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UNIVERSITY SENATE

The annual session of the above was opened at Christchurch to-day under the presidency of the Chancellor (Sir Robert Stout, C.J.). CHANCELLOR'S REPORT.

The following are the principal parts of the Chancellor's annual report :• —Passing of Professors. —

I regret that I have to commence my report for the year 1914 by stating that three of our educational pioneers have passed away from us. Dr J. 11. Scott, who was Professor of Anatomy in the Otago University, died on February 25, i 1914. He had a distinguished career m *" the University of Edinburgh, and came to New Zealand on having been appointed to the Chair of Anatomy in our .Medical School. His success as* a teacher won universal recognition. We will all miss bis assistance in the Senate. He was a Fellow from 1890 to his death, save _that during his absence in Europe in 1913 he resigned his fellowship, being reappointed on. Ins return in 1914. I am sure we all recognised his ever great, courtesy, his ibititv, and bis strong common sense. Dr'.lohn Shand, who resigned the Professorship of Natural Philosophy m 1913. died on the thirtieth day ot November, 1914. He was a distinguished graduate .if the University of Aberdeen, entering :hat universitv lis a Greek Bursar. He received from'his Alma Mater the degree :>f Doctor of Laws. On coming to New Zealand in 1871 a* one of the first thr^e

nrofessors he- scon became known as an ufaW \caciiCT, »*tvt -.vs. <w« wl\& coc-kl miLc -jlain the most abstruse problems in natheinatics. He took also a [hep interest in education generally, having been j member ot the Board of Education, and .most helpful in the management of tho Otago High Schools. He was appointed hj Fellow "of our University in 18/7, and held that office till a few weeks before his death. His work in the Senate cannot be over-rated. As chairman of the Finance Committee he helped to lay the foundation of our scholarship fund, and his knowledge and wisdom were ever at the service of the University. The third pioneer professor who has left us is Dr James Gow Black, whose, career at the Edinburgh University was so notable that Lord Lyon Playfair stated he was one of his most distinguished chemical students. He obtained the Hope Chemistry Scholarship and the Baxter Experimental Science Scholarship, and was one of the first to obtain the degree of Doctor of Science in his university. He arrived in New Zealand late in 1871, and was the first Professor of Chemistry. No more kindly and popular teacher has ever held a chair in any of our affiliated institutions. He died on Christmas Day, 1914 " —The Inspector-General of Schools.— I am sure I am only voicing the views of the members of the Senate when I express the congratulations to our fellow member Mr George Hogben, C.M.G., on the honor conferred on him by His Majesty in appointing him Companion of the most distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George. Mr Hogben : s about to retire from his position a* In-spector-General of Schools, but no doubt though lie thus severs his official connection with the Edm-ition Department he will not cease to take the same interest, in all that concerns this most important department of State. He wiil carry with him in his retirement and well-earned leisure the best wishes of his colleagues on the Senate for his well-being and happiness for many years to come. —The Effect of the War on our University.— During the year we have passed and are yet passing through strenuous times. The great war in which our Empire is engaged has necessarily affected our .'.dghest educational institution. Large •lumbers of students have gone to the front to fight for our Empire, and others are preparing and are anxious to go. We met those anxious to leave as best we :<:nid. Several medical students asked &8T a special medical examination and this W«s granted to them ; some joined amIw lance corps. The Senate will bo asked

ko consider what concessions, if any, should be made regarding Honors students r >ud others who have leit our shores as members of our Expeditionary Forces. —Senate Changes.— Professor Malcolm hati been appointed 3 member of Senate vise Professor Shand. jinl P'-ofessor Benham appointed by the '•tago University i tl the room of the lata Professor Scoir. —Ntw Zealand Universitv Amendment Act.— E'ariiament- pass'id a University Amend-rni-iit. Art. which comes into force ou April i this year. It make* provision for it third chamber or court, a* it is called, ii' the administration of university matters. This trieameral system was approved of by the. Senate hist year. Xo good cr.d can at present he served in criticising this change in the management of our - University. I may he pardoned, however, in repeating what I said last ssssion : lhat I do not anticipate any adequate return for ihe additional expense that such a new rotuf, must r-cessarily create. This is a Ume when, in the face of our European doubles, the most stern economy in* the rocnagement o? our resources:- is required. i>cverr.l other amendment-?., besides the creation of a, Heard of Studies, have been made in our statute. The right of a graduate enrolled on the registry of one Distriei L'ourt of Convocation to transfer to another district lies been taken away. The provision that no examiner shall be eligible for reappointment for more than four con. S-ecutive years has Iwu repealed. Another limitation has also r>een removed—

r'z . that no r ■ - ot the st-i'iitnr* gi-id - £"0f0 can K gmu"d to aflih >t°d msti t'ltiono. Tht* St n ite ]->-, nov niuri ap pai-enth t > gu \.m » it m v(, t. TiHegf Senior N itnni' Nl oln-lui >- "' hencefoith to be di-un-t-vl Xattoml I ir versnh *>cholai"h |-, hut th scholarships ,ae n m Miim.i I'out i gi\ n to th« Seintt to mtkt ngahtioi, U-arding tbi-t -L.mlu-} p-, n >t in i on fit with th- -t<) futon n o\ i,'o lis I dp j.iainki SJio! iivhn - ,i|,o (.une diuitl, ui dt i ihf UnueiMt} and irr,.,ti tegulj ti< i , i. i\ be m irle rtgauhng them Pio m, oito a~ ti Unner-it\ bin at, and foi the *-nbl.-diluent ot X.'tnunl !'(..< an hj SMKlusnp, il-o appeal m the statute. 'lh> txp-alitate foi the Nation-d Umvcr fit ScroLn-hi[c- the ■,!,, n rN , UK [ tlie N t'ii il Ec-voi S(holu,uip, i- to In ne* ni 1 of annt'd i nti, l\ ('., hament AM iHgi.lnion, made In the Senile legaul- - -h, , t \n t -u- b hobi,hi;, end buisaiies nn-• .ham 'te rpii,\,l of the M'n.tt" r i 1 lucatii n. —New Finance Kilup, the mo-t important j'mi'wnin toe iin -Latute ,iie. Thee ii-lifng to fn snc. Inst, in,tea 1 ot uluug on an '.id uiant,, jitiniapitit fuithn'.pd K:nm ti ttu- .fhlufd institution— \i'. i\) r> <b( ViKkiaud U'Mveistj f^!k<_ t i an additional annual sum of £5.000: (2) to the Y,(toii<„ Umiei"t\ (olk/e cimdai Hi ocut : i?) to the O'ago ['numtv i sim,i an ount : and (41 to C mb ibu'\ « ,11 g, the -urn of £2 OCO uinualh fn I£o7 provision iu„ male tot ,etung a-, n huge .wens of (rmin lard' as ni lional endowments for education and old .ig> pension* r-*>\entv per ru.t ft the n.«t th « is ~ t apait »o> •"diKattoa aid 7 0 j. r nl for old age j ens-ions, ]lfM t 'i,ua* inni'fs tSii one-seventh of tht 71 j i (tit -that is, om Until or tin m iniiH—., to bo set tip.'it foi the liiglui -duration, and o{ tb s one-tenth, on* sixth i- to gr to e,*ch ami 't>d institution—the A'i khnd > ollege, the Yidoi'a U'her"ity ('o!I«-ge, the C'<uUejbtn\ t olIfge an 1 il >■> fUa.ro Unr ersity 111" i ■> n-"r.ng thud is to be ie,t"d m the, X /' 'A aland University upon t'tr-t, "to * e d'--tiiruted to Uu- four col'egps or affiliated n t tutio'.s t, occasion m i\ vcw ind as tie «brtll decide, for the suppoit of libianes, hj r the establishment of ne \ Cha is ,t ho Is, oi facuhnts and in other vau for ester ding the woik m ot such colkces or institutions." It will bs seen that the power of the University is limited as to the objects for which the money is to be applied. Tho fund must go tj the affiliated institutions for certain designated, purposes. ISnd from the published account of the national endowment fund that- on tho 31st Jfarcli, 1914, there was a balance in kuid

of £80,486 15s Od. (See B.—l, p. 34.) The annual rental of the endowments letr—vh., 6,520.03 A acres—is £99,600. (See .financial statement, p. 26.) About two million acres arc unlet. Tito total receipts were £103,271. but from this sum £15,007 had to bo paid to local authorities for various purposes, and £4,281 odd was expended for roads to open up the lands. 1 suppose it is fair to assume that, at least £84,000 annually ought to be available for distribution. If this sum is available, £8,400 will be for the higher education, which will give £1,400 to" oa/.li affiliated institution, and leave £2,800 for the University to distribute. It would, 1 think, be proper for the Finance Committee to consider and report regarding flip steps U> be taken in order that part of the amount payable during the year 1915-16 might be distributed. 1 may add that tho committee on a University Press seems to have assumed that some part of the.se funds might bo utilised for the pur|K>se of a University Press. D, will be noted that the expenditure of the fund is left to the affiliated institution*, and I doubt if tho purpose* mentioned in the Statute will include the founding or maintenance of a University Press. ,

It must be gratifying to all our people that notwithstanding tho present drain on our resources, and the financial pressure of tho Empire, our finance is strong enough to allow such aid to our higher education. Compared with other countries similarly situated, our, educational expenditure is high, but -who can say that money properly uuised for education is ever wasted"' We must, however, remember that our educational expenditure is rising—and that we may meet- with " lean " years. I find from jac • Veu.v Hook' tUat tlve. -csdu.<--ii.tuiruil cvicpeariiture from ail sources in 1312-lo Mas £1 os 8d per head. L;i.-;fc fiuanv'uil year (1913-14) it was £1 6s 2d per iiead. the total amount being £1,484,C00, and this year thero will bo an increase, in the Commonwealth of Australia the expeuditvie. for 1912-13 was 17s 8d per head, and last year it was 19s sd. so our expenditure is about 30 per cent, more than that of our neighbors across the Tasman Sea. Our expenditure out of public funds—that is. not taking into consideration endowments, etc.—-was in 189899 13s 4d per head, and in 1913-14 it was £1 3s. In considering, hovsever, such, an expenditure we should not overlook what we spend on things that profit not. for exampl-., our expenditure on the dmgs, alcohol, and tobacco amount to at least five millions a year.

—Competition or Presentation Scholar ships.—

I notice in a report received bv the. Committee on Junior University Scholarships Examination and Secondary Schools from the Victoria Univeisuy College Professorial Board that the board disapproves of the awarding of University scholarships by competitive rnd wholly written examinations. The University Statute assumes that candidates for scholarships must, be examined. I tefer to the subject for the following rca.-oiks:—First, the awarding of scholarships is a strong feature of our system; and, weond, if tile scholarships were wm competitive history telis us our system would not be satisfactory. Some people assume that our universitv system is not open to all. '\ \\» fact is that it is the brighter youths who get the scholarships, and that, open and free competition is the only way to maintain equality of opportunity and the. jguoring of class or other distinction. Tho alternative of competitive <-;eho!arshins is within the system of presentation scholarships or awarding them I>y lot. The presentation system was once the usual method of awarding scholarships, and how it worked has heeu dealt with by one of the educational experts of Scotland. Dr John Kerr. in dealing with what happened amongst an able and shrewd people in the University of Aberdeen he says : For three years the prizes in all the arts classes in Aberdeen fell to competition bursars, as follows: Gained

ill the last of these three years only one fell to a presentation bursar. These figures, referring as they do to all the Art classes, are valuable, as showing that competition does not reward merely those who have been well grounded in classics at school, and whose claim to success might be supposed to be simply a fine instinct for avoiding serious error and pitfalls in versions, ami a correct habit developed into a kind of second nature, as to the proper use of qui, quod, and quia with the indicative or subjunctive. They prove more than this. .They prove that competition brings to the front the best men—men who, as a body, carry off the honors in every class in the curriculum, and that mainly, if not entirely, because of the habits of perseverance and self-reliance springing from open competition, and from an assurance which the schoolboy who looks forward to college carries constantly about with him. even in his schoolboy days, that, lie has before him a fair field and no favor. The statistics of the Greek class for the past session (1870-71) were, if possible, still more striking. The students were ranked in the following live classes : —(1) Prizemen ; (2) Order of Merit; (5l Creditable Appearance (4) Respectable Appearance; (5) Simple or Bare Pass, The number of bursals in the first Greek class during the past year was 63 : Of these 39 were competition and 24 presentation bursars. The- whole of the prizes, 11 in number, were gained by the former; 12 stood in the order of merit: 12 made a creditable appearance; 4 made a respectable appearance; and not one stood under the heading of " passed simply.'' Looking next to the pre-entation bursars, we find that 11 passed simply; ohly 6 made a respectable appearance; only 3 made, a creditable appearance; only 4 stood in the order of merit ; and not one >tood in the pri/.e list. These Figure.-, taken as measures of the two classes of bursars, are curiously the reverse of each other. The competition bursars have all the prizes and no scratch pas'. The presentation bursars have no prizes and 11 -.cratch passes. Arranging- the figures in columns they taper off in reverse directions:

24 :,g The presentation has its bread end , nearly hah the wh.Je number) in the Jess than resectable quarter, tapering off to nothing at the prize end. Tho competition eolunin has its broad end among the prizes and fines off to .nothing at the simple pass." _ It is highly probable that an examination of tho records of the two classes of bursars m the other three universities would give a similar result. If competition ia an evil in awarding it cannot be a good thing in tho appointing of our Civil servants If is wed known that since 1886 the competitive method has been the method chosen for the appointment of Civil servants in the cleric;..! branch of the Public Service. Is the presentation method to be adopted? and who is to prer-ent? Tim only excuse for abolishing the louipetitivo system would be that all our youths had not, equality of opportunity. If there .ire lads or lasses !n tie " ba-ekblneks " who have r.ot had the opportunity of education, a. case might be maw for Presentation taking tne piaee of Competition. I thought so in 13So. and proposed a method followed by the Navy Department of the United States of Amnion in appointing navy cadets.' The system is to allow men holding representative positions to nominate in turn for vacancies in the Naval College. One advantage of such a svstem is that citizens from all parts of the'Stateobtain positions in the navy. The proposal iu 1886 was that each member of tho House of Representatives should nominate in turn persone, as cadets for vacancies in tho Public .Service. Such a. scheme was negative.! bv the Parliament. I find that iu the United States the mim-

ber of cadets who fail to mu,ko good thoir position is large, Many have, to leave after one or two years' training. Our education system is now bo comprehensive, and it'has so many scholarships «iul free places in secondary schools that there seenis no need to abolish the Competitive system. The State needs ability and efficiency in every .department not only of tho Public Service, hut also in the country's services of our social life. There are two possible ways of getting, ability trained : either- wo must train all, however -unfit some may bo to benefit by training, or wo must try and solect the able persons for training.' If we adopt any mode of selection there is at once competition. Why is one to be preferred more than another? Preference means competition! We may, it is true, adopt an ancient mode of selection which "is still to the fore in the disposal of Crown lands and in some of the liabits of our social life—wo may select them by lot. Gambling is a social evil, and I presume it would be unwise to put scholarships up to lottery.

The other question raised is as to oral, in preference to written, examinations. So far as languages, mathematics, history, and .geography are concerned, a written examination will be fairer than an oral one. If oral examinations were adopted the most glib of candidates might succeed and not the most thoughtful. I doubt if the most able would have a better chance of being chosen than under our present system. How a perambulating board could examine two hundred or more- of candidates orally at different centres of the Dominion and be able to come to a just comparison of their work I do not know. If in addition to excellence in written f>u"bj«sCt« of examinations -vve desire other qualifications, such as physical strength and excellence of disposition, we will be extending the number of qualifications that a candidate will require to showbefore being chosen. This would be extending, not lessening, competition. ft has been said science subjects ought to be orally examined. An oral examination may be necessary in experimental science, or 'oven in the 'higher classes of science, but all that can be expected of students who are candidates for junior scholarships is some knowledge of the elements and methods of science.' What they know may well be ascertained by a written examination.

I notice that a suggestion has been made that the subjects of examination should bo fewer. In considering that question we have to remember that by allowing repeat subjects we have lessened the number of subject's for a. degree,_ and that there is ever a danger of specialising too soon, and not training our youth widely enough in the subjects of knowledge. Another suggestion about scholarships is that the entrance scholarships should he divided equally amongst the university districts. It' is very generous of the Victoria University College professors to suggest such an allocation. The estimated jx>pulation of the university districts was, on 31st December, 1913, as follows : Auckland University College district, 287.789; Victoria University College district, 4C8.967; Canterbury College district, 184,472; ' Otago University district, 203,163. I doubt if an equal division would be considered fair or would last. Further, X do not see why, if there, happen to be 10 able candidates in one district, less able candidates in another district should be appointed because of the place of residence of their parents or themselves; This would he allowing residence as a competing factor. —The New Education Act.— Under the Education Amendment Act of last year, which came into forca on the let January this year, a General Council of Education (consisting of 17 members) has been established. The University has power to appoint one of the members. The appointment is to be made not later than the month of May. The Governor may make regulations regarding the appointment of members, but I am not aware if any have yet been made. I presume that the. Senate may, after due notice, proceed at this session to select a member of the University to act as their representative on the General Council. —Tutorial Clashes.— Members of the Senate, are no doubt aware of the efforts being made in England to popularise the higher education and to open the colleges to workers, so that they may obtain the benefits of university ' education. A movement has started amongst ourselves with the same object in view, and a representative from the English Workers' Educational (Dr-

ga-nisation is to visit us this month. This organisation is vigorous, has a Press- organ of its own, and has been helped by prominent educationalists all aver England and Wales. Our circumstances and position educationally differ much from those in England, but nevertheless I am sure wo- will welcome any organisation that will help to popularise higher education. In our colleges there is provision for evening classes, and there could no doubt bo arranged classes, that would fit citizens engaged in daily work to become students in university classes. The subject is especially one, for the affiliated institutions to deal with, hut 1 suppose we might give, some financial assistance to aid in establishing .such classes under the recent University .Act. The more citizens that we can get to study the highest learning the. better for oar community. — A Peace Prize.— Notwithstanding tint Kurope is an ;<imed ca.mii and the scene of the most tremendous- Mar in history, the trustees of the Nobel Peace Prize fund have sent out invitations to certain persons and inetiiutions to recommend fitting persons for the Piizc. A message from the Secretary of State for the Colonies and Dominions beyond the Seas to the New Zealand Government lias been forwarded to our University —The- Year's Accounts.— It is only possible to give an approximate statement in regard to the accounts for 1914. as lime, has not permitted since December 31 to complete the regular account books. The following, however, is an estimate of receipt* and payments on the various accounts as compared with the previous year : Receipts. Expenditure, General

Tlie increase in expenditure on the .ordinary scholarship account is due to the fact that the fees of scholars (lor three years' scholars) are now paid by the University instead of by Covernmimt. and tho decrease of payments on the general account to tho fact that the law examiners of November last have not yet been paid ; in 1913 they were paid before the end of the year/. —Miscellaneous. —■ A ruling is asked from the Senate as to whether the reports of examiners are to be considered confidential, and. shown only to Iho teachers of tho subject:', or published as in the past.—lt will be necessary at this session to nominate a candidate for the 1851 Exhibition Scholarship.—This University has been asked to contribute to the funds of the Universities of the. Empire, Bureau.---The agent in England, after consultation with ihe examiner, recommends that an additional -examiner ri Ei gland for Latin be appointed.—The examiners in England have reported that Win. Philip .Johnston and Hubert Blandlord Jones have pass-rd. the examinations for doctor of medicine and bachelor of nu'sir respectively.—Several students, who are Bachelors of Arts, ask permission to complete, their -examination under the old regulations, iu order to obtain the B.Sc. degiee.

Total No. hy Competinf Prizes. Hon Bnrsars.' In 1867 102 85 In 1863 WK 92 In 1870 124 11,'

J.'i ■esotit (. nmp. Prizemen Hi irsiirs. 0 11 Order of Me i'it- ... 4 12 Credit. Appt Kcspeo. Appt 'arnncp ■aranee 6 12 4 Passed Simp ly ... 1.1 0

1913 „.. £11.231 £11.304 1914 , 11,391. 11,095 Ordinan - Si-holnr?hip— 1913 '. 2,442 . 2.233 1914 . 2.429 2,600 Tinliiip. Scholarship— 1913 85 60 1914 85 60

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UNIVERSITY SENATE, Evening Star, Issue 15705, 20 January 1915

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UNIVERSITY SENATE Evening Star, Issue 15705, 20 January 1915

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