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MAORI NOMENCLATURE.

[Continued from last Saturday's Sup- • piemen t] (

MAORI NAMES OF PLACES IN THE PROVINCIAL DISTRICT OF MARLBOROUGH. By W. H. Sherwood Roberts. [Revised and Edited by the Venorablo Archdeacon Grace, of Blenheim. | Note.—The notes and comments by the Yen. Archdeacon Grace, are signed "TS.G." Those by S.Percy Smith, Esci.,"S.P.S." The name Newton was given to a town surveyed in 1848 by the New Zealand Company, where the Borough of Pioton now stands, Governor Sir George Grey having arrranged with the Maoris, to give up the site of their Kaika at Waitohi, and remove to Wai-kawa, the next bay on the east, for £100 in money, an aore of land to be ploughed and sown with wheat, and a wooden church to be built for them at Waikawa. The name Waitohi was altered by the Proclamation constituting the Provinoe of Marlborough on 6th October 1859, when it/was appointed the oapital town, under the name of Picton in memory of General Sir Thomas Picton, who routed Marshal Ney's division at Waterloo. The province was by the same proclamation named Marlborough in ' honour of the Duke of Marlborough, the great general and statesman of the reign of Queen Anne, and who on August 13th 1704 overthrew the French army in the memorable and decisive battle of Blenheim. Pioton was constituted a borough on August 9th 1876, and Mr T-. Williams was its first Mayor. The valley from Picton southward •to the watershed was also named Wai-tohi. The river from the water abed to the Wairau, now called Tuamarina, waa formerly and correctly spelb Tua-marino,probably meaning " rather calm," occasionally written Tua-marina (rather quiet). It is a deep stream about 30 feet wide near where it runs into the Wairau. Koromiko (veronica shrub) is a town and railway station six miles south ol Picton, and Para (sediment) at eight miles. The next bay east of Picton harbour is Wai-kawa (bitter water, oi water unpleasant to the taste) where there was a large Maori Settle ment. The point of land between the two bays, known as the Snout, was Ihu-moeoni (the nose of the grub of the Butcher Beetle, Oicendella.) The point between Waikawa and Whata-mongo Bay is Karaka (the tree Corynocarpus Icevigata). Wbatamongo should be Wbata-mango (a raised stage for sharks). An inlet at the south east corner of Whatamango Bay is Ahu-riri (to foster anger), and a point on tbe eastern Shore Tuna (eel). A email bay north east is Motu-eka, which should be Motu-wekk (grove of the wood hen). Both West and East Bays are named on the 1899- Government map, Kahikatea (white pine tree), but one . is certainly wrong. I waa informed that West Bay is Nga-Ruawhitu (the seven pits). Dieffenback Point at the South west entrance to Tory Channel was named in memory of Ernest Dieffenback, M.D M Naturalist to the New Zealand Company, who visited Queen Charlotte Sound in the Tory in August 1839. The Maori name of the point was Koutou-nui (many of you), but it is spelt Koutunui in error on the 1899 map. Long Island at the entrance to Queen Charlotte Sound, we are told by Captain Cook, was Ha-mote (to suck strong); but the name now usually given is Motu-roa, meaning Long Island. Te Keetu is however used on the 1900 map, but I do not think it is correotly spelt. . Some Maoris call it Te Katua, a full grown animal or bird, and was the name of a man of prediluvian times, -hong Island consists of a sharp ridge of hills, the formation of which is a yellow, argillaceous slate. The general geographical formation of the rocks in Queen Charlotte Sound is a stratified yellow argillaceous slate, or a pepper coloured soft wacke. A email island north of Long Island is Komako-hua (the egg of the Bell , bird). The large island fifteen miles long and two broad, on the the east of the sound is now named Ara-pawa (the Haloids shell fish), but the old name was Aro-paoa (to turn towards the smoke). In some old maps the island was erroneously printed Arapaoa (a smoky path). Its northern point is Cape Kp-amaru meaning shelter—the Ko being only a particle. On the 1900 map it is misspelt Ko-amoru, and the additional name Operuahua given to it. South west of it is Amaru Bay, which may mean a speoies of Metroaideros tree, or dignified. A often is used as a prefix to a proper name, so it may I mean Mr Maru, sometimes as an explanation, when it would mean "Ah! shelter." leg southern head is O-pou Point (place of a post.) The next point is Ti-oriori (to resemble a lullaby). South of it is Oamaru Bay, (tbe place of the Metrosideros tree, or Mr Maru's residence, or tbe place of skelter), where there is a Native Reserve. Then One-hunga Bay. Point Cooper, the north west head of Onehunga Bay was Whaka-uru-hunga, meaning "to associate with a company of persons." An , islet north east of the point is Motungarara (Reptile Island). On the northern portion of Aropaoa there are two hills, Puke-atua (the Hill of God) 1409 feet high, and Kopirauwawa (a top side of a canoe) 1348 feet altitude. About the centre of the island is Narawhia 1885 foot,

, and one near the south west corner Kai-tapelia (a meal of bark) 1268 feet. Clark Point was Pouakatahi, meaning one man-devouring bird. East of it is Onario Point the western head of Ana-toia Bay. The east head is Papa-kura (an insoot so named, or a red glow on the horizon). East of it is Onauku Bay, which probably should be Oneukn (white day beach); but Diffenbftok called the bay Ana-huku (Ann-uku white clay bay). A little south east of Onauku is One pipi (cookie beach). A Kaika on the isthmus there is also One-pipi, south of which ia O-tonga Point (of the south). Mokopeke (a species of lizard) Maori Reserve commences at Otonga Point, and stretches northward along the eastern shore of Onauku Bay. South of East Bay is 0 tena-rua Bay (of that pit), the eastern head being Matiere Point, and the western head Parea (the face turned in another direction). A small bay on the south east shore of Otenarua Bay is Te Aroa (the understanding.) Pickersgill Island, west of Ea9t Bay was Mata-para (obsidian sediment), and Blumine Island was Oruawairau. A bay on Arapaoa Island, epst of Blumine Island, is Whareunga (house where a child is born.) South of Blumine Island is Te Ipapakereru Bay; close to which is Waikakaramea Bay and Ahi-tarakihi Bay (fire for the fish Chilodactylus).^North of the latter is a small island named Amerikiwhati; and south west of it Umu-wheke Bay (oven for cuttle fish.) - About a mile north of the entrance to Tory Channel is Kai tapeha Bay (one who is false.) fl he west head land of Tory Channel is Rua-o-inoko (the lizard's hole). A mile and a half to the eastward is 'Hgaio-nui Point (large Myoporum tree). Then Te Iro (the fly blow) Bay and Native Reserve. Further east are Wiri-waka (trembling crew of a canoe), and Puhe Points. Pube probably should be PubA (betrothred). North of the latter ate a bay and Native Reserve named Ngaruru (abundant, or the shell fißh so named). East of a bay is Toka-karoro Point (sea gull rook). The second point east of it is Te Uira.karapa (the squinting Uira, or the flashing lightning) (May this not be Uira-kanapa lightning flash. T.S G.) Deep Bay was Uru-kuri (dog's hair, or dog's grove, or thicket. T.S.G.) Two miles north east of Deep Bay is the village of Te Awa-iti (the little river). Between Te Awa-iti and 0 kukati Bay (place of a young bird), is the Weke-nui Native Reserve. This name ought to be spelt Whekenui meaning big octopus. East Head, where Tory Channel enters Cook Strait, is Ngatata (split or fissures.) Tory Channel was named after the New Zealand Company's pioneer ship, 400 tons, Captain Chaffera, who sailed his ship through it on 81st August 1839. He was iaformed of the passage by a Maori named Naiti, who came out from England in the Tory, and said that the Maoris always paddled their canoes through the ohanDel, when bound for any southern Kdilca. The Maori name of it is Te Awa-iti (the little river) a name given it in reference to the narrow Tory Channel by the celebrated Hawaiki chief and navigator Kupe, who discovered New Zealand. Kupe named the north eastern entrance to Tory Channel Kura-teau (the red current), for he there killed tne great sea demon, the cuttle fish, named Te Wheke a mutu-rangi. The octopus of Muturangi, a mythical person of ancient days, a direct descendant from Rangi, the Heavenly father of man. The blood of the octopus stained the water all round the canoe, which suggested the name to Eupe. A pa was afterwards built near the entrance on the north side of Tory Channel and given the name of Kura-te-au. It is not correct to call Tory Channel Kura-te-au, as the name referred only to the north east entrance. Captain Cook passed through ,the ohannel in his pinnace, or eight oared boat, on sth November 1774, into Cook Strait and returned to Queen Charlotte Sound. I will quote his own words. " I proceeded to the arm (indioated by the Maoris) which is on the SE. side at a place called Kotieghenooee (? Ko Tiki-nui) we found a large settlement of natives. The chief whose name was Tringoboehe (? Te Ringa-puhi), and his people, whom we found to be some of those who had lately been on board the ship, received us with great courtesy. They seemed to be pretty numerous both here and in the neighbourhood. . . We proceeded down the arm leaving several fine coves on both sides, and at last found it to open into the strait by a channel about a mile wide, in which ran out a strong tide. ... I had little time to make observations, as night was at hand, and I resolved to return on board. On that account I omitted visiting a large Hippa (He Pa) or strong hold, built on an elevation on the north side, and about a mile or two within the entrance. The inhabitants of it, by signs, invited us to go to them ; but without paying any regard to them, we proceeded directly for the ship, which we reached by ten o'clock, bringing with us som9 fish we had got from the natives, and a few birds we had shot." The pa referred to was Kura-te-au. Tory channel ia about ten miles long. The shore is all clay slate formation. In tbe year 1888 H.M. brig Pylorus sailed from Qnoen Charlotte Sound up Tory

Channel as far as Tg Awa-iti settlement, but returned to the sound without going into Cook Strait. A Maori Eailcaand whaling station on the island of Arapawa, about two i miles from the eastern entrance has ! the same name as the channel—Te Awa-iti. It was the first European settlement in the neighbourhood of Cook Strait, and was started by Captain John Guard in 1827, as it was then uninhabited. The honour of having discovered Tory channel was claimed by Guard, as his whaling vessel " The Harriet," was accidentally driven in by a gale of wind and the strong current, when he was endeavouring to sail up Cook Strait. The Harriet, after many years buffeting with the storms and waves, was wrecked near Cape Egmont on 29th April 1884. Guard built a house at Te Awa-iti and lived there for some years, but afterwards removed to Port Underwood, and settled in Guard's Bay, which was named after him. The name Te Awa-ite was corrupted by the whalers into Tar White. It was the birth placQ of the first white child on the Middle Island, John Guard, who was born there in 1831, both his parents being English. Captain Wakefield visited Te Awaiti on Sunday September Ist 1889, and thus wrote:—" After prayers on board, we landed, and visited the whaling town of Te Awaiti. Dicky Barrett's house was on a knoll at the far end of it, and overlooked the whole settlement and anchorage. There were about twenty houses presented to our view. The walls were generally constructed of wattled supplejack, called karrau (intended for kareao) filled in with day, the roof thatched with reeds, and a large unsightly chimney at one of the ends, constructed of either the same material as the walls, or of stones heaped together by rude masonry. 11 Dicky Barrett's house was a very superior edifice, built of sawn timber, Moored and lined inside, and sheltered in front by an ample verandah. A loug room was half filled with natives and whalers. Barrett had been 12 or 15 years in Cook Strait. His wife Te Rangi, a fine stately woman, gave us a dignified welcome, and his pretty halNoaste children laughed, and commented on our appearance to some of their mother's relations in their own language. He had three sons of his own and an adopted one of Jacky Love's. . . . We found Williams', xvhare in the oentre of the town, and Arthur's perched up on a pretty terrace on the side of the northern hill, which slopes from the valley. A nice clean stream runs through the middle of the settlement. . . . The try works are large iron boilers with furnaces beneath. . . In a bay separated by a low tongue of land from the main valley of Te Awaid, we found another whaler named Jimmy Jackson, who had a snug little cove to himself. He wag positively equal in dimensions to Williams and Barrett put together. The obesity of Williams was comfortable, but Barrett was perfectly round all over. . . . There were about twenty five half-caste Children at Te Awaiti." Mr Dieffenbaok wrote :—" Forty European whalers resided at Te Awaici in 1889, Jiving with Maori wives. It was then the principal settlement in the Middle Island. The channel afc-_Te.A-waiti-is-tfaree- railesT wide and from ten to fifteen fathoms deep. " Above Te Awaiti, towards the south west entrance of Tory Channel, separated from Te Awaiti by a high rocky coast are two bays, Wanganui (big bay) and Hoko-kuri, (to barter a dog.) At the latter there was a large Maori settlement. I also visited the Kailta Toko karoro (a pole, a sea gull), opposite Moioio Island, on a tongue of land formed by a branch of the hills, very narrow on top, and falling on both sides towards the sea. After leaving the village we crossed to another bay, E Taua,(?) on the main land. From this bay we crossed the hills in order to reach Port Underwood. They form a deep saddle over which the path leads." Taking the Maori names of places in succession on the southern shore of Tory Channel from west to east, the first inlet is Marae-tai Bay (beyond the enolosed place in front of a house). Its eastern head is Tiki maeroero Point. The next point is Ota mango (uncooked dog fish shark,) east of which is Hitaua Bay (a small waist mat). Teka toa Point (white dart) is its eastern head. Ana-pua Bay (Flower Bay) was formerly Ona-pua (her flowers) or One-pua (the beach of flowers. T.S.G.) The south eastern portion of Ana-pua Bay ia O-pua Bay (place of the flower). The southern inlet is most likely Mr Dieffenbach's Bay E Taua (by a war party). Near Opua is a settlement and valley named Whata-mango (an elevated stage for storing sharks and dog fish on). A small bay north east of Anapua is Te Weka (the wood hen), its north east head being Tapapaweka (to call the wood hen.) ? (May not this be Te-papa-weka the wood hen-run, as we say a fowl-run. T.S.G.) Te Ahi-ihe Point (to divide the fire) ? iB the north west head of Taurangakawau (the constant abode of the black shag birds). At the entrance to this bay is the small island Moioio (failing in strength) a rock island on which was a fortified pa in 1839 with 150 inhabitants. A hill on the maia land opposite Moioio was Kai-hinu (eat fat, or eat pigeons preserved in fat), which is also the name of the headland between Tauranga-kawau Bay and Te Weuweu Bay (the fibre.) Papa-tea Point (white or light papa rock. T.S.G.) is the north west

head of Te Pangu Bay (the satisfied). Te Pangu Native Reserve extends from Te Weuweu Bay to Tio (oyster) Point. Oyster Bay was Te Tio (the oyster), tha north east head of which is Motu-kina Point (the island or rook of the sea urchin Echinus. T. S.G.), east of it is Te Rua (the pit) Bay. West Head, where Tory Channel joins Cook Strait, is Nga hu (taking the locality into consideration, I should suggest that Ngahu means "the place of seething waters," caused by the strong tidal current round the headland. T.B.G) Nga-hu also means "to strike home" or " thrust surely," and one informant told me the name was given by the navigator Kupe, as he had been so successful in killing the octopus that ohased him, near there. Tarau-kawa (bitter condiment), (or Terau-kawa the bitter leaf. T.8.G.) is a hill 1885 feet high, south of Te Weuweu Bay in Tory Channel, and another three miles south, with an altitude of 1762 feefc, is named Rahatea (extended white), while a third, west of Anapua Bay, 2003 feet elevation is Kahikatea (white pine tree). Weki-nui ? (big tree fern) Bay lies at the eastern mouth of Tory Channel, and looks across Cook Strait towards Cape Te-ra-whiti. Two harbour lights are now maintained in this bay. Rununder Point is a rocky promontory half way between Tory Channel and Cloudy Bay. Island Bay is immediately north of Rununder Point, so called from a small rocky islet near the southern shore, named Glasgow Island, from the name of a brig which rode out a heavy gale there in the forties. South of Rununder Point is Barrett's Boat Harbour, named after Mr Barrett the whaler mentioned as residing at Te Awa-iti in 1840. The next bay is Rau-moa (a hundred moa birds) or O-rau«moa, also called Fighting Bay since the Ngai Tabu under their chief Taiaroa defeated Te Rauparaha in a great battle there in the thirties. Port Underwood is a short distance west of Rau-moa. On the south eastern shore of Port Underwood, the third bay from Robertson's Point is Whanga-toetoe (toetoe grass bay). The next bay only partially separated, is Pipi (cockle shell fish). The third bay north of Pipi Bay is Whata-roa (long stage for food). The three bays in the north east division of the port are Haka-na (dance near); Nga-kuta (the water plants); and Whaoga koko (according to the pronunciation the meaning would either be " the bay of the tui bird," or " the bay of nooks." Koko, with both syllables short, means " to shovel or spoon up any liquid." T.S.G.) Two bays in the north west division are 0 pihi (Mr Pihi's reisdence, or the place where something sprung up) and Whanga-taura (rope bay). The next is Hakahaka (short) Bay, which is a twin of Oyster Bay. South of Oyster Bay is a small cove named Uru-ti (a grove of cabbage trees.) The track from Whata-mango valley in Queen Charlotte Souud to" Hakahaka Bay crosses a wooded range at an elevation of 1600 feet. The first missionary who fixed his residence in the district, was the Rev. Samuel Ironsides, a Wesleyan Methodist who landed at Port Underwood Jrom JihaJbrig-Magnetron 20th December 1840, accompanied by his wife. In a few weeks he removed to Ngakuta Bay, at the north east corner of Port Underwood, where he formed a mission station. It was from Nga-kuta that Mr Ironsides went to read the burial service over the Europeans killed at the Wairau massacre, on 17th June 1848. A email island in Port Underwood, about an acre in extent and flat topped is Horohoro-kaka (place where the Kakas were swallowed) ? The shore rises nearly perpendicularly to a highfc of nearly a hundred feet. In the beginning of the nineteenth century the Maoris built a strong pa on it. The middle bay on the west side of Port Underwood, where Mr Guard had his whaling station from 1829 to 1839, now known as Guard's Bay, was Kaka-po (night parrot, stringops habroptilus). Ocean Bay was Oi-henga (a girl at the point of deatb). The "track over the hill from Guard's Bay to Ocean Bay was so steep that steps had to be cut to enable people to obtain a footing. The large bay south west of Port Underwood now Robin Hood Bay, was O-tauira (the residence of Tauira, a priest of the Wharekura). A point between Robin Hood and White's Bays is Mau-taku (to carry slowly). White's Bay was Pukatea (the tree Lauretta Nova Zealandw). A hill west of Port Underwood 3183 feet high is Piripiri, the burr Acicna Sanguisorhcc), usually called biddle bids or bidy bidy, and one east of Koromiko is Toko-maru (pole shelter) named after one of the canoes of the migration from Hawaiki to New I Zealand. Cloudy Bay was named |by Captain Cook, although he did not enter it. He mentions that the land to the south west of the bay was low and covered with tall trees. In 1840 the white population in the neighbourhood of Cloudy Bay was 150 souls. The Wai-rau (a hundred waters, or the gleanings of root crops) was rechristened " The Providence" River by the first Europeans. Ifc is a large river which empties into Cloudy Bay, where it has formed a boulder bank. It has a bar at its mouth with only six feet of water at high tide. The old name of the Wairau was MotuKawa, meaning an isolated clump of Piper execkum- fci#eO9, though Mi.' Baick

in " Old Marlborough" translates it " sour bush." It has a long course ; rising in the Spencer mountains, it rushes through mountain gorges, where near Tarndale, it ia joined by the river Kopi-o-uenuku (Uennku's pass or defile) at an altitude of 3000 feet. _ The Maoris have a very peculiar term for a tarn or large water hole of, say, 15 to 30 feet across, not having an outlet into any stream. They call it Karu-o-te-whenua, eyes of the earth. The middle part of the Wairau flows through good pastoral country, and tbe lower portion through a plain of rich agricultural land, about twelve miles wide. It receives a great number of tributaries, the largest being theWaihopai, frequently written in error without the ' h'— Waiopai.—The meaning is not known, though I have been told it means '• leave it quietly" or " who, good shout," but I do not think they are right. It might mean " pleased to be left." An affluent of the Waihopai, which rises in Parker's Hill, is Te Aro-whenua (the turned up land). Unfortunately the Maori names of nearly all the streams have been lost.

Tbe Ona-ma-lutu, which should be Ohinemutu (the place where the girl was mutilated) is a stream west of Kaituna, which runs into the Wairau from the north through gold bearing schists. Unfortunately the erroneous name was given to a large survey district. The Wai-kakaho (water, Reed grass Arundo conspicua,) the Tua-marino, and a large number of other streams, run into the Wairau river from the north. A bush on the northern bank of the Wairau five miles from its mouth was Tuamautini, now Grove Town. It is wrong to spell it Tua-mautine. [To be continued.]

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MAORI NOMENCLATURE., Marlborough Express, Volume XXXVII, Issue 216, 12 September 1903, Supplement

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MAORI NOMENCLATURE. Marlborough Express, Volume XXXVII, Issue 216, 12 September 1903, Supplement

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