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Goats trek on all the French roads daily now. There are goats from Corsica and Dauphine. from stony Languedoe, from Eousillion on the Spanish border, and bearded giants of goats from the Pyrenees. They are for the Indian abattoirs, and are driven right, to the front—surely one of the strangest, sights in the war. For those creeds and castes who love not goat flesh there, are other animals, battalions of animals. The mobs of travelling live stock are growing larger, too, for on November 7 another heavy contingent of Indians landed at .Marseilles—a fact which we did not heir. Feeding an Indian force must be the j most complicated commissariat problem on earth, and a word about it. seems timely now. H is little morn than 100 years ago since the Sikhs were smearing Mohammedan mosques with the blood ol swine, and the Mohammedans were fouling the Sikh temples with slain cattle. j The ancient aversions survive. The I Gurkha, and the Rajput will cat goat, or ! mutton. "The loathing which u Hindu i feels for beet is so great that be will ! sometimes vomit at the sigdit of it. Pork ' is abomination to a .Moslem. I So stream after .stream of varied anij mats—beeves and oxen a few, sheep very many, goats many more still —throng the French roads to the front, and the winter lair resounds with the shouts of tho ln- ! diiin drovers: "Puddhi. buddhi, uikai joo " (OKI woman! old woman! get out ol' the way), or something like that. In an. intorestin<r way a writer who knows his subject litis been telling readers of the London 'Times' how the regimental butcheries are managed so thai, there shall lie no pollution either to the olive Bengali or to some other tribesman dark as Gehenna. According to this writer the crux is not so much the nature of the meat, as the manner in which it, is killed. In the i cast- ui sheep the Sikh villager's anger | rises tit meat killed by the Mohammedan j" halai " or throat stroke. Similarly the Mosl-m grows sick at killing hv the i ■■jalka''—the stroke at the back of the neck affected by the Sikhs. So the great bulk of commissariat meat must, lie sent, alive to railhead and slain there in accordance with prescribed rites. That, the men may know for a certainty whether they are eating clean or unclean llesb, units are despatcher! to the abattoirs near the railhead, where each man. be he Mohammedan. Sikh, or Hindu, despatches' his beast, by his own peculiar sacrificial j stroke, marks it as ''clean," and sends ; it on to the trenches. The Guikha carries a more eiasti" conscience inside his dusky self, but, even be boggles at frozen treat. it seems. On one occasion a conclave of oflicers thought it, advisable to put this mutter to the men. The snbadar was called, and after a little wrinkling of the evebrow said : " 1 think, sahib, the regiment will be willing to eat the k-ed sheep provided one of them is always present to see the animal frozen Other thorny points fieset the amateur ! who (titers for Indians. It is said to be a common sight to see a French girl holding out a- cigarette to a Sikh, who is forbidden by the laws of his Gurus to smoke. On the other hand, the Hindu receives two packets of cigarettes a, week. Then the drink'. The army iation of the Indian troops is rum. but the Mohammedan, being debarred by the Prophet from all fermented lirpior, is given an extra ration of sugar and tea. The writer goes on to say that, even tho transport animals have their ingrained fads. Indian mules and conutry-breds. who might, be haying the time of their lives, nose the sweet English bay suspiciously, preferring their own chopped straw, the driest of provender. So if is all very strange. ENTER MORE INDIANS. Marseilles was frankly en fete again on November 7. when, unknown to ns. another Indian tinny landed there. Tho Murseiibiis dote on Hindus is seems. It was' largely a cavalry force, mixed Indians and Lritish, lancers, hussars, drat;oon guards, Pengal sowars, and Jacob's Horse, of the Death's-head bad ; e--t nil v a brave sight to gladden the heart of Notre Dame de la. Garde on her hill. Throiteh cheering', almost frantic, crouds they made their way out. '"mm the Quai d'Arong (where the transports lie) to the racecourse at Porcly. white with tents pitched days before. LATEST AH MY ESTIMATES. Conscription ant! the taik thereof blaze through the news. (In Saturday the cables made further mention of Lot d'Kitchener's six armies, which are fo include- the. Indians, but. not the colonials. Some indication of the numbers would have iirfproved that message. 'Lord Lucas, in the. House of Lords, has declined in tho public interest, to supply numbers, and at far all we know le. the estimate* for the Armv a.s they appeared in the London 'Times' of j November 14 : j All Hanks. ; Original estimate , 186,30.'.) Supp'ementarv estimate, August 5. 1914 ..." 500,009 Supplementary estimate, September 9, 1914 .'. ... 500,000 Supplementary estimate, November, 1914 " 1.000.000 Revise.! total 2,186,400 I take it that these' ligures mean nothing more than the establishment for which the Government were prepared to provide tit tho periods mentioned. In actual response '<> tho call old Scotland. espt< iaily tho Highlands, had led the way up til! the Lime that the last ma.;],< left. You i-;\n walk fatin tho Highlands to-day without riTeetfng one stay-at-home- young man. Old men and women are a« they wete, but. th" young man of the Highlands haft long vanished in the maelstrom of war, a.nd vanished very willingly too. Scotland wears her national mantle in her own way, and there are. times when she wears it with particular grace. " Tonald " ■ and " Hamish," the butt of numberless jokes in peace, step forward in true tartan, fulfilling the whole duty of a soldier—''Greater love hath no man than this, that he lay down his life for a friend." A NOTE ON YON STEE. German accounts of the naval battle otf the const of Chile on November t aie. rTT-ic-resting, as they furnish a fact, or two regarding Count Yon Spec, who sank in flic Scharnhorst in a subsequent, sen. battle near the Falkland Islands. It is generally difficult, to obtain anything accurate about the German navy or its personnel. The ' Frankfurter Zeitunjj' says that Admiral Maximilian Count You Spec was born at Copenhagen in 1361. and joined the German navy in 1878. He Tiad eeen comparatively little sea service before being appointed to command the cruiser squadron in China in 1912. He was on the point of leaving for home when war was declared, his successor beine; on the wav out to relieve him. . In giving then story of the battle the German Pics mention" that the Good Hope turned turtle at

the Inst, and that the Monmouth finished up in endeavoring to get to close quarters, lltese facts are new. As to the charge of apathy in saving life, they point to the circumstance that, apart from the sea and tho darkness, they had no boats. The la*t statement is true. They tossed their boats overboard when the war began. MORE MEN ! .MORE .MEN ! " Oh ! if we only had men now," writes a captain in the London 'Times' of November 17. six days .-liter the severo engagement with the Prussian Guard at /onneheke. " They will have to send Territorials at once, I think. T doubt whether people, at Home realise the Mastage. We as a battalion have, been lucky, but we have now lost, in killed and wounflpA M officers a:i.t jusfc on 600 men. lOver 600 out of 1,000 in three months!] Then sick raise the. numbers still more, so every man is wanted, and a law should forbid a football being kicked." Then a StaJf officer chimes in In the same issue : " I only hope that the casualty lists you arc reading—you are all reading--will bring home, to the people of England that this is no picnic, and that no waiting for the Russian advance will sulliee. We are getting men. but we want more badly, also officers. So preach everywhere what I have written, and impress on all that the longer the delay in sending men the longer the war will last." A bolt from the blue is shot down br a flight lieutenant of the 11. X. Flying Corps: " The casualty list is shocking. We want: every able-bodied young man we can get., otherwise God knows -what will happen to England. ... I hope Mr Asquith will tell the country straight out what is required, and make them realise how serious this war icallv is. England is still asleep." A color-sergeant in the London Scottish wrote after the fa-nous engagement: "It is only when one gets out here that one realises that, in this war, every ablebodied man is wanted to defend his country again.-t. these devils of Germans. . . . I can see now that unless we can. smash the Germans here much more fearful things will he in store f.r those ui Home.' MA ICE THE SLACK tills PAY ! Ami lastly (in another paper; M r liolwrt .Blatciiford savs rude things as folJov.-s : --- "What! Is Ornish l.loodto be held in common, ami not British gold? It is monstrous, k ;s our duty to do all we can to persuade our boys to light, but it is our duty also to make the sla-ckers pay. Wo want men for t tie Army. Let the Government issue a promise of £1 a, week pension for widows and disabled men and £!1 a. hj i-i'lc separation allowance fur wives or other dependents, and we shall get the men. But boys arc wise to-day, and until we make our slackers give their money thev will not give, their blood. Who would!' Who would leave wife and children here to starve'.' Those, brave fellows 1 out in Belgium and Franco are giving all they have—they are giving their lives... for Britain: and shall the comfortable moneyed drone tit home be let to hang back? Make the slackers pay!" WHY DID WE SLEEP? In these melancholy confessions we see the. poison effects of 'Deeds thai Won' and the magazines. It is our warlike literature wlii-di old men read in the libraries which has destroyed the visum. A German! 'in. let him conic, the miserable squarehead ! Is not one Englishman good for any twenty foreigners? To hint that the German army was capable of doing anything Gse but running away or attacking in " massed formations'' .whatever that. mav iinplvi brings the ignorant along with, the p-'o German brickbat. It all ha.s to be fared now. and no olli'.er seems desirous of taking 'Deeds thai* Won' or any of the magazines to th"j front among his kit. fie knows at length : that e\erything is different. He realises that the national thought litis been meanly hi; through its vrttiitv. and the time has come, so unexpectedly, that <)"vA< lie before him of which he hud never dreamed. In mv article ' Krief, Mobil ' I stated that any Power that Germany hutted into would know in less than two mouths (hat it. had been lighting. Tee battalion loss. quoted above- -60 a men mil of 1.000 in three months is hardly to he paraileb-d in war. We want men, ami. as it appears, we cannot, get enough to make the war bloodv and sudden, for''..he bloodier and suddemr the more merciful it will be. The cure for till the imbecility m the past i K to be conscription, but it will be a. lucky parcel of conscripts who are commanded by olli cors of any account turned out in less than a year. Besides, as Lord Cuii-.on (no friend of Kitchener) says, we must be careful about our conscriptions, or wo may produce industrial chaos. Hut, however it may all be. is if not time that the First British .Army was pulled out into second line for a, breather? It has been lighting for I'm days almost without a break. ONR HUNPPED DAYS' SIEGE. One hundred and. three days have rolled by since, the tide ot the Russian armies lapped the fii'lress of Pr/emysl and left Hi in a, stale of siege. I'ntil thisi place is done with there vijii be no abolition of the pfilmnt of Poland. I "mil that salient goes advance, by the Russian lentral armies will he dim.-id'.. \'<-ws to-day is that, the, Russians have brought down an aeroplane entrying tin alarming icport. fhai- there arc 5.000 i-tk troops inside. \Y.-- do not know how great t he. garrison of l'rzenrysl is, but six ui' M-veii times irm number given would be a moderate estimate, for, a first - class ring fortrt-'..-? with a mean diameter of 10 or 12 miles. The expectation of [ storming on t'"o date of the Feast of St. I Nicholas has earn,- overboard, and a- siege I of 100 davs is less than moderate, for the prrind of resistance which ordinary o a lcij- | iation would expect Previous me.ssa.gen j ic-speetiug this southern guardian of aj great, .'ingle, have. l>ecn as follow : • - Pfirr.grad. September 21. The artillery fight a 1 Pi/etr.vsl has heL'iiu. Piitrngrad. September 27.—Fortified positions north and south of 1 he city taken. Petrograd. September ,^O.--Complete isolation. Pefrograd. O, tobm- 15.—J-! battle front, <st.ab[i.<iic,; between Pr/emysl and Wnrsew. Rome, Xoveml er 2o.—Przemysi is ex hatisted with cholera. The final assault, ir. aiilieipaied on December 6--the. Feast of St. Nicholas. Pom-. December o.—Ttte Archbishop of Pr/ des.iibes liie. position of the. city as desperate. Vienna. December 1.1. -The garrison sortied and eapturul 700 p.ussia.n<s. Petrograd, December 22.—'Tito garrison has suficred heavy losses. Petrograd, December 7,1. We .tvpelccd heavy sorties from Pr/emvsl. Moie than usual interest attaches i.o the fate of Przemysl. for it is the tin;l. fortress on the A side which has heen invested. The length of the siege ieaves I the conclusion that tho P.ussian siege ar-j 1 tilery cannot effect the sudden const!minx- | Don of Licg& and Namur, but. it has to be remembered, that, tho trace of the works round these. Belgian towns was what Lord Sydenham ha>s termed " con von I ional." We may expect to hear something different about Przemysl when all the facte come. GERMANY FROM WITHI.V. Best advices from the inside of Germany do not show much economic stress yet. but there are. symptoms, re-liable symptoms too, that the* German nation is feeling tho pinch. A good many Americans nvo allowed free range in Germany, and we hav-s had the. testimony of one in tho cables. His word is that, the anxiety shown in the faces of the people is in marked contrast to the confidence displayed at tho Iveginning of the war. Wc may take this, I think, as'true, for it is corroborated in the German Press. The. 'Deutch© Tagrszeitunsr,' for instance, is what may bo called a jingo journal, but as long ago as November it had tho following:—■ How long will the -war last? This is a, question being asked not only in the cafes and railway 'carriages, but in a section of the Press. Our mm readers repeatedly , us for our opinion, but we cannot meet their wishes, simply because no one at present is in a position to aniswer the ijuestion with any certainty. It is both futile, and seiisdees to express, mere suppositions. Moreover, all such discussions, are extremely harmful, for they may easily convey a totally false impm-rdon of national feeling, and that must be avoided under all circumstances. .We content ouxjelv«i...

therefore, with repeating that all Emotions of the nation are unconditionally resolved to hold on until an enduring, honorable, and certain peace- has been a-ohievod. This resolve lias been repeatedly proclaimed with' absolute clearness by all classics of the German people, and on this point the Emperor, tits tinny, and the nation are at ono. The question as to how long the war will last can, therefore, only be answered bv saying that, humanly speaking, it will continue until this goal has been reached. The chastened tone of the 'Tageszeitung,' which is probably the most rabidly jingoistic organ in Germany, is significant, particularly when it is recalled that the same paper, in the early stag© of the war, deuntil each and all of the, Allies had been pulverised. THE GIANT. One of the most, amusing cables so far received came on Saturday. It broke the breathless newts on a respectful world that Pan Marino—a speck of independent republic in Italy—w _ as up in arms about something or other connected, with the war. Te this the latest- belligerent? The area cif the place is just 22 square miles. BOOT'S AND WET TRENCHES. "Eye-witness" has something to say {which is to the point) on boots in wet trenches. The, soldiers walk down thewatery communication trenches barefooted, and. resume their boot*; in the drier fire trenches, a.nd these, are not xury drv. Old German soldiers who took part in the 1870-71 war cay that of all their gear boots went first-. They got the length of cutting away the uppers and strapping the soles to their- feet as sandals. It would not- be a bad plan in wet trenches now. DRASTIC GERMAN CHANGE. "Eye-witness" goes on to remark many German, companies now consist of wholesale, mixtures of lirst-liners, Land wehi-, and Landsturni. There have been pome- vio. l.'itt readjustments in the. Kaiser's armies since war began, but, so far i\a wo know, nothing beyond tacking on one division of third-liners to each standing army corps. When, however, the interior economy of the companies of p.. battalion is interfered wiih we have something- more serious. 'J he company represents what may he called ih-e family life oi the army. THE CHRISTMAS TRUCE, There must have linen somcthinc; in that, weird Christmas muse, 1 hough it is hard to believe that the soldiers sang 'Lead. Kindly Light.' and other Christinas hymns. The correspondent of 1 lie London 'limes' in Northern France sreni.s to indicate tint the agony of the sozzy trenches brought the men out on the parapets, and they had some tacit understanding not- to fire.] Surelv if there hud been an\;h!ng more j the officer.-- would have interfered. PLATEAU OF SOISSONS. j A number of cables indicate ihe -move- i ivtciit -of troops this May and that, and! there i.s one message-., well confirmed. te!i- j ing that- the- French, have progressed | nil the plateau near Soissons. At, otu> [■•oint, along the long centra] km- the gam l* given as 500 metres (about, 540 yd vi, which is an excellent advance for lighting of this kind. This is pari of General duff re's nibbling j process, and a littie more. It, has to be read in cnnjiiii''l-ie.n with his message aft'T ; the battle of Sarykinn'sh. in tha Caucasus ■region, and with his own recent act in developing the German front, in Upper Al- i sai-e in a fairly bloody battle at Stein-' bach. While Poland retains its importance j i ; is ess< nihil to the Allies that they should j kii-iw .it. once when-wer the Germans do- i I'.ude one front to y. inforce another. 'I hev j can on!-- do then hv continually pressing ill ' and ev'tywheie If some time 1 hey i shou'd fit id it unexpectedly weak at. son.e j I '.int. they would certainly S"nd in a| major blow. j

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THE CASTES., Issue 15697, 11 January 1915

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THE CASTES. Issue 15697, 11 January 1915

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