the Loire and the Garonne, and most probably on many rivers in Germany ; they are of remarkably cheap construction, the power being formed by a water-wheel hung between two boats, and the boats anchored up and down the stream ; thus the descending stream must turn the wheel. The two boats are fastened together by a strong bar before and aft the wheel. The one in which the machinery and grist stones are placed is much the largest. This information m<iy possibly be of use to the ssttlers on the Hutt, on the rivers near Nelson, and on that near the town of Petre. W . — Ibid. Cement. — In many parts of France wellburnt bricks ground to a powder, when mixed with lime, is found a strong- cement, and with it cisterns are lined, which never allow the water to escape, and is used for the same purpose as what is called Roman cement in England, which is made from stones found on the beach of the Isle of Sheppy, and is a discovery of modern years. As this brick cement may he used anywhere, it is mentioned, as it may he of service in New Zealand. W —Ibid. Washerwomen. — The washerwoman, par excellence, is generally a sort of round bundle of a figure, habited in a cotton dress, with short sleeves, provided with a capacious pair of pockets. A mob cap, with a very full border, conceals her tresses when in the suds; and an apron or two protects her from the accidental sprinklings of the wash tub. The effects of her steamy occupation give 3to her physiognomy a par-boiled complexion, relieved occasionally by a rosy hue, which partially tinges her nasal promentory, consequent on certain libations of Geneva, or other strong waters. Her hands are unnaturally white and spongy, arising from the continual immersion in hot water, to which her arduous vocation subjects them. The tongue is peculiarly well hung, and appears indefatigable. She soaps, and rubs, and souses, and rattles on with unabated energy. She is the peripatetic chronicle of domestic intelligence — the snapper-up of uncohsidered trifles, which she ingeniously works up with further particulars, ondits, and rumours, drawing her inferences and conclusions to suit the tnste of her hearers, with all the tact and one-sided policy of one experienced in the concocftion of "impartial news." She is a perfect register of births, deaths, and marriages for the district in which she moves and washes; and, generally speaking, her narrations are about as faithful and veracious as those embellished romances given to the world under the titles of histories. The confidant and adviser of the maids-of all-work, she is looked upon by them in the light of a Prime Minister; for, like that great functionary, she ha 3 always some snug place in her gift, or, as she phrases it, "in her eye," which, although it may prove no sinecure, is still desirable. Her recommendation, however, is by no means disinterested ; for through these humble agents she politically expects to gain a footing in the family, ( and to come in for the " loaves and fishes," in the humble shape of the fragmentary portions of the hospitable hoard ; indeed, '•-wheels within wheels" form the intricate machinery'of her truly political system, selfishness being the main- spring which sets the whole in motion. — Weekly Dispatch. The Archduke Frederic of Austria was in England. /The Government model farm in the Phoenix Park, Dublin, has been sold off, the project turning out to be a complete failure. The los 3 to the Treasury is estimated at £1,000, although free from rent and taxes. It was expected that Parliament would meet for the" despatch of business about the third week- in ' January . .The. large cotton manufactory of Messrs. Pooley, in Ash ton -street, Manchester was destroyed by tire an the 3rd November. The fire broke but about half-past six in the evening, at a time when nearly five hundred persons were at work. All were fortunate enough to make their escape in safety, with the exception of six poor creatures, who were consumed in the flames, and a boy who, in leaping from a window, fell on the edge of a water tub, which injured him so much that he died immediately afterwards. Dr. Turton, the newly elected D. can of Westminster, was installed on the 9th November. Dr. Stopford, the Bishop of Meath, was installed on the 6th of the same month. The whole of the inmates of the Fleet Prison have been removed- to the Queen's Bench. Dr. Charming, the truly great American | writer.-died in October. Sir John Cross, judge of the Court of Review | died suddenly on the sth. of November. i - Hone, the well-known author of the " Every Day Book," died on the 6th. £* Sergeant Spa-nkie i» also, diseased. /. ,

Very heavy gales of wind were experienced on the English coast in the latter end of October. On the night of the 29th, a collision took place between the barque Jackson, bound from Liverpool to Dundee, and another vessel, name unknown. The Jackson went down almost immediately, and five of the crew were drowned. On the night of the 30th a vessel named the Louisa came in collision with a Sweedish brig off Orfordness. The crew of the Louisa, conceiving that their vessel would sink in a short time, escaped in the boats, but some days afterwards she was seen driftingabout in the German Ocean, with no one on | board, and taken in tow by a steamer and brought in safety to Gravesend. On the 4th of November two schooners came in. collision in the channel, and one, named the Reform, went down immediately. The crew escaped. On the same day the Hope wtfs ran down at the enlrance of North Shields harbour. • A person named Bates, of extraordinary size and weight, though not 38 years of age, was buried at Brussels. He was no Iss than forty stone, within five pounds. His coffin was three feet nine inches in breadth, and seven feet nine inches in length. As no hearse of sufficient magnitude could be found to contain it, he was carried to the grave by twelve bearers. The sum levied for poor rates in England for the year ending lady day 1841, was £6,009,564. The rate in the pound on the annual value of real properly assessed in 1841 was, for the whole of England, 2s. The New York papers arc filled with the report of a brutal prize fight which took place within a few miles of the city. The combatants were Tom M'Coy an Irishman, and Christopher Lilly, an Englishman; they fought 120 rounds in two hours and forty minutes, and when time was called M'Coy was found dead.' A magnificent service of plate, weighing about 1,300 oz., has been presented to Sir Moses Montefore, by his Hebrew bretheren, for his exertions in behalf of the persecuted Jews of Damascus, The " floating island, on Derwent Lake has, during the last forty years, appeared upon the surface of the water thirteen times. Its last appearance was in the beginning of the present month, when it was observed to be not quite so large as on former occasions. On Monday sennight the Superb, of 80 guns, was launched from the royal dock-yard at Pembroke, and on the following Wednesday,' 1 the Albion of 90 guns, at Devonport. By a new law there are four grounds on which a devorce may be sued in Prussia, namely, — adultry, drunkenness, abandonment, and unchristian conduct. The population of Moscow, according to the last census, was 350,000 and the value of articles annually manufactured in the city is estimated at -20,000,000 of silver roubles. There has been a protracted drought in Germany ; the grass and clover are burnt up ; the peasantry eagerly sell their live stock; and the greatest tears are entertained of short provisions for tne winter. The steamer Jsis was lost on the 9th November on her voyage from New Providence to England . The steamer Medway beinj at hand, all the passengers and crew, excepting one boy, were saved. The O'Connell Tribute. — The annual collection of the fund to compensate Mr. O'Connell took place on Sunday throughout Ireland. The Dublin returns — the only one received, was £2,033. The few returns from the country received exhibited an advance on last year.— Dispatch. The Elephant and the Turnpike gate. — On Thursday sennight, as Mr. Van Amburgh's elephant was going to Wellington, ready for the next day's performance, on coming to the turnpike-gate, which was shut, the gateman refused to open the gate unless the conductor paid extra toll, which he refusing to do, went through the side-wicket, saying to the elephant, "Jack, I must go without you."' But it was not to be so ; for Jack would be as good as his masterj so, without any ceremony, Jack applied his probascis to the gate, and just eased itself of the hindrance by prostrating the gate in the road, to the no small amazement of the gate-keeper. We understand there was some injury done fo the gate, the expense of which the keeper cheerfully paid. Two glances make a bow, two bows a how d'ye do, four how d'ye do's a conversation, three conversations an acquaintance, nine hundred and ninety-nine acquaintances a friend. "O Julia !" sentimentally exclaimed a young lover, "the first time that you address such hopeless words to me, I will kill myself at your feet.' J> "And what will you do the second time?" was the lady's inquiry.In every civilized country throughout the world the human hair is always found to be a subject of peculiar attention. Of ths numerous compounds professing to promote or reproduce the hair, few have survived — even in name, whilst Rowland's Macassar Oil, with a reputation already unparalleled, is still on the increase in public estimation ; which fact, together with innumerable testimonials (for perusal at the proprietors) is sufficient to satisfy the most incredulous as to its sovereign virtues so repeatedly shown, in restoring, preserving, and beautifying the human hair. In Dressing the Hair, nothing can equal the effects of "ROWLAND'S MACASSAR OIL," on either Natural ot Artificial Hair, rendering it so adttjirahly',soft, that it will lie any direction: it produces .beaufifuj flowing curls, and, by the transcendent- lustre^ it imparts, renders the head dress truly en» chanting; It preserves- the coiffure in the heated atmosphere of the ball room, and neutralizes the effects of a damp oinurfyhore, or violent exercise. . •k Absence os Mjnj>.— -A physician tone time since gave one ©f hi» patients .a piece of brown paper, and the medicin^'into the: fire. He didTiot discover his mistake until th« > ick man began to recover frond hi* illness. ; '-"'

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ENGLISH EXTRACTS., New Zealand Gazette and Wellington Spectator, Volume IV, Issue 236, 12 April 1843

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ENGLISH EXTRACTS. New Zealand Gazette and Wellington Spectator, Volume IV, Issue 236, 12 April 1843

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