THE RUSSIAN ARMIES.
SEVERE FIGHTING STILL,
PETROGRAD. December 30.
Corjmunique : We are assuming the offensive at Bolunon. The Germans, under a heavv Russian fire, made an irruption into the village of Borgimo and the Russian trenches at Gumin. The Russians, in an impetuous counter-attack, killed all the enemy with the bayonet except a few score, who were made, prisoners. The machine guns inflicted enormous losses upon the enemy. The Russians, after' a stubborn struggle, captured the enemy trenches southward of Possade, near Inovlodz.
The enemy captured an entrenched position at Bokhincter, but were .subsequently routed.
We are progressing victoriously in West Galicia. AVe stormed and carried several fortified works eastward of Zakittchine, capturing 44 officers. 1,500 men, and eight quick-tire'-s. The Russians, by p. determined attack, dislodged the Austrian* from strong positions south-west of Tinkla, putting them into a panic-stricken flight. We scored an important success southward of Disko, and also repelled sorties from Przemvsl.
, WARSAW AND CRACOW.
GERMAN MOVE FAILED.
(London ' Times' and Sydney ' Sun' SerricM.)
LONDON, December 31,
retrograd reports that the German attempt towards Warsaw was never the principal movement, it being intended to divert the Russians threatening Cracow. The German movement temporarily succeeded, but the Russians in front of Warsaw have now broken the German advance, and critical issues are again approaching.
rETROGRAD. December 31
The Germans in the Lodz district shot three Roman Catholic priests for refusing to preach in favor of Polish submission to Germany.
Scores of children in Russian Galicia have been sent to Russian monasteries and convents, their parents having been executed or imprisoned by the enemy. Forty of the inhabitants of one Carpathian village were, hanged.
ENEMY'S AWFUL LOSSES,
LONDON, December 31
The 'Morning Post's' correspondent says: " The main feature of the past fortnight's fighting in Poland is the appalling Atistro-German loss. Without rest and without intermission, it was one hideous nightmare of wholesale slaughter. Oneeighth of the total German forces have perished, and the condition of the Austrians is hopeless."
The German casualties in Poland and East Prussia since November 9 are estimated at 600,000.
'The •Times' retrograd correspondent states that trustworthy sources assert that ■during- - Tapper and Lower "Vistula, along the lines of the Bzura, Rawka, and N'ida, Rivers, and idso in Galicia, fh& Austro-German losses in killed, wounded, and missing reached 500,000 out of the 1,250,000 men engaged.
REINFORCEMENTS AND RECRUITS.
AMSTERDAM", December 31,
The newspaper 'Hetvolk' suites that 1,000,000 trained reserves are ready in Germany. Portion of them will be sent to the Russian front. On© million fresh recruits hare been enrolled.
VENICE, December 31.
One thousand wounded have arrived, at Meran from Galicia. They are in an indescribable condition, being almost reduced to skeletons. They journeyed, for five days in goods trucks,' which were not heated, and were almost foodless, and were without medical attention. They endeavored to bind up each ©ther'6 wounde, and the. suffering was aggravated by the intense cold, tbo men having insufficient clothing. The majority of the wounds are gangrenous, and -wholesale amputations are necessary.
VIENNA, December 31
The Emperor Franz Josef has sent a message to the army and navy. He states that he is confident that their proved warlike spirit will enable them to emerge with honor from any trial, howeversevere.
RIOTS IN AUSTRIA.
AMSTERDAM, December 31.
Advices from Berne state that riots and anti-war demonstrations have taken place in six Austro-Hungatian provinces. The police in Vienna, in dispersing a mob, wounded 30 people. Several of the people who were arrested were court-martialled.
Eighty-seven men and 18 women have been arrested at Serajevo on charges of sedition.
Several State employees have been executed for spying on behalf of the Servians.
IN" THE BALKANS,
BUCHAREST, December 50.
The Rumanians in the Abried Mountains, in Transylvania, have risen against the Magyars, who systematically expoeed the Rumanians to the severest Russian fire, and also ill-treated the Rumanian population.
PARIS, December 31.
A wireless message from Berlin states that th© fact must be faced that the Russian extreme left wing is proving superior. BERLIN, December 31.
An official communique states that the weetexn front ia quiet, and that the equation on the eastern frontier is unchanged, except that we are progressing in the Rawka district.
PETROGRAD, December 30.
A communique states that during the fighting iiuthe Sarikamysh district a strong force of Turks was repulsed, with heavy losses. We captured many guns and quick-firers. The Turks, being reinforced, readvanced. The Russians were also reinforced, and the battle proceeded day and night with varying fortunes. The Turks ultimately retired in disorder.
VON DER GOLTZ.
(London ' Times' and Sydney ' Sun' Services.)
BERLIN, December 31. The ' Lokal Anzciger' interviewed General.Von der Golt/., who said that Turkejhad done her fn 11 share in collaboration wit n her allies, and could rest assured that she would fully share in the gains in the event of victory. A successiul attack upon Egypt would be a stab in England's heart. He was pleased with the Tuncish soldiere, and it might be expected that they would accomplish all that was in any way possible."
THE EGYPT OBJECTIVE
FROM DAMASCUS BASE,
ALEXANDRIA, December 31. Syrian refugees report that a number oi British subjects are detained at Damascus. Anxiety prevails in view of the German threat of retaliation if the port is bombarded.
The Turks' 'treatment is mild, but the German officers are brutal. One hundred and fifty Indian medical men have arrived at Alexandria, and the Rami eh casino has been transformed into an Indian hospital.
CAIRO, December 31
Sir George Reid, who took the salute from the Au»tialians, said: "Lord Kitchener will send you to the front directly you are fit. It is your duty to get fit and keep fit." Sir George Rcid will visit Upper Egypt, and will efart for London on January' 11.
ROME. December 31
The hj Tribunal's' •correspondent states that, contrary to German reports, periect calm prevails in Egypt and the Sudan, and the appeal for a ".Holy War has found no echo.
A Turkish attack via Sinai is beyond the bounds of possibility. Egypt is safe from invasion on any side.
LONDON, December 31
The Waziri tribe has informed the Indian Government that they can remove the troops from the north-west frontier, and that the Waziris will keep peace and maintain order.
(London 'Times' and Sydney 'Sun Serriecs.) LONDON, December 01. A correspondent at Nairobi describes the country through which the enemy are forcing their way upon Uganda as "a desert, covered with thorny scrub so thick in places that the officers are unable to control more than a dozen men. This wild country is infested with lions, leopards, and the dreaded tsetse fly. Through id we are now taking the active offensive, and the campaign is likely to be long and trying, as the Germans will defend their best country with all their might."
PRETORIA, December 31. The Government announce that they are resorting to the power conferred under the Defence Act to commendeer for service in German South-west Africa and the Union, and add: " The sHuiifcion which has arisen cannot adequately be met by depending upon volunteers." Recruits and Union troops reoecupied Walfisch Bay on Christmas day unopposed. Maritz, with 800 rebels, at Schuitdrift, attacked 480 loyalists. Nirrety of the latter were taken prisoners.
A later message states that Maritz, on December 24, with four field guns and four maxims, forced the loyalists, after a vigorous resistance, to retire a few miles. A running fight followed, in which a rebel attempt to outflank the loyalists was frustrated. The rebels at sundown retired to Schuitdrift. The loyalists lost one killed and two wounded, a maxim gun, and 26 waggons. January 1. Official: "Although the rebellion is suppressed, it is clear that if the rebel leaders in German South-west Africa succeed the situation may again become acute, and it may be necessary, in view of the danger of anvasion, to employ much larger forces than were at first intended, in order to destroy the enemy and rebel forces and prevent a recurrence of the menace to South. African peace. Thii Government ate cotuidevit that citizens will lender in the German South-west African campaign as willing and loyal service as they did with such brilliant success in the suppression of the rebellion.*'
The proclamation calls out the first and second classes of the National Reserve m the Transvaal, excejit on the Rand and also the North-west Cape forces.
THE WAR REVIEWED
(London 'Times' and Sydney 'Sun' Service*.)
LONDON", December 31.
The 'Times,' in a leader, says: "We have not reached the stage of the war when, according to Berlin calculations, the triumphant Prussians would rest upon their arms and contemplate a prostrate and affrighted world. It is instructive to compare these slowing dreams with the stern reality. 'I lie Allies are maintaining their position, and the Germans have made no useful progresss. The time is fast approaching when the Austrians will cease to be an important factor in the war. The Russians are well within Turkish territory, and the situation in East Africa is growing favorable. The South African revolt has been crashed, and the German flag has almost been driven from the seas." TORONTO, December 31.
Sir R. L. Borden (Prime Minister of Canada) announced at a public war gathering at Toronto that the British and French War Offices were perfectly satisfied with the progress of the war on the western and eastern fronts. When Britain's resources were thrown into the scale the ultimate result would not be far off.
/ LONDON, December 31. During the early months of the war the Berlin theatres were open as usual, and civil and military functionaries were instructed to attend regularly and impress the people that all was going well, but the casualty lists bred scepticism. A gala night at the Opera Royal -had been arranged during the Kaiser's visit. At the opening scene of ' Lohengrin,' instead of cneeis, a storm of hysterical laughter and weeping swept the" house. The Kaiser quitted the box, and the performance ended. The Royal theatres were closed next day, and are now used as hospitals.
TOE KAISER'S CHRISTMAS.
(London ' Times ' and Sydney ' Sun' Services.)
LONDON, December 31.
Amsterdam reports that the Kaiser's celebration of Christmas was as simple as it was impressive. Trie table was set for 900 people, and was decorated with fir branches. The officers, down to the humblest reservist, shared the spiced cakes, apples, and nuts,' and received tobacco jpouches and cigars. The Kaiser, on entering, said : "Good evening, comrades." A pastor spoke briefly, and anthems were sung. The Kaiser said : " God has permitted the enemy to compel us to celebrate our festival here upon hostile soil. We are attacked, and we defend ourselves. God grant that from our hard struggle a rich victory may arise for us and our country, that the point of our sword may be turned to our enemies, our heart turned to God, and to dust with all the enemies of Germany," AUSTRIAN BATTLESHIP HOLED. ROME. December 31. It is reported that a French submarine penetrated Pola and torpedoes a battleship, which had a hole made in her, but which, was able to reach s. dock.
BEING RIGIDLY OBSERVED.
TO SMUGGLE CONTRABAND
LONDON, December 31.
The 'Daily Chronicle's' Milan correspondent states that the Government have unearthed a vast Austro-German conspiracy, with ramifications at Naples, Genoa. Florence, and Milan, to coiner contraband foodstuffs, footwear, blankets, and war material, and export them from an Adriatic port. The Customs authorities at Genoa, .seized an £B,OOO consignment of military cloth intended for Germany and Austria.
In connection with Dr Estrignonos Fiori's arrest, the police discovered at the. letter's residence £12.000 worth of order* from German and Austrian linns for contraband supplies. Many Gorman commercial travellers aro sojourning in large cities for the sole purpose of purchasing secretly and exporting forbidden merchandise. The Government have warned ihem that it will be to their advantage to depart.
BRITISH SOLDIER SENTENCED
AMSTERDAM. December 51
Lonsdale, a prisoner of war at the Doeberitz camp, who was recently sentenced to ten years' imprnsonment for assuming a. threatening altitude and refusing to obey his guard, lias been retried by a (supreme loourt martini for aggravated assault, and lias been sentenced to death. He intends to appeal to at 1 . Imperial court martial.
Lonsdale alleges that be. vas struck by a bayonet before he attacked his guard. A corporal gave evidence that Lonsdale tried to escape, and lie struck the prisoner several blows with his sword.
GERMAN PRISONER OFFENDS
(London ' Times' and Sydney ' Sun' Services.)
LONDON, December 31.
Hermann Blass, mi Austrian, was court mart-ailed at Douglas (Isle of Man). Ho pleaded guilty to writing a letter witn lemon juice, which, when heated, disclosed the writing. He Mated in his letter that the men were treated like pigs, that the food was bad, that there were worms in the potatoes, that the meat stank frightfully, and that the men were driven about with bayonets like convicts. Sentence was deferred.
LONDON, December 31. The Archbishop of Canterbury haw addressed a New Year letter to the. clergy and laity. He says : "The. well-being of the Navy is the very life of the Empire, which may depend on. the response to the call for men. No household will be acting worthily if through timidity or self-love it keeps back those who are able loyally to 'bear a man's part for the great Empire and en behalf of the land wo love. It will be. our task, if God grants us the insight and power, to raise hereafter, even out" of the agonies and terror of war, something better and holier than man lias yet seen for the fellowship of nations." Venice, reports that Italy's expedition to Valona lias irritated Vienna. It is thought that the suddenness of the Italian move has disconcerted the aims of Prince. Von Bulow's mission, which, it is said, included the offer of South Albania to Italy. 'The King has created .seven French generals Iv.-C.M.C. The. War Office has decided to defray the cost of the conveyance of bodies of soldiers dying on active service where the relatives especially desire the funerals near their homes; also to allow a sum for expenses. The Government rate, for war risks on cargoes has been reduced to £1 Is. The Press Bureau has issued the Belgian Commission's latest report. It cites numerous cases of Germans using dumdums. A French, soldier captured at Aerschot was compelled to answer questions through having his hands plunged into boiling water. Another, resisting, was held while his head was twisted till he died. A third had his linger chopped off. A Belgian ambulance column of -500 was attacked 'near Namur, and only 100 escaped. The committee of the- Australian Voluntary Hospital have received £7,000 from Mr Colin Stephenson, o£ Sydney. EUaline Terriss, who has Wen singing to the wounded at Boulogne, says she departed an actress, and has returned a recruiting sergeant. She spent the most memorable Christmas of her life amongst wonderful men. Their cheerfulness was amazing; even the worst wounded would joke and smile. Her most moving experience was in singing l ' Tipperary,' the patients joining in the- chorus with a low murmur.
Reuter's Amsterdam. correspondent states that the .sentence passed on .Lonsdale is clearly the outcome of the Anglophobia raging in Germany. Doctor David, a German Socialist deputy, protests in the ' Vorwaerts' that the act is one of ferocious vengeance. A special committee of the Chamber of Commerce has allocated consignments of food sent by the Sydney Chamber of Commerce to English and Welsh municipalities, and also to hospitals receiving the wounded. Large quantities have been distributed to Belgian refugees and French soldiers' families, and monetary grants to various soldiers and sailors' funds; als.j to the Siberian and -Montenegrin relief funds. Tho tennis authorities have decided not to make, arrangements for championships in 1915.
Additional deaths at Hartlepool as the result of the' German bombardment bring the total up to 108.
■SYDNEY, December 31
Advices from Cape Town state that the German steamer Birkenfels, interned in August, will he allowed to proceed to Australian ports early in January. The Colonial Secretary has asked the Department of External Affairs to direct- the Australian Courts to arrest the Birkenfels upon her arrival and adjudicate, upon the cargoes and the claims not proved when the vessel sailed.
The Government havp decided to subsidise £ for £ all money subscribed during the current mouth for the relief of distressed Belgians. In the action against the flamburgAmerika liner S'eandia, sheltering j n tho J)utch East Indies, for the delivery of goods, the .Java Court ordered the* delivery cf the cargo without payment of the general average or the cost of discharging. It is believed that the judgment will have an important bearing upon shipments by several German vessels bound for Australia and now sheltering in the Dutch East Indies. MELBOURNE, .January 1.
The Imperial Government have advised the Department of External Affairs that the Austro-Hungarian Government have agreed to grant protection to money belonging to British subjects lying in Austro-Hungarian banks during the war, if the. British Empire, will agree to a reciprocal arrangement. The new pattern service rifle shortly to be employed by the Imperial troops Will probably be adopted in -Australia.. The leading feature, is the abolition of the wind gauge and a cut-off Jock which closes the magazine, preventing cartridges from rising automatically into the breech. .Senator PeaVec (.Minister of Defence) has announced that. Bougainville, tho largest of the Solomon Islands, which ,was captured toy the Japanese, was handed over by them, and was occupied by Australian troops on December 9, when tho British flag was hoisted and a proclamation of annexation read.
Permanent link to this item
THE RUSSIAN ARMIES., Evening Star, Issue 15690, 2 January 1915