SURVEY OF SIX WEEKS IN POLAND.
COPPER TRUSTS AGAIN.
THE ATTITUDE OF THE UNITED STATES.
[By A. SeenCe.J
The painful news of the loss of the battleship Formidable arrived this morning, She is Captain Drury St. A. Wake's command, 15,000 tons, and the exact equivalent of Togo's Celebrated flag vessel Mikasa. She, is about 14 years old. The message is meagre, but the enemy's hand has been in it again. It is their New Year reprisal—the set-off for the brilliant raid undertaken by the British airmen on Christmas morning at Cuxhaven. If a reasonable number of British bluejackets, have been saved out of the general drowning it doesn't amount to much, though the cable points the other way. We could stand the loss of many Formidables without knowing that we have been hit. Of course we have the same old troublesome submarine problem always with us, like St. Paul's thorn in the flesh, but perhaps we can afford to wait a little The German battleships must be dug out sooner or later, and now we look—not in vain, I believe—to the British armament maker to do it. We have been sorely deceived in the past by our armament makers, by otir literature, and by the flight of every straw on the dark river of chicane, which we call public opinion. That foolery must end. The loss of the. Formidable, helps us on towards a clearer, brighter day. The armament maker, if he is to justify his existence, must come to our aid presently with some form of air attack on those snug ships in Wilhelmshaven and Brunsbuttol. Only that way can they be routed out to sea. It is interesting, comforting indeed, to notice that the first helpful note has been struck by the
Church—by the Archbishop of Catnerbnry. His New' Year letter to clergy and laity frames the thundercloud with gold : The -well-being of the- Navy is the very life of the Empire. No household will be acting worthily if, through timidity or self-love, it keeps back those who are able loyally to bear a man's part. It will be our task, if God grants ns the insight and power, to raise hereafter, even out of the agonies and terrors of war, something better and holier than man has yet seen for the fellowship of the nations.
I do not know what grander words could have been uttered. In a few sentences the Archbishop has summed up the immediate national necessities, which count tor much, and the ultimate direction of the national thought, which counts for ever so much more. THE BLACK LIST. The black lifii, of losses at sea, excluding submarines and armed merchantmen, now reads as given under. ]n each case the date is the date of completion of the ship, not the date of lose. It is equally possible that the Formidable may have been engaged inshore on the coast of Belgium, or offshore at the Nore. The cable states that she was sunk in the Channel. If so, the German submarines have a free range, and it is difficult to see what can stop them from going anywhere' until new measures aie deviced. il may be necessary to add that the Formidable. is not a Dreadnought, or anything like one:
Tiger 1899 900 121 L-uchs 1899 900 121 Panther 1901 1,000 125 Itlis 1898 900 121 . Jaguar 1898 900 121 Four "destroyers THAT AMAZING FRONTIER, The corridors of bayonets which were to shut Von Mackensen up in Poland have not been heard of lately. He began pouring in troops between the Vistula and the Warta about November 11, and at one time there were hopes that he would not be allowed to depart quite so gaily as he came. Since thon ' The Times ' has given the world a candid admission of defeat.
There is no attempt to sketch the positions of the armies in to-day's map, for the Grand Duke Nicholas will have to swing one or two of his hosts further north, and swinging great armies off the routes originally worked out by the Genera) Staff is very difficult The* larger the armies the more difficult it is.
The key to everything at present is Cracow. Its reference to Bresiau is so familiar to everyone that no words arc needed on that point. For its defence a battleline extending southward from Czensloohowa was organised by tho Germans on rough and difficult ground. The Russian purpose at first was to advance heavily on this line, moving from the Vistula through Petrikow, Radoni, Ivielce, and other places which have often been mentioned. The trend of tho movement was therefore slightly southward. The Austro-Germans stood to meet them on this front, but, knowing that it- would presently be all over if they adopted a passive defence, a counter-attack was organised further north. When this phase of tho conflict in Poland began the Grand Duke was striking convergent!)' at the spot who/'c the blow could do most harm. For the moment he is in tho worst position
in which a strategist could find himself. He must continue the move against the Czenstochowa line if lie means to do any good. At the same time ho must whip away one army or two to look after Warsaw.' He is therefore committed to divergent operations one north and one south
—and he has the bulk ot military theory against him. As the brilliant American Oeneial Sherman once put it: "Divergent operations never did and never will do any good in war." The movement devised by that subtle old fox Hindenburg, and largely carried out bv his subordinate. Yon Mackonsen, started, from the re-entrant formed by the fortresses of Thorn and Posen and the city of Breslau. These places were not mentioned much, but spots in advance of them —Wielen, Kalisz, and Kutno, for example —have caught the eye often during the past 50 days. The German forces moving on concentric lilies from the points mentioned struck first at Lodz, at Lowicz, and more, lately ut places halfway between Lowioz and Warsaw. They got close, to the capital of Poland, and we probably do not know yet how near they wcre or are.
If it were not a life-and-death war it would be hard to restrain admiration for Hindenburg's strategy. It is a move which is only equalled by Napoleon's desperate struggle inside the loop of the Ma-rne a hundred years ago. North of this concentric touch, some danger was to be apprehended from Rennenkampf's army holding fronts near Suwalki, Augustowo, Grodno, and Lomzba. To shield Von Francois and Yon Mackensen some sort of German distribution of troops occurred along the railway leading south-east from Mlawa through Przasyn and Pultusk to Warsaw. They have been driven off this line more than once, but we do not know yet who has won or lost on this fragment of a maze of moves along the most reitiark able military- frontier on earth. Today's map is merely for the convenience of those who like to study the war out town by town. THEIR COPPER, THEIR BRASS. The colossal impudence of the United States can leave no feeling in the patriotic mind now except one of righteous anger. Thank goodness some disturbance has come, for we ehall know-, perhaps, who are o-jr friends and who aa - e not. We have one fine friend, pnyway. There is no need *to meaMSoj* what his name may be, for everybody knows him. I have watched him in Wellington with interest many an aftexaoaa, buying books afc that store. bwaehso a£ fisswss in another. Looking at him—polit* demeanor, flowers, bocks, brown f*w»j the most urbane «i
smiles —you would hardlv think that he could fight at ail. ' This friend does not go about carrying his valor on his sleeve; but much as he has kept hiniseJf in the background, he does at least have the distinction that even' race under every flag in the world knows Iris quality, and none fear it mow than the Jingoes" of the United (states. Of course, it is the copper trusts of America who are now beginning to carry the'unwary match round the world's now, ih'v. Tb: British, have been watching this, and have noticed facts of this kind s Compared with 1913, the import* of American copper by neutrals increased markedly during 'September and October, lairing those months Italy received nearlv fourfold her usual supply, ■Holland twelvefold, Norway eightfold,
and Sweden nearly threefold. No one requires better illumination as to what it is" all about than that. Two pro-Gerinans have been holding forth in, inflammatory wav in the House of Re. presentatives at Washington. "Some day," said one, " this issue must he tried out in the Pacific." Let it come! In the olden days of the theatre in Dunedin some stage" managers used to he fond of crossing the Union Jack and the Stars and Stripes to cap a tableau. One well-known Dunedin citizen, kindliest of men—a man who liked his theatre, tooused invariably to rise from Ins Beat in the dress circle and walk out in quiet protest. He was a far-seeing man. DJEMAL PASHA.
There is a message indicating the ariival of Djemal Pasha with a. handful of poorlyequipped troop? at Jerusalem. He was afterwards found dead in his room, it la said. Djemal Pasha was hitely Turkish Minister of Marine, and mom lately_ designated to comn-aml in Palestine. On the balance of chances, h<- may V* still very much alive. The rail "backwash of the c&bW leaves everyone more or less sceptical.
— ■The- British . List,— Ship. Date. Tons. Crew. Formidable ... 1901 15,000 780 Bulwark ... 1902 15.000 780 Good Hope ... 1910 14,100 900 (! Abonkir ... ... 1902 12,000 700 Hogue ... 1902 12,000 700 CresaJ' ... 1301 12.000 700 Monmouth ... 1903 9.800 678 Havvke ... 1891 7.350 540 Hermes ... ... 1900 5,600 450 Amphion ... 1912 3.360 320 Pathfinder ... 1904 2.940 268 Pegamis ... ... 1899 2.135 224 . Speed J' — '810 85 Mger . ... 1892 810 85 _ •The German List.— Schimihorst ... 1907 11,600 650 Gncisena-u ... 1907 11.6C0 650 Yorck ... 1905 9,050 557 Mainz ... 1909 4.350 362 Koln ... 1910 4;350 362 Magdeburg ... 1912 4,700 380 F.mden ... 1908 3.600 321 Nurnberg ... 1905 3.450 295 Koiiigstierg ... 1907 5.400 295 Leipzig ... 1906 3.250 ' 286 Ariadne ... ... 1901 2.660 264 Hela ... 1910 2.040 178 Qier ... - ... ... 1894 1,630 150
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THE FORMIDABLE., Evening Star, Issue 15690, 2 January 1915
THE FORMIDABLE. Evening Star, Issue 15690, 2 January 1915
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