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DIARY OF THE WAR, Issue 15693, 6 January 1915
DIARY OF THE WAR
SIX MONTHS’ LEADING- EVENTS. One of the immediate and comparatively minor causes leading up to the present European conflict was the assassination at Sarajevo on June 28 last of the Archduke Fran* Ferdinand, heir-presumptive to the Austrian throne, and Ims wife, who were shot by a Servian student. Other events then followed a,s under: June 50.—Anti-Servian demonstration in Bosnia. July 21.—Austria demands removal of certain Servian officers. July 24.—1n connection with the Servian Note drafted by Austria, Germany will hold aloof unless another Power intervenes. Then Germany will fulfil her dnty towards her ally, A Russian attack on Austria would mean war with Germany. July 25.—Austria's ultimatum to Servia. which Russia declares is directed against her, and prepares for action. July 26.—Servia mobilises. July 28.—Austria declares war, German mobilisation announced. July 29. —Belgrade bombarded and occupied. and general European war threatened. July 31.—Austria refuses to inform Russia how Servia will fare as a- defeated belligerent. August I.—Germany declares war against Russia. August 2.—Germany invades Belgium. Re- | pulsed at Liege, England's army and | fleet ready. ! August 3.—Britain announces that she will j protect the French coast if German bom- j bardnxent thereof be threatened. 1 August 4.—German ultimatum to Belgium ! demanding use of territory for military j purposes. Belgium refuses and appeals to England to safeguard, her neutrality. Germany asked by Britain for a satisfactory reply regarding Belgium's neutrality. No reply forthcoming, Germans enter .France. At 11 p.m. Britain is in a state of war with Germany. August s.—Germans invade Belgium at Venders. Germany promises to respect Holland’s neutrality. Lord Kitchener becomes War Minister.
August 6.—Swiss army mobilised. Belgians check German advance. United States declares her neutrality, Austria declares war against Russia. Amphion sunk by German mine. Parliamentvotes a war credit of £100,000.000 and 500,000 more men for the annv.
August, 7.—Prince of Wales Fund opened. Germans defeated at Altkirch in Alsace. British forces sieze South Togoland. August. 9.—German submarine sunk by H.M.S, Birmingham. Lord Kitchener
appeals for 100,000 more men. August 30.—France declares war on Aus-tria-Hungary. -Struggle for possession of
Liege forts continues. August- 12. —War declared between Great Britain and Austria-Hungary, bale to Turkey of German cruisers. Goeben and Breslau confirmed.
August 15. —More Belgian successes against Germans. Lord Roberts appointed Coloncl-in-C'hicf of the. Overseas Forces. August. 15.—Japanese Government address ultimatum to Germany. Battle between French and Germans afc Dinant. August. 17.—Landing of British Expeditionary Force, on French soil announced. August 18. —Germans enter Tirlemont. August 19. —German attempt, to pass troops over the .Meuse- again foiled. August 20.—Germans occupy Brussels. August 21. —Namur partially invested.
Germans routed iu East Prussia. August- 25. —Japan declares war on Germany. British forces engaged near
Moris. Fall of Namur. August- 24.—Allies withdraw from line of
Sambr-a and the great, retreat begins. August 25.—-Lord Kitchener addresses the House k>£ Lords. Gomans checked in
Alsace. August 26.—Gormans lose the Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosso and the Magdeburg. Russia reported to be advancing with 8,000,000 men. August 27. —Russians occupy Tilsit. August 29.—.Austria declares war against Belgium. Surrender of Longwy. British Fleet engages German vessels off
Heligoland Bay and sinks four German
cruisers. August 30.—Samoa occupied by New Zea--landers, lanivain .sacked. August 31. —Forty-fourth anniversary of Sedan. Britain and Franco protest
against purchase of German interned
vessels by Hi© United States. Sept-ember I.—Turkey warned by Britain. Moratorium extended in England. ' St
Petersburg renamed Pot-rograd. September 2.—-Allies driven back by overwhelming forces. Recruiting boom in England. September 3.—Germans occupy Amiens. Russian victory afc .Lemberg. French
seat of Government removed to Bordeaux. .September 4.—Exodus from Paris. Germans press forward September 6. —.Attack on Antwerp. Belgians gain victory at Termonde. Allies’ agreement re conclusion of peace. Al-
banian insurgents vacate Valonn. September 7.—Cruiser Pathfinder strikes a mine. Pacific cable cut at Fanning Island, Allies hold their ground. September B.—Allies act on offensive and
force Germans backSeptember 9.—Germans retreat across the
Marne. September IC.—Pursuit continues. India’s magnificent response announced. Allies drive the Gormans back 38 miles.
September 11. —Australian forces occupy New Guinea. Japanese advance on Kiao-chau. Russians defeat- General Von An (leu berg’s army. September 15.—Crown Prince’s army seeks .retreat between Verdun and Tool. Servians defeat. Austrians, at Raciia.
September 16. —Escape of Crown Prince’s army reported. Battle rages on line oi Disc and Meuse. German cruiser He.la torpedoed. September SO.—Rheims Cathedral bom-U-irdod. Cruiser Pegasus da.ma.gcd at Zanzibar. Siege of Przcmyfil begins. September 21. —Loss of cruiser** Aboukir, Cressy, and Hogue, 1.000 lives lost.
Cruiser Emden’s raids announced. September 22. -Terrific lighting between Peronne and St. Quentin. German warloan of £50,000 000 floated. Russians
occupy Jaroslav. September 25.■ General Botha take.y supreme command of South African lorces. September 25. —British aviators drop bombs on Husseklort. German post on Zambesi surrenders to Rhodesian, police. September 25.-—Battle of the Aisne rages fiercely. French, fleet bombards Lissa. September 28.—Germans bombard Malines. i>arclaneUe» reported to bc> closed. Prince Hurham Fddm proclaimed King ■of Albania. September 29.—German merchants offer war script in. payment of liabilities to British firms. October 1. —Great battle before Cracow begins. October 2.—lndian troops arrive at 'Marseilles. Japanese sink German destroyer. October 3.—Ashmend Bartlett announces that German commanders realise that they are in a desperate position. October 4.—Attack on Antwerp repulsed. Russian navy said to be intact. Mr Asquith addressed Cardiff meeting. French bullion reserves stated to be 175 millions. October s.—Fighting in France less violent. October s.—Villages outside Antwerp bombarded and devastated. Germans press the attack with enormous sacrifices. Cholera breaks out in East Prussia. October 7.—Allies forced to yield at certain points north of the Oise. Rumanian submarine stolen from Italian dockyard. Kitchener’s new army reaches 600,000. October B.—Germans admit losing 300,000 to date. German destroyer sunk by British submarine. October 9.—Japan seizes Jaiuit. Antwerp repels German attacks. Situation in France unchanged. Bombardment of Antwerp begins, October 10. —Antwerp garrison reinforced. General situation in France stationary. _ Heavy fighting 1 proceeds along frontier of West Suwalki. October 10. —No material change in French situation. Violent bombardment of Antwerp announced,
October 12.—Surrender of Antwerp on 9th confirmed. .British force of 2,000 enter Holland, where they have been interned. Unprecedented enthusiasm in Germany. October IS.-—Acute distress in Brussels. Allies gain ground, in France and seize 850 mitrailleuses. October 14.—Rebellion in South Africa and martial Jaw proclaimed throughout the Union. Germans fall back in Northeastern France. Siege of Przemysl raised. October 15.—German occupation of Lillo announced. Two German submarines destroyed by Russian fleet. Portugal authorises mobilisation. Capo rebellion localised. Great battle on Russian front commences. October 16.—-Gorman submarine sank off coast of Scotland. Gormans take up new positions in France to enable retreat to be continued along a wide front. October 17.—German steamer sunk at Sumatra. Reported defeat of Austrians at Prezemysl. Allies make continued progress in Franco, French reoccupy Altkirch and Mulhausen. October 19.—Cruiser Hawk sunk by German submarine. Gigantic battle raging between Warsaw and the Dneister. German losses to date nearly a million ; Austria’s half a million. October 20.—-Germans occupy Ostend and mine the Scheldt. Britain’s new army in training totals 1,200,000. Serbs and Montenegrins defeat Austrians. Four [ German destroyers sunk. October 20.—Allies drive back the enemy. Epidemic of espionage in England. October 21.—Defeat of Lille upsets German plan for attack on French coastal region. Japanese cruiser Takachiho sunk by a mine. October 22. —Russians push Gormans hack from Warsaw. Allies’ progress continues slowly. Monitors assist in defeat of German forces at Nieuport. October 23.—Violent battle on Allies’ left wing from the North Sea to La Bassee. Enemy repulsed all along the lino. Gorman Channel force in a critical position. Cruiser Kmden reported to have sunk live more British steamers. Portugal makes active preparations for war. October 25.—Life-and-death struggle m Flanders continues. French cruiser bombards Ostend. Russian successes an-' nounced. October 26.—Moritz defeated at Caliviria. Alliance of American and Liverpool shipping companies to capture German trade. Germans cross the Yser. October 27.—Indian troops inaction. Serajev» assassins sentenced. General Von Moltke superseded. Sanguinary fighting continues. October 28.—Germans beaten back over the Yser with great loss. Generals Beyers and He Wet instigate a. rebellion in South Africa. General Botha goes to the front. October 29.—Fighting in the, north-east continues. Russians cross the Vistula. October 30.—Turkey opens hostilities. Bombardment in Black Sea. October 31.—Germans suffer tremendous losses on East Prussian frontier. November I.—Many Cape rebels shot and others captured. November 2.—German attack in France and Belgium weakening. Russians continue their advance.
November 3.—Bombardment of Sebastopol. Turkey protests innocence and apologises. November 4.—Russians gain further successes in the Kast. German squadron crosses tho North Sea.. November s.—Battle of Ypres ends in rout of tho Germans. Naval engagement off Valparaiso reported. November 6.—Russians capture Jaroslav. Fall of Tsing-tao. Germans concentrate on Ypres. November 7.—Valparaiso naval battle confirmed. Cruiser Good Hope lost. Germans said to he retreating along tho whole Russian front. November B.—Allies make small progress in Flanders. November 9.—Russian advance continues. Hcavv fighting in Flanders and Northeast France. November 10.—Cruiser Emdeu driven ashore and wrecked by H.M.A.S. Sydney. Russians occupy Soldau. Cruiser Koeuigsberg bottled up. November 11.—Air Lloyd George appeals for 2,000,000 men. Conspiracy against Voting Turks in Constantinople. Situation in Flanders unchanged.
November 12. —Opening of English Parliament. Russians’ advance continues Casualties to date—French 400,000, English 50,000. November 14.—Germans reinforced round Ypres, British casualties to date 57,000, German ernisers at Valparaiso. November 15.—Lord Roberts dies suddenly at St, Omer. November 16.—Russians within 13 miles of _ Cracow. Turkish forts at Shiekh Said destroyed. November 17. Position in Flanders unchanged, General Hertzog reported to - have been imprisoned by Do Wet. November 18.—Sortie from Przemyel repulsed. Prince of Wales goes to the front. Another Indian contingent arrives at Marseilles. November 19.—Japan hands over captured Pacific Islands to Australia. British naval casualties to date 4,142. German victory over Russians advancing on Thorn reported from Berlin. 'The Ten-
nessee incident at Smyrna. November 20.—Gocben and Breslau surprised by Russian Black Sea Fleet ; the former damaged. Gorman retreat from Flanders foreshadowed. Funeral of Lord Roberts. November 21.—Snow and ice interfere with Flanders operations. German attempt to break Russian lines repulsed. November 22.—German reinforcements pouring into Belgium. Quiet day in Flanders, Rumania- expresses sympathy witj( the Entente. November 23.—Violent cannonade at Vpre?, goissons, and Rheims. Successes of British armored train? exasperate the enemy. Capo rebels repulsed at Seengorn. November 25.—Brilliant Russian victory on the Plock-Lenozyca lino reported; Gormans said to be fle-eing toward.-, Prussian frontiers. November 26.—Allies bombard Zcebrugge. Germans reported to he fortifying North Sea islands, Nows of Russian successes continues. November 27.—Battleship Bulwark blown up in Sheerness harbor with, great 10.5.s of life. Russians break German offensive. British naval casualties to date B.OCO. November 28.—British war loan attracts 100,000 applicants. November 30.—Russians occupy Czernowitz. Germans mass troops towards Arras. December I.—Enormous German losses reported from' Poland. Austro-German defeat said to be assuming colossal pro- i portions. King George, sails lor 1< ranee. ( December 2.—Russians state that 50,000 Austrians have been captured since November 14. December 3.—Austrians occupy Belgrade. Now Zealanders and Australians land in Egypt. December 4 Allied aviators drop bombs on Krupp’s factory. General Bennenkampf superseded in connection with his dilatorine.ss in not completing the Russian enveloping movement. December s.—King George returns from Franco after inspecting troops. ' December 6.—Germans claim to have occupied Lodz. December 7.—lt is stated that Rumania will join the Entente. December B.—Russia evacuates Lcdz. Germany’s Pacific fleet destroyed off Falkland Islands. December 9.—General Botha announces that South African rebellion is at an December 10.—Austrians meet with fresh disaster in Servia, 20,000 prisoners ana 50 cannon being taken. December 11.—Russians achieve great success south of Cracow. December 12.—Sinking of the Number? confirmed. Crown Prince- ..summoned to Berlin on account of Kaiser’s health. December 13.—Allies continue to gain ground in Flanders and North France. Great Servian victories reported. December 14.—British submarine 81l sinks the 'Turkish battleship Messoudieh in the Dardanelles. The Dresden interns at Pipita Arenas. December 15.—Allies’ offensive in Flanders continues.
December ,17.—German cruiser raid on the Yorkshire coast. British squadron bombards M'estende. December 18.—Germans reported to have beaten the Russians on the Vistula. Austrians pouring into Galicia. December 19.—Allies’ vigorous offensive. German armored cruiser Friedrich Karl 8.850 tons) sunk in the Baltic. December 21.—First Canadian regiment goes to the front. December 22.—Allies’ advance in Franca and Belgium continues. December 23.—Austrians and Germans lose heavily in unsuccessfully endeavoring to relieve Cracow and Przomyal. j December 24.—Grave anxiety reported to exir.t in Berlin as result of recent reverses. December 25.—German Taube drops a bomb on Dover. No damage done. December 28.—British raid on Cuxhaveh reported to have been made on Christmas Day. December 29.—German casualty list totals two millions. December 30.—Russians defeat the Turks. Austrian retirement from the Carpathians Investment of Cracow raised. December 31.—Austrians said to be completely demoralised south of Pm-mysl. Fate of Przemysl believed to be scaled.
DIARY OF THE WAR, Issue 15693, 6 January 1915
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