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TOWN AND OOUNTRY.

SuNNrsiDis.—An entertainment will be given to the patients at this Institution tomorrow evening. A varioty of amusements has been provided for the occasion. Amateur Dramatic Society.—.The performance at the theatre by the members of this society takes place this evening. The proceeds of the entertainment will he handed over to the Benevolent Aid Fund.

Sumnkr. —Wo hear that the residence lately in the occupation of Mr. E. Dobson, at Sumner, is about to be turned into an hotel. Under proper auspices and with good management sucli an establishment can hardly fail to bo successful.

Mr. Ffrost.—This gentleman repeated his entertainment at the Kaikonui Theatre Kaiapoi, on Saturday eveninglast, but not with the success that characterised his first appearance, A numerous audience assembled, but Mr. Ffrost was unable to obtain a subject on whom to display his powers as a mesmerist; his experiments in Phrenology were, however, accurate and successful in every instance, Intercolonial Exhibition. From a notice posted in the Government Buildings, we learn that the Inter-colonial Exhibition at Melbourne will be opened on October 11, and will close on January 15,1867. Articles for exhibition will be received from September 1, to 30 inclusive, but not later; and applications for space must reach the Secretary on or before September 15. The Inter-colonial Steamship Companies, haveagreed to carry all goods for the exhibition free of charge. Obituary.—One of the oldest among the first Canterbury settlers passed away from among us on Sunday last. Mr. James Townsend came from England in the ship Cressy, which anived in Lyttelton on the 27th December, 1850. Though no longer a young man at the date of his arrival, he occupied himself for about twelve years in the ordinary occupations of an agricultural settler. Latterly the infirmities of age confined him almost entirely to the house. He died at mid-day on Sunday last, at the advanced age of 78, leaving a large circle of relatives and friends to regret his loss.

Theatre Kotal.—Last night the performance was. for the benefit of Pablo Tanque and his troupe. The House was very fairly attended. The feats were much the same as those previously executed by the company, varied by the introduction of some new ones. On this occasion, it was announced that Senor Fanque would walk from the apex of the roof of the theatre across to the paddock opposite on the tight-rope. But this was not done, as he was disappointed in not obtaining from Lyttelton the hawser which he had been promised. Mr. Grame made an apology for the contretemps, and stated that Messrs. Walton and Warner had undertaken to lend him a rope, and that the feat would be performed to-morrow evening. The Waimakariri.—A very heavy fresh, the result of the recent nor'-westers and heavy rain 3, came down this river on Saturday last and once more flooded the upper part of Kaiapoi Island. Sneyd's Town and Kaiapoi itself are, however, free from water, and are expected to remain so should the river not rise any higher. The embankment atSneyd'a corner is progressing as favourably as could be expected, considering the many drawbacks which the committee have encountered. Another month ;'will, it is expected, entirely set at rest any further fears of Sneyd's Town or Kaiapoi being again inundated, as the embankment ought, weather permitting, to be finished in a little over that time. Great credit is due to the committee for the energetic manner in which they have pushed forward the various works.

Gold in Auckland Province. The Southern Cross of August 3 says :— We hare in our possession a sample of alluvial gold, considerably waterworn, which was left with us yesterday by one of a party of miners, who have been engaged prospecting in this province for several weeks. The ground has not been thoroughly tested, and the party will return and give it a trial of a month or six weeks' duration. The place where this gold was found yielded six grains to the dish of dirt; but in the immediate Ticinity the yield was not payable, a few specks only being visible. However, the party state that "the country, is likely "and they mean to give it a fair trial. On their return to town we shall be in a position to state more particularly what has been done, and the locality; meanwhile, as the party are defraying their own expenses, and want to pursue their search without annoyance of any kind, we refrain from stating more at present. American Pacific Steamebs. The Straits Times says:—We have lately seen a description of the two gigantic steamers in course of construction at New York, for the new line between San Francisco and Hongkong. When completed they will be the largest merchant ships ever built in the United States, and most probably the largest wooden ships in the world. They will be ready to take up the mail service on the Ist of January, 1867. The dimensions and tonnage of these leviathans is something enormous; their beam is to be fifty feet, they will each have three decks, and will be built with four water-tight compartments; their tonnage will be 5000 tons, and their cost will be over a million of dollars each. They will be, fitted with' beam engines, with all the latest American improvements in this form of steamship machinery. They will have accommodation for 500 first-clasß passengers, and will make the round voyage, from San Francisco to Hongkong and back, via Kanagawa, in two months. , A Useful Bihd.—The Talbot Leader has the following interesting paragraph :—«A very interesting stranger, in the form of a small bird, has lately visited Amherst, and performed wonders among the pests that periodically infest gardens with their presence and ravages. , Its first descent was made into the garden of Mr. Cowley (Amherst Hotel), and after a day or two's work succeeded in entirely clearing the garden of everything in the shape of blight and grub from fruit trees, vegetables, rose-trees, &c. Having performed scavenger's work here it proceeded to other gardens, similarly making a clean sweep of every description of blight in them. It is still pursuing its kindly avocation, and seems bent upon driving all such pests out of the town. Our informant asks us to appeal to the generosity of local sportsmen not to injurethis interesting stranger—an appeal which we have no doubt will prove successful under the circumstances. Its description as furnished to us is'as follows; The bird is smaller than the common or colonial wren, lihs a fine plumage, tl*e breast is of a pale salmon colour, it has greenish bronzed wjnpis and back, and a yellowish circle round the eyes.

Chinkse Gardening. The Dayksfird Mercury gives the following description of Chinese gardening:—There is no variety in their style—one sample may be taken as a model of all Chinese gardens throughout the colony. Long rows of uneven, well-manured, well-watered beds meet the eye in all cases. John does not appear to study beauty—utility and profit are the only objects he appears to keep in Yiew. But to these he cerlaiuly addresses himself with peculiar energy and success. And it is a question that must have occurred tomany minds—"Can Europeans learn anything from their Asiatic brethren in the way of

market gardening ?» Their modo is in many respects very different to that followed by our English gardeners. They forco tho vegetation of nil plants by loading tho bads with manure, keeping the ground well-watorcd, and nearly always selecting a situation where the sun has full play on the ground, In siunmor their vegetables aro not dried up In tho same way us they aro in other gardens, but grow at a prodigious rato. This may bo amounted for by tho fact that tho ground is always kept perfectly saturated with water. The long irregular rows of beds are entirely free from weeds, being turned over too frequently to allow any wild vegetation to make headway. Tho vegetables produced by Chinese aro fresh and tender. Frequently the market would bo entirely without a supply wero it Jint for these industrious plodding people, lhcro is a garden kept by five Chinamen nearMr.Patterson'sslaughter-yard. It is, like all others of its sort, kept scrupulously clean, livery day these men clear up the offal and manure from the yard, and distribute it over the beds, The ground is about three acres in extent, and the five Chinamen earn eacli man about £1 per week. This, to Europeans, may appear small, but it is an amount in excess of the average earned by their digging brethren, and more by about 200 per cent, than these men could cam in their own country. If they choose they can save money. PitorosßD Telkgiumig Communication with tub East.-Tlio Argus in its last Summary for England, says :-From what has recently transpired here, the telegraphic communication with India and Europe seems j to bo a less hopeless project than the gcuer-! ality of people suppose. A gentleman representing the Netherlands India Steam Navigation Company has submitted to the hon. the Chief Secretary n proposal for the establishment of a line of electric' telegraph from South Australia to Adam Bay, through Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland, via Cape York and Burke Town. A submarine cable would be required to connect Adam Bay with Timor, and another would have to be laid from Timor to the north coast of Java, thence to Singapore, thence to Malacca, thence to Moulmein in the Burmese and thence via Calcutta to Europe. The estimated expense of the line from Burke Town, at .£22 10s per mile, is £33,000. The length of submarine cable is computed at 1420 miles, thus -.—Adam Bay to Timor, 480 miles; thence to Macassar,4Bo miles; thence, to Java, 460 miles; which, at £l4O per mile,' would cost £198,800, to which must be added £33,000, the estimated cost of the line from Burke Town to Adam Bay, together equal to £231,800 ; and allowing £57,950 for extra chariies, the total cost of the line would he £289,750. The gentleman who has submitted the proposal to the Chief Secretary believes that if the several colonies interested would grant a moderate subsidy pro rata, tho AngloAustralian and China Telegraph Company might be induced to undertake the entire contract, under suitable guarantees, either alone, or in conjunction with some company to be formed in these colonies.

Paris Exhibition.—The Paris correspondent of the Argus writes as follows regarding the universal exhibition to be held there in 1867:—" Reports were spread to the effect that it was to be deferred on account of the unsettled sta'e of Europe. The Moniteur declares that these reports are unfounded, and that the exhibition will be opened on the day originally fixed. The preparations are pushed on with such vigour that we cannot doubt but that all will be ready in time. The fine arts and the archasological galleries will be placed at the disposal of expositors next September, and all the others will be ready before the end of the year. The Persian section of the exhibition will be one of the most remarkable, if we are to judge by the decoration of the facade, a drawing of which has been shown to me, and which realises the splendour of Oriental tales. Arms, costumes, carpets, paintings on enamel, constitute the principal objects exhibited by Persia. There will be a kiosque and a refreshment-room, got up in Persian fahion. Opposite will be the Chinese and Japanese exhibition. The Chinese Government was the only one which declined accepting the invitation of the French Government to take part in the exhibition ; but private enterprise, and the individual energy of subjects of the Celestial Empire, acting of their own accord, will suffice amply to fill up the blank. As for Japan, Chibala, the Envoy Extraordinary from the Tycoon, on occasion of his visit to France, came to an understanding with the commissary-general, and the industry of his country will be brilliantly represented. There will be Chinese and Japanese refreshment rooms, and Chinese and Japanese young ladies will preside at the counter, attired in the costume of their country. But the park—the park outside the building—will, be the great, the unique attraction. It will contain model public, private, agricultural, and manufacturing buildings. There is to be a Chinese porcelain tower, a bazaar, a Chinese tavern; a Japanese bamboo houße, kiosques, and a hunting-lodge of Prince Stazomz. Persia will have an opium manufactory. Egypt will send a pavilion of the Viceroy, and different kinds of houses. Tunis and Morocco will follow the example. Italy will exhibit Neapolitan houses, the States of the Church the products of the excavations at the Mount Aventine. After that, Norwegian, American-Indian, African cabins, Russian and Spanish cottages, German farm-houses, subterranean atables, such as are used in the Turkish Principalities. &c. There will be also model dwelling-houses for the'working classes, bakehouses, coachbuilding manufactories, printing-houses, diamondcutting establishments, hothouses, a crystal palace, a botanical diorama, aquariums, photographic pavilions, theatres, &c. You will perceive that the organisers of the Exhibition have taken for their motto the well-known advice of the Latin poet, and that on all sides the useful will be joined to the agreeable, utile dulci. The War between Brazil and Paraguay. The 'Boston Advertiser thus relates the origin of the war now being waged between Brazil and Paraguay:—Lopez, senior, Dictator of Paraguay, died in 1862, and whs succeeded by Lopez, junior, 'the third in the list of the Dictators, of whom the celebrated Dr. Franciawas the first and founder. Lopez, senior, had given trouble to Brazil .by his neglect to execute in good faith the treaties of 1850, by which the right of way for steamers bound to Matto Grosso up the River Paraguay was recognised and sanctioned. He delayed also to settle the boundary quarrel, which has been a source of discord between the two Powers. But, by showing a strong mailed hand, and by diplomatic ability, Brazil succeeded in averting a military struggle, When Lopez, junior, assumed the Dictatorship, he immediately 6ent to Kurope for mechanics, and imported enormous supplies of iron and machinery—nominally for the use of the Asuncion and Villa Rica Railway; really, it is asserted, for military purposes. He is said to bear a grudge against Brazil for interfering in the internal uffairs of Paraguay. In 1803-4 the Ins and Outs of the Republic of Uruguay waged a civil war. The Ins were known as the Blancos. and the 'Outs as the Cohrados, Really to protect her citizens in Uruguay, or under that pretext, Brazil aided Flores, the champion of the Outs; and presently the government of the country pnsstd into the hands of the Colorados. Lopez watched this quarrel quietly, but, before Brazil Interfered, sent her notice that he would regard her intervention in the affairs of Uruguay as a declaration of war against Paraguay. And his acts soon showed that he meant what he said; for, on the 13th of November, 18G4, without declaring war, he seized the Brazilian mail steamer and imprisoned her passengers, among whom were a number of naval and military officers of Brazil. At the last dates they were still in prison. Lopez did not even permit the. Brazilian Minister to get his passports until the American Minister used his influence to' Unit end. The step thus taken was promptly followed up. Paraguayan steamers bombarded Coimbra, Abuquerque, Corumbru, and other places in Brazil, Assailed thus vigourously, Brazil was forced to prepare for war; but moved with far less alacrity than her fiery little enemy. Meanwhile Lopez demanded of the Argentine Republic permission to cross her territory in order toattack Brazil. The President of the Confederation refused his permission. Lopez, thereupon,—again

without waiting to declare war-began offensivo operations against her by seizing confederate steamers. Thus, Brazil, Uruguay, and the Argentine Confederation wore united in an offensive and defensive league against tho plucky but roekloss Dictator of the- " Inland Japan" of South Amorica, In June last, Lopez was defeated in a naval battlo with the Brazilians ; and in August and September in military battles. But he still holds out.

Tub Fkman Raid.-The New York Herald of Juno 3 contains tho following account of an eye-witness of tho Fenian engagement at Jlldgcwuy :-"Tlio Fenians were 1000 strong under O'Neill, and had reached a small village about ten miles from the Waterloo Ferry, when the scouts announced the approach of a large force of Canadian volunteers. The Fenians nt once tore down the fence, went into an adjoining field, and formed in lino of battle, General O'Neill being assisted by Colonels Starr and O'Urian in making n disposition of the troops. The volunteers advanced upon the Fenians and the action commenced, the skirmishes on either Bide exchanging a brisk tire. An order was then given for the Fenian skirmishers to fall back. The main bodies on both sides (1 red several volleys, when the Fenians advanced on the double-quick with fixed bayonets. But as the volunteers were ranged in an orchard on the other side of a swamp, and separated from the Fenians by thick brushwood, General O'Neill deemed a charge useless, and gave the order to halt and fell back. The volunteers believing this to be a retreat, advanced from their shelter on a run. They were met by the Fenians witli a counter oharge, and instantly put to rout, the Feninns pursuing them for two miles, when O'Neill ordered a halt. The volunteers, completely demoralised, continued their flight to Port Colborne. The loss of the Fenian side was about G killed and 15 wounded, that of the volunteers 23 killed and wounded in all. The Fenians fought bravely, throwing off tluir coats, vests, and even shirts, and fighting half naked. After stopping the pursuit the main body of Fenians proceeded towards Fort Erie, leaving a guard over the wounded on both sides. About half-past three thirteen Fenians were seen crossing the brow of the hill, when the volunteers valiantly rushed out to capture them, but just as they reached the base of the hill, about 800 Fenians appeared and charged percipitately down upon them. The volunteers broke and scattered through the woods. About 70 of them were captured by the Fenians. Some of them again got on board the tug, while others were running all along the shore, almost crazy in their efforts to secure shelter. The beach, which was covered with guns and knapsacks thrown away in their flight, resembled the first Bull Run battle field." The Great Russian Telegraphic Line. —The St. Petersburg journals publish the following summary of a report drawn up by Colonel Bulkloy, chief of the expedition dispatched to survey the route of thellussoAmerican telegraph line:—''The expedition placed in charge of Mr. Conway, which was sent to the Fraser river, conveyed the telegraph line over a distance of four hundred and fifty miles, and only failed to finish the route marked out for them through want of the necessary material. Mr. Conway states that up to the 57th degree of north latitude there are no obstacles to the placing of the line. M. Keninkott, chief of the second section, had to survey the country between the river Kirptchak and Northon Strait, and to reacli the south in order to connect his section with the first. The principal expedition learned from the natives at Fort St. Michael, that the Kirptchak and the Youkone are one and the same stream, flowing into the sea of Behring, and that vessels could easily enter the river. On the American side of Behring's Straits, the only suitable point for landing tlic telegraph cable was Port Grantly. On the Asiatic shore, Seniavine Strait offers ail the conditions desirable. Between this Strait and Port Grantly the bottom of Behring's Straits is covered with ooze and sand. The supposed distance between the two points of submersion of the cable is 178 miles. Further on the Bay of Anadyr, at the mouth of the river of that name, presents a favourable situation for the submersion of the cable. The principal expedition ascended this river to a distance of about 300 miles from Tolstey Cape, but could not proceed further on account of the ice. The seashore to the mouth of the Anadyr is mountainous, and offers no suitable spot forthe submersion of the cable. The projected submarine telegraph in the Bay of Anadyr extends over a distance of 209 miles. This route can only be avoided by a land line to the north, crossing the Gulf of St. Croix. In order to obtain a survey of the localities in Kamschatka, and of the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, an expedition was formed under M. Abaza, who discovered that & line might easily be laid between Okhotsk and Yakoutsk, going round the mountains, and reaching the Amoor at a point considerably above its mouth. The most distant regions to the north through which the Telegraph line will be carried, offer no serious obstacle either to the construction or working of the Hue. The submersion of the cable can be effected very easily on account of the level and sandy sea bed, and the short length of the cable removes any apprehensions relative to the working of the line. With respect to the land portion of the line, the posts will be as solid in the frozen earth as if they were fixed in stone, and as there are no woods to traverse, there is no danger from falling trees. The examination of the line in winter will be a comparatively easy matter, from the facility of travelling by sledges drawn by reindeer or dogs. To cross Behring's Straits 178 marine miles of cable will be required; for the Gulf of Anadyr 209 miles. The depth of the sea is so great that the cable can only be damaged by icebergs, which, however, never appear in Behring's straits, nor to the south, on account of the northern current. Contrary to the opinion generally received, the native tribes inhabiting the sea coast are peaceable and honest, and hospitable in the highest degree. It is expected that in time they will be very useful to the undertaking.

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Bibliographic details

TOWN AND OOUNTRY., Lyttelton Times, Volume XXVI, Issue 1765, 14 August 1866

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TOWN AND OOUNTRY. Lyttelton Times, Volume XXVI, Issue 1765, 14 August 1866

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