£aqteurizing and cream ferments What Makes Danish Batter the Best In the World. J found at Copenhagen two pieces of • dairy apparatus which are not generally known to our American dairymen, and whioh I find in every well appointed aairy in Denmark. One is the Lawrence milk cooler, and the other is a contrivance for heating the milk or cream to a temperature which Mils all or nearly alljbacteria which it may contain. This pocess is here called' "pasteurization^' 7 after the great French scientist, who first called attention to this practical method of killing injurious bacteria. The milk cooler is a hollow metal plate, with corrugated sides. It is abput an jnch. thick and of any size, though usually" about two feet square. It stands on edge, with the corrugation running horizontally. A stream of ice water runs through the inside of the plate, back and forth in a zigzag course, while the cream or milk is poured into a little trough with many fine holes in a row along the bottom, which is placed on the upper edge of the cooler, and from which it spreads in thin sheets over both sides of the cooler, as -it slowly moves to the' bottom. It has the Seat advantage that it is easily cleaned, ice the sides are not covered. There fre other forms of coolers, but in those have so far seen the principle is the Same. This cooler is in general use when the cream is to be cooled rapidly to any desired temperature. The principle of the "pasteurizing" aprratus is equally simple, Steam is let between the double walls of a small barrel shaped tank or resertyir, which contains the cream or milk, and it is so arranged that the cream runs into the machine in a constant stream and out again at the same rate after having attained the desired temperature. A thermometer in the discharge pipe tells how hot it is, and the heat is regulated by admitting more or less steam through the valve on the steam pipe. This, too, is found in every dairy worthy . of the name, and it is considered well nigh indispensable when a fine grade of butter is aimed at. It is essential when an artificially prepared pure, ferment is used for the cream, as it then becomes necessary to Mil all other bacteria the cream may contain before it is added. And this brings me to that point in their dairy practice which above all oth- >. era places the Danes ahead of the rest of £ the world, and which is perhaps the leading secret of the uniformly good quality of their butter. Pure cultures of cream ferments are in common use in all good dairies. I shall not now attempt to describe in detail what a "pure culture" is further than to say that it consists of bacteria, which in causing the fermentation of the cream give the desired flavor and character to the butter, and which have been isolated and artificially cultivated. These "pure cultures" are offered for ***■ g-jfe -J:i£-i--go_or three laboratories, and they have met with the practical dairy-. . man's approval, who, as stated, makes use of them in his daily practice. This l pure cnlture.is used as a starter in skim- + toJlk-jriLa given_temperature, and when We do not profess to know much about ss!t, bnt we do know it to be foolish . economy to use a cheap, untried brand in order to save a few dollars. We have in the market two standard English brands which have stood 20 years' test and at least one American brand which has been used by good makers for the last. seven years. While it is quite possible that there are other brands of American salts in the market which are just as good— indeed we are hearing good reports of two— yet the buttermakers who use unknown salts are experimenting more or less at their own risk. It is well to remember what we once read in a Swedish treatise on salt, "It is not always the most chemically pure salt which is the best preservative." It is also well to remember that salt takes taint easily, and hence great care should be used in handling it, and dealers who use this care should be patronized. This care should especially be shown by the importers of English salts where it is exposed to the vicissitudes of a long journey. — Dairy Messenger. Dairy and Creamery. A co-operative creamery in Chester county, Pa., is so .successful that the plant alone is worth $35,000, employing fiix separators, a laefcocrite and an ice- ] making machine. The shares have dotibled in price, and the butter sells in the Philadelphia market for 89 cents a pound wholesale. The patrons are simply intelligent working farmers who use their brains and hustle. This shows what the co-operative butter factory can do when It is run right. Signal's Idly Flagg, that gave over 1,000 pounds of butter in a year, is not i to be at the Columbian exposition owing to an injury she received. Two cows— Bisson's Belle and Signal's Lily Flagg — are on record as producing over half a ton of butter in a year. From this to the paltry 152 pounds which is the average of the common scrub beast is a long jump. Two prize winners for dairy butter in Illinois are emphatic on the subject of the injury done to butter makers by oleomargarine. They say the dairy prospect Oven in the great, and fertile state pf Illinois is not rosy because of the hurt done honest butter producers by the wretched bog butter. A man who has tried it says that if ensilage is packed highest and closest at the sides it is less liable to spoil than when it is made highest in the middle. The best grade of oleomargarine sells for 25 cents a pound.