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MINES THE LIKELY CAUSE. GALES & DANGER SPOTS. GREAT BUILDING AT HOME. STRONGER THAN EVER. \ COPPER CLOUD AND ITALY. [By A. Spence.] The mine, theory, in the ease of the Formidable, looks the most likely, to it may be no score for the German navy. There is a strong point in fnvor of that theory. A trawler which did not belio her name—for she was indeed a dispensation cif Providence to one of the buffeted British pinnaces—came on the scene at 9 o'clock on Xew Year's morning-. Tho Formidable had been .strnck some. time, before that, so it must have been dark. Xo .submarine can attack in darkness, for she cannot see the, target. The, theory of the mine has that direct support, and there, is circumstantial evidence pointing the same way, A. piping gale had raised waves ollft high, and this would strain any minefield, especially one anchored on an oozy bottom. The. British set. of mines which guards our naval enterprises on the coast of Belgium is shown in tho accompanying sketch. It .-(retches 'n an oblong from the coast of the bow Countries towards the coast of Kent. If the gale were blowing down Channel some such mishap a.< bar. ho-ppoiKvl would be possible. The Formidable may have been operating in the, Channel as part of Admiral .Hood's bombarding fleet of 15 ships, or may have been crm-ing further poinli as part of the gmavd which wa.tch Sir John French'-, line of Mipply acres-, tho Channel to the Continent. That point does not matter. It may be interesting to compare at this stage the loss of a battleship oi the Formidable class with the loss of a S-harn-

hold. Jt i-. ot eour-e. not ra-y to compaic the humting eoeiiicient of a hattk-b-.p with that of pm armored an;! in ■ onlv wnv -it 1.-. rou,di am) rcany-—is t> nkuc tlm rate, i.t delivery of metal per minute -ide hv side, rouutim: heani fire. We get the. following; eoinpai;-"" ■ : primary fire :-- The Formidable rimlil deliver four discharges per minute, each weighing oo'Jl'h--7, 40nJ!> 111 the same, lime the ."mharnlinrd could deliver 13 -hot,; of 2121b each--.I.7>f)6!b. Thco rate; of dh-eharg<- li;!V». however, to he multiplied by some numberepresent hie; tin: iigtire ot merit of the armor. The Formidable should be_ mult:plied hv two. and the Schanihov-t hv ore'. The rough (igtires. theref.)re. constituting a comparison would bo 63 to -l"-. the maigin being in favor c,f ihe British --hip. Latest lists of the men picked up rea-u heltir than thev did rm Saturday, and as the survivors are being lauded a! sml, distant spots as T.rixham. in Devonshire, hj, is jxis.-ible that the complete figure will read better sliil. A rather xtrangejndicntion of r.'coni changes in the. Navy is embodied in the list of oi'ioers who are reported ;:s drowned. In the ante-helium days the ship was last commissioned on December 'll, 1912, by Captain ISrury St. A. Wake. lie wa> in command just before the war began. 'Tit" eahle to-day speaks of "Captains John Deed and Arthur Loxley." ' JI that refers to the captain of the ship, and not. to the ca-p----tain of some, subordinate station on the ship, it looks as though the principle of dual control, which proved disastrous to thi> Unmans facing Hannibal at Cannae. ha<i heen reintroduced. It is apparent]y a, t'aet, that the old system of port and starboard watches has been broken up in tile Navy so far as the men are, concerned, ami the present, message reads as if there were some new system implying a duplication of higher control. Otherwise, tin- message reads normally. The commander who joined the ship ou August 22. 1.013. was Charles F. V>a!knvl ; the lieutenant commanders, William. ('. Harrison (dune 24, 1912) ami H'r.nrv 1... Street (January 6, 1914;. These names are jriven in the cable, LAST SCF.NKS. The steadiness of discipline on the Formidable, the sang froid when everyone must have, known that deatb was near, recall the snme when the chip's company were mustered on the deck of the Victoria after she hail been irrevocably rammed hv tlm C-amperdown. Only this seems to ho better. Accounts received indicate the proportions of the various boats' crewe which died from exhaustion. Oars wetcbroken in muding (he boats oil' the. tumbling sido of tile ship, holes in 1-he pinnace were fluffed with jumpers, the inspiring strains of "i ipp.-rary ' «cr:> interrupted 'by the necessity for baling, one boat alighted no.<=e. first in the writer, and so on. IVrhaps Leading-stoker Parr puio; the. most, vivid lipht- <m the last, scenes. As soon as the explosion (ante the flies wcro drawn, but this eye-witness testifies that the boilers exploded all the same, a-s, in tact, they would, fires, or no tires, when new sets of molecular energy were Jet loose with tiiauic. force. He comments on the A'-.ftinraV.-y *:S Vowwmg suck Wvy boats, without steam to start, the cranes, find then adds, in a sentence which requires no comment: "When last) eeen those left on hoard were (Handing on tho foredeck, smoking and talking." NF.W SHIPS FOE, 01J.X Naval writers at Home, are correctly drawing public attention to Mr Churchill's words of November 27 regarding our ability to alford such a loss monthly. We can, "f think, afford more. Private letters from Home show tremendous activity on the Clyde and at Barrow. There has been nothing like it in the history of the industrial world. The Clyde is erjjng night and day, while Woolwich Arsenal. now employing no less than 22.000 hands, is working continuously, Sundays an.l all. On 'October' 21 the London 'Timea' gave a short sketch of some of tb« 7«e>

sels which Britain had Hearing completion : "It is quite easy to see the names of the ships to -which the First Lord referred, as they have cither been given in the ' Navy List' or other official announcements. The battleships are four in number, two of these being the Aginoourt and Erin, orginally built for Turkey, but purchased at the outbreak of the -war; and the others the Benbow and the Emperor of India, originally called the Delhi, in which Rear-Admiral A. L. Duff lias hoisted his flag. Three vessels of this fine quartet carry , the 13.5 in gun, while the fourth is armed with 14 12in guns. All of thorn, moreover, have a secondary' battery of bin guns for defence against torpedo craft. The two British programme ships aro sisters to the Iron Duke, the flagship of Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, and tho Agincourt, of heavier tonnage, is a very similar ship. The Erin, sis indicated by Ilia armament mentioned above, is also a very powerful vessel, but differing slightly in design from the others. There is also a battle-cruisor of tho Dreadnought type, the ; Tiger, of 28,000 tons, an improvement upon the Lion, tho flagship of Vice-Admiral Sir David Beatty. This vessel carries eight 13.5 in and 12 6in guns. From Mr Churchill's announcement we may confidently expect that other largo .ships for tho battle lino will bo added to the above. Everybody has now heard about the success of the Aretbnsa and tho Undaunted, two of the six light armored cruisers which were laid down when the present Admiralty Hoard came into office. Several of these, (ships have now been added to the active Fleet, and their value lias been abundantly proved by the affair in the Heligoland Bight on' August 28 and tho destruction of a division of destroyers off the coast of Holland on October 17. Then there are the three armored monitors, which have done such excellent work on the Belgian coast. These are also additions to the Fleet since war began, and have completely demonstrated the foresight of the navaf authorities in taking them over at the beginning of the war. All the. above vessels' are armored, and no account has been taken of the many torpedo craft which have already beeii' added to the Fleet. So far (says ' The Times') we have been more fortiinate than cither Japan or Russia in I our experience of the terrible power of the mine or the action of the torpedo, j whether carried by destroyer or sub- j marine. If, however, the British Fleet should suffer furl her losses—-and they must be expected -we may feel secure and confident that it will take many such to affect our preponderance in material. The. Fleet will continue 1o grow in numbers a.nd strength as time goes on, and, knowing what wo do about the resources of Germany, we may be hopeful that in huildins up our naval strength Mr t hnrchiil's forecast will be abundantly realised."

i m i d iorih F >\ i ] 111 T j Urn (ul 1 1 n nt> i ni ( -\ il n k \ itdud til 111 ' t'l I 1 tli \ IK d t iv 1 1 til Ci t Itl> sill f U V u Will <! \ \( nib i » mii ill 3i ' tii il hj u I irl'i t> It hit II tl 111 ii_, rr I 1 i I i\ i a tl n ) il in t 1 nt n 1 nt nl ] t">p ni i Hi tun<" j 1 ( 1 n ( flan nf i If ui I[ll tl 1 i Irr i tl r <} U (1)1 i|ti i mi' f tin I<Uh I ndgc nl i , \ i I v \ i i N > -\< el im 1 ij 11 i i 1 n iJ od \r ni nn i, I i u (1 l tli t > ho \ it- wild L In I i <n mi 1 l t it r <<• 1\ es ill n hj t 11 1 tli Admn ilu < \ ml i 5 i ll n rt intil tuth 1 i 1 i U \ i(t lli< 0\ n Ihe \mi i 1 \ i n j' ' lpn f-Tinh In i> ! nt'i t ' j a il 1 i iti in is In „f j , i \| dnl M to th 'i md i tim 1 t 1 01 ( I \ dllH iIS 01 Dl Us Of i \ I 1 lip Jin j iln i i li i> Ihj i I loin it luj fiuin Mi i in ii id ii qui \ in ill iii liti ] 01l dm,, c ilmmatcd i ill ii ut il un ><i <. however 1 11 i ii ilh i hld fully ' i li 1 i <'s < t I 'ic lime* mention tin ] (11 I i \ \ Won fl lie It „u \* ir i till mi u viii t~in 1 by \\ (] i i i!ni ir i ii S,ptt inVi 2? tli 3 \ inn ih\ N ! li i t I at iii enor of m n ' i_, 1 \ t 1 i \bnul ii 11 o mattei t i| i t tli 1 ho\ \n itk! on Not, em 1 i' ( jii ii i liol on wijg \( n tho i linn n ' l mr iil -\ 1— tho \nroii 1 u' ul tin kloi <ind Biehhu J i 1 oii o h' ii nil <iduil t> Ron imii il 1 L 1 li nliid h \. <loikl in in i un 1 if M dil niiUJi onino n ' ii tut not n a} } < die 1 n tho ( sWr s t ll line an 1 in' k j u tit nl a» Im e in 1», null 11 ippi a that the- \a i il \ ,1 lick) j r il' 1 ihis ofli or Til 1 in i j n < t Jnqu j\ conM ting ot v > u Isu Jl< hi nth Mcuv iih] A him il —ir l l ( ill |Ji-in \tt i the emit i i' jim J il l r li I hndin,, \ linn il i i nl id f ipi 'cd hj i (ourt mai jil md 1i i li 1 it loitland Ihe oiurt sit in <! i ( (In n n (no and th I J uioiu l, im" iit n ud that th ie tit « n Jul iabl> lxquittal 111 lii ' > <~ inutb out tint tlij \ Inn <\ id n<"t i uo any coi fnmation ' i ii <li „ of hit kind I I tl li \L 1 roMICB rORIIi 1 1 1 i it, i* tli Ru tail lan t-n l>m iiIi ji in k ln„hil 1 \\y ili siir., ( i in ) il ; ( en<; il ]\ ii <-ti w—- , hj \ l l t 1 i lull Ilk rl svil (' m set li Ji i 1 i) <- til (t On k itmdaj the M ni; 1 t pi tin 1 it ul «; rut hi lp in n litniLP o f ■who'c'talo r ih'nl i vMihoitt intermi'j.ioi ITij ( il IM 1 Dul e —as thr\ wU Nik > a m ' c*>\ tih—niriv p sibh imti i j i« / .JVi lut only a, chillodsU<l uoul uhi view unmoved iho iron frontier \ liicii ho must liattlo over to v.-iru It n. Ms tnno to i>iv a word about some 1 one of tho Prussian fortresses which fao<s | Poland. 'J'«ke 3'hoi-n, ior instance. j Pound this toon stretch nino major I wforks. 'ilxeso are Forts Scternhorst. ; Yorck, Billow, "Wilhelm 31., He3nrich Von j Zalzie, Grossor Kurfurfit, Hcrtzog Ai- ! bvecht, Fa-icdrich dex Gjpossg, and jiohna. j Bct\rocn thesu larga works are feven inter- : meduito forte sep<orated by di6ta.ri<Ses o? | from half to three-quarters of a mile. A 1 most destructive cross-flr6 can be obtained 1 from them. Tho standard artillery for a | large German fort is 27 long-range guns | and 20 smaller pieces. The seven interj mediate work;; will «?.oeh carry 10 large and II smaller guns. Add to theee the usual \ reserves, and 140 pieces which are mounted I in a centra.; enciente, and the total must i be alioat 1,000 cannon, of which 60 per i cent, arc of long range. ; That was 'thorn in jieaee time, but it j has lieen iiiimon.i'dy addi-d to =iiir e war • iit-gan. And it ha* to Ir> remembered, too, that Thorn is by no moans the largest of tfe<e fortresses «-)iich frame the Prussian Rentier in the east.

"THE MOST EXALTED." An army order was published in Beiiitf in November which (as "TBIe Times* put*. it) deserves to be recorded,- if only as m example of the literary stylo of "Ge-ricTS Kluck. It runs:—_ His Majesty the Emperor and King had the gracionenesp yesterday to bono? the First Army "with- his Most ExaltetJ presence. His Majesty visited yesterday a. battle position, and confinced Hi'* Most Exalted Self of the construction of tho first battery in ths firing line. A review of the Grenadier Regiment, Prina Karl, ended the presence of the Most Exalted War LoTd among tho troops. The Most Exalted ordered me to express to tho First Army his highest apprecia* tion. While performing this order of tho Most Exalted, I express my congratulations to the commanding gsneralj and to all troops under them. For« ward!—Von Kluck, On this 'Tho Times' comments j "A few years ago Herr Maximilian Haxderi de« lighted the audiences at his lectures witij the remark that while God was described as The Exalted, the description 'The Most Exalted' (Allerhochstl was reserved for the German Emperor.' CLOUDS AND COPPER. Silver lining and darker hues fleck the American cloud. The darker side, previously revealed, .was that tho Presidential Note was eommiriatory. America asserts that Britain has outstripped her rights on the high seas; furthermore, that Japan is sinning similarly on the Pacific Ocean. Lastly, she asserts that her exports hava been cut down by war measures by aa much as £76,000,000 during 2vovember. The silver side is that Sir Edward Grey's reply will be drafted in friendly tone. President Wiison fully realises that Britain is engaged in a life-and-death struggle, necessitating strong measuies. 'The Times's' legal authority has pointed out that inconvenience arising through the right of search is unavoidable in these days, when vessels often carry cargoes of prodigious variety stowed scientifically by expert stevedores, necessitating a long search if it is to be. effective. United States officials think that a settlement, could be arranged on the basis of an efficient examination nf cargoes before they leave the United State-:. Well, there's the rub. Could that be done? If so, by whom? Unless British representatives took a. hand in it that species of search would be farcical. It is a curious cloud indeed, this cloud which the copper kings have thrown athwart the sky, ANOTHER HYPOCRITE. Out of this storm -we have glimpsed tha real Italy at last. Tho 'Chronicle's' Roma correspondent mentions a, growing irritation at the Allies' restrictions. The ' (xiornale d'ltalia' speaks of the excessive zeal of warships, and the 'Tribuna' pipes the same squeak. It is not so long ago since. Italy, feigning great fair play, stopped a trainload of copper on her northern frontier. We may be sure that for every train stopped hundreds passed through to the enemy unchallenged. Our foreign relations at present transcend the difficulties which beset the younger Pitt, but in Sir Edward Grey, weak as he has been in the. past in relation to Russia, we seem to possess the. Heaven-born man for the emergency. It i>. in my judgment, a far greater emergency than most people are yet aware of. FLEETS OF .7 A PAN AND AMERICA. I have been asked to indicate which is the stronger fleet at present—Japan or America. Worked out on a system of fighting coefficients America is nearly 100 per cent. stronger than Japan.

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THE LOST SHIP., Issue 15691, 4 January 1915

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THE LOST SHIP. Issue 15691, 4 January 1915

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