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The Evening Star FRIDAY, JANUARY 8, 1915.

The Germans seek inspiration from many quarters in the terrific Wronged, contest that they have j Therefore Hated, provoked. The fiercest j and most hideous form ; of this inspiration is hate. There seems j to he no doubt thai the Germans loathe j .England to-day. From the- Kaiser down j to the common people this one feeling ani- i mates all alike. It had been growing for j a while before the war broke out; it had j been carefully fanned into a flame by the j Junkers and the War Lords : and now it j is apparently the all-devouring passion of i the whole German nation. It is probably l the first time in history that hate has be- j come a national ideal, and that the whole : population wish to have it so. Various j reasons have been given for this universal j hatred which bums in the average Ger- j man breast. Among all these one appears ; to be absent—the fact that Germany has ; wronged England. We can really see no j rational for this deep hatred except I this : There is no shadow of a doubt in tha j mind of any Briton that Germany has done j us wrong, and there is little reason to believe that she is not herself conscious of it. The Imperial Chancellor admits as much, for he recently confessed candidly^

I that the inva-ion of Belgium was wrong. ! And it was that wrong which brought England into the field. Germany knows i full well that instead of trampling down | Belgium .-he ought to bo on the side of ; England. Handing up tor the safety and ! neutrality of that brave little kingdom. I Sho is therefore fighting that last and \ most desperate, of all battles—the battle \ of an outraged conscience. It is this \ wounded conscience that utters itself in ; her present fiery hate of England, for it | is a curious and significant fact that the j worst hatred can lie aroused, not against ■ those who have wronged rs. but against thoso whom wk have wronged. That was | pointed out centuries riL'o by the Roman - historian. Tacitus. The phrase, in which he embodied it is familiar to every schoolboy : "I'ropnum humani ingenii. est odisse I quern la.\serie." Illustrations of it abound ! everywhere. Oibbon. who owed so much •to Tacitus, says of Para: "The Romans ; had injured him too deeply ever to forgive." ; So, again, in the instance of Arcadius and ' Ills iP.ufmus). " tile Kmperor ■ " v.-onld sooner be instructed to hate, to I " fear, and to destroy the powerful sub- " jects whom ho had injured." Referring ; to the case of Genseric and the nobility of ! Carthage, Gibbon says : " Jt was natural : " enough that Genseric should hate those \ "whom lie, had injured." Saul came to ; dislike his young minstrel David for no ■ other reason than that he treated him j badly. And at last his dislike hardened j into murder ).is hate. Dean Milman acI counts for the success of the vindictive ' violence to which Philip the Fair was ;.goaded by passion in has treatment of Guy i of Dampierre by significantly telling us 1 that "" Philip had the most deep-rooted | ''hatred of the Count of Flanders . . . ! " as one wlmm ho had cruelly wronged." : Some of the most striking and most painful illustrations may be gathered from the field of illicit love. Thus, in that dreadful story in the Old Testament where Amnion so foully wrongs his sister, after the guilt was accomplished, we read : " Then Amnion hated her exceedingly." A critic of Lord Nelson's letters to Lady Hamilton censures the great sailor's culpable neglect of one whom he was bound by every law of honor to cherish. This neglect—the consequence of an illicit passion seems " to have rankled " to a, degree of hatred from the. workings "of self-reproach." Of, fiction supplies us with no cud of examples of this sort. Perhaps one of the most impressive is that of Colt hurst ami his relation to the wronged Jenny Paris, in Lucas Ma-let's powerful novel 'The Wages of Sin': Ho hated her with the intensity with which wo can alone hate that which compels us iu self-defence, to fail back on our lower nature. But to come back to the historians. Maenul.'iy. in his essay on Lord Mahon's 'History of the. War of the Succession in Spain,' charges the author with being too fond of moral reflections. He. gives an instance in which Lord Malum refers to the fa-;t we are discussing : -Strange as it seems, experience shows that we usually feel far moro animosity against those whom we have, injured than against thoso who injure us. And this remark holds good with every degree of intellect, with every class of fortune, with a prince or a peasant, a .tripling or an elder, a hero or a prince. And Macaulay goes on to comment that this remark might have- seemed strange at the Court of Ximrod of Ohcdorlaorner ; but' it has now ceased to bo a. paradox, and become a truism ; therefore it may be dismissed from histories and philosophies "to bad novelists, by whom it will soon be worn to rags." We suppose that neither Richardson nor Fielding could be put in the class to which Maeaulay refers; but they both put this truism in evidence. Sir Charles Grandisou declares that he had experienced the irreconcilable enmity of a man whom he had forgiven for a meanness. So a chaarcter in one of Folding's books, whom his father had subjected to ill-usage, says: "Ho began •' inveterafely to hate me. And I protest "to you 1 know not any other reason for "it than what I have assigned, and the "cause and the experience both convinced; " ma is equal to the effect." Thackerayhas the same truth iu view in the ironically humorous query put by him. in ' Pendennis,' when lie asks : " What more " can anyone say of the Christian charity "of a man than that he is actually ready " to forgive those, who have done him " every kindness, and with whom he is "wrong in a dispute?" In my 'Schools and Schoolmasters' Hugh Miller tells a, pathetic story of two soldiers who fought in the wars of Queen Anne. One was a petty officer, the other a private. The former took advantage of his position to ill-use- the latter, and his hate of himi

became implacable. In one of his letter? Beattie says that Lord Monboddo never pardoned him for calling Captain Cook n. philosopher; and ho adds that- what made him hopeless of regaining the Judge's good-will wa.s the very maxim wo are hero discussing. ,; I think he did not. use "mo quite well in the preface to liis ''' Metaphysics '; and where a man uses j " you ill ho seldom fails to hate you. for j "it." Dean Swift, in his 'History of the j Last Four Years of Queen gives this finishing touch to his portrait of the Earl of Sunderland: The sense of the injuries he had done renders him (as is very natural) implacable towards thoso to whom ho has given tho greatest cause to complain; ior which reason he will never forgive either the Queen or tho present Treasurer. So, again, in his '.Modest Inquiry into tho Report of the Queen's Death/ he remarks : It is one of tho corrupt sentiments of the heart, of man to hate one; the more for having used them ill; and to wish those out "of the way who we believe ought in justice to revenge the I injuries we have done them. We submit that this is tho real explanation of the German attitude towards England. It is dne to tho icmorse of a wounded conscience. A false pride hinders it from confessing tho wrong I and it seeks to hide and harden itself behind the, vehemence of an impassioned hate.

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The Evening Star FRIDAY, JANUARY 8, 1915., Issue 15695, 8 January 1915

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The Evening Star FRIDAY, JANUARY 8, 1915. Issue 15695, 8 January 1915

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