THE GLORIES OF THE PANAMA EXPOSITION.
A Corgeous Color Scheme —The Illumination Plan DescribedBatteries of Searchlights—The Tower of Jewels—The Marvels and Glories of Electricity—A Cathering of Many Tongues, but Never a Babel —Where the Master Minds of Two Hemispheres will Congregate—Forty Thousand Educationists to Assemble in Conference.
[Specially Wiutten foe the ' Evening Star.']
COLOR AT THE EXPOSITION. Mr Jules Guerin, director of color ot the Exposition, has treated tho buildings, terraces, esplanades, and even the parking as if tho ensemble were in reality tho 6oa-acre canvas which he has imagined it to be in preparing his color scheme. Starting upon the principle that simplicity is one of the canons of tho art of which he is a distinguished exponent, ho decreed that not more than eight or nine colore should be found upon the palette from which he should paint the Fxposition. Then he took into consideration tho climate and atmospheric conditions peculiar to San Francisco, and went to work to produce what critics, including his fellow-artists, pronounced the most pleasing combination of pigments ever achieved at a great Exposition. Every vhadow upon the Marin Hill, across the bav, was taken into consideration in the calculations, which resulted in choosing an imitation of the natural travertine marble for the basis or key .color ot the palaces. This is a pale pinkish-grev-biiff, which may bo called old ivory It is not jarish, as a dead white would he, especially in the summer sunlight. Also it harmonises with tho other colors desired, and, most important of all, it obviates a terrain "new" effect which pure white \rould pive, and which is deadly to art. After manv experiments the "Travertine .vas decided upon as having many advances to recommend its adoption as the ifvnota of the scheme later determined anon, and Mr Paul Denville was secured „o make the composition to be apphrd as ! x stucco over the exterior walls. 1o vii i hance the "antique" effect generally <te-j sired tho buS is deepened in tho concave surfaces, and tho stucco spread on it in a, manner to make the surface appear cor- J rugate*!. Tho deepening of color is [ 'specially noticeable where the oruamen- ' .ation is carried out in the travertine. , ;he shades in these instances being deep- ; mod to a rich reddish brown. Besides j the travertine, the eight colors employed j ire: j 1. French green, used in all lattice:-., ' flower tubs, curbing of grass plats (where it complements tho green of the grass), in the exterior woodwork, and some of tho smlaler doors. 2. Oxidised copper green, a peculiar mottled light green. Ten of the largest domes on the exhibit palaces are of this color. In fact, all the domes, except the six yellow ones in the Court of the Universe, are of this light green. It is a sharp contract against the blue sky and a pleasing topping to the tra vertine walls. 3. Blue green, found in the ornamentation to the travertine and in the darker shades at the bases of the flagWps. These first three colors, all m .ones oi green, are iega.tO.cd as one mit in the scale oi spectrum of the nine colors allowed by M. Guerin. 4. Pinkish-red-green, used in the flag poles only. It is a very brilliant anfl striking pigment, and is always topped with gold. The flagpoles play an important part in tho decorations of the grounds, and these slender columns of orange, surmounted with gaily-colored banners (but withal conforming to the color scheme), form a pleasing effect. 5- Wall-red.—There are three tones of this wall-red. They are found in the backgrounds of the colonnades, backgrounds of tho courts, backgrounds of niches, on the tiled roofs, and in tho statuary. These reds run from terracotta to a, deep russet, and predominate in tho interiors of the principal courts. 6. Yeliow-golden-orange, largely tired in enriching the travertine and in enhancing shadow effect*. It is found in ihe architectural mouldings and in much nf the statuary. The following rule has been followed in regard to tho coloring of the statuary:—That which is high off the grot Lid (that is, on the figur-.» surmounting tho domes and spires) its of golden yellow; that close to the eye of the beholder is of verde-antique—a rich copper-green, streaked with grey ; and much k left in the. natural travertine tint. 7. Deep Ce.rulian blue and Oriental blue, verging upon green, used in the ceilings and other vaulted recesses, in deep dhadows, in coffers, and in the background of ornamentation in which traveruno rosettes aro set in ceruliau nlue panels. It might be called electric blue. It is brilliant, and at the samr time in perfect harmony with the other colors. 8. Grey, very cimilar t<> the travertine. 9. Marble tint, t-prend over t betrayertine in places with a transparent glaze. 10. Verde-aaitique, really one of the many shades of green, a. combination of the copper-green and roit grey, and therefore not to bo counted as one of the nine cardinal colors. It stimulates corroded copper, and has faint yellow and black linos. Tho travertine is a. reproduction in stucco of the .ippearance of the travertine marblo of the old Roman palaces of the Augustan period. This marble was quarried in Italy, and iras of volcanic origin. This fact accounts for the corrugated surfaoe, tho stone being full of what are technically known as "voids" or hubblee, resulting from the aerating ot" the lava. The roughness of "clinker" brick. With the nine colors named, and with the. general gamut thus restricted by the taete and discrimination of a master, the decorators and artists, though they he legions, must be satisfied and governed. None could go outside of the bounds prescribed by Jules, Guerin. who has (abated a great picture in colors subdued, restful, and rich. Even the walks, the very eand upon tho driveways, the flat's iind pennanta which wave ever Ihe buildings, th-j shields timl other emblems of heraldry which will hide the sources of the diffused light which will pour over the whole scene, the lights even, will (on form to tho Guerin scheme. No one may u-'e other than cemlian blue, if he employs blue at all. No other red than the tone popularly known a* '' Pompeian " lias been j admitted in th'i schtme. In this red. the ndmirturo of brown and yellow millifv any tendency toward carmine or crimson. The "French" and trie "copper" greens .and the intermediate shades approved by M. Guerin are the only greens allowed. Thus ia seen tho great advantage of having- a one-man idea Perhaps no other exposition in history wa3 ever so carefully planned in this particular. No court of one color will be at variance with the dome. paLiee, or tower of conflicting tone, whether near by or in the distance. All is harmony to tho eye. The splendid TiiuraJ paintinaa which adorn the walls of the courts and th-3 panels over the entrances embody there same leading colors. The paintinge were done by a staff of artists selected by M. Guerin from among the best in the world. They are Robert Reid, Edward Simmonc Frank Du Mond. William De Leftwich Dodgo, Charles Holloway, and Childe Haesam (all of New York), and Frank Brangwyn. Thev began in January, 1914, upon the canvas stretched in spacious ware room 6tudios partitioned off in a corner of the great Palace of Machinery. By an agreement, reached in conference between John M'Laren, who lias charge of the landscape gardening of the Exposition, and M. Guerin, it was decided that the flowers which border the paths or fill the parterres will conform to the Guerin color scheme. In California, where there is always a wealth of flora, notably in the summer, this feat of finding- flowers to harmonise in color with other prescribed ■ colors will not be a difficult one. In fact, there, will be three sets of floral decorations during the 10 months of the Exposition—that ia, the flowers will change entirely, appearing always in the heydiy of their brilliance.
A WONDERFUL ILLUMINATION SCHEME, A unique system of illumination devised by lighting experts expressly for the Panama-Pacific Exposition will preserve the architectural and sculptural beauties of the palaces and courts at night, besides transforming the entire Exposition into 11 wondrous fairyland, where great shafts of light will flash from tower to tower, and colored jewels about the buildings and towers will throw a diffused glow over the grounds. One of the most striking features of this illuminating scheme will be known as Hood lighting. This scheme throws light from the outside upon the facades ot buildings, in contrast to the usual plan of outline lighting. Night will be nearly as bright as day at tho Exposition, whil'r the effect of the glittering illumination will be resplendent and entrancing. The illumination plan provides for four sources of lighting. These will bo arc standards throwing light against the facades of the palaces, concealed within the columns of colonnaded and in
the n-cade* of towers, illuminating fountains in the interior courts, _ and the lichtin- in exhibit palaces. l>eside & these wW/nf illumination, searchlights upon tho roofs of buildings will send then poweful rays through thousands ot prisms Sn the towers and turrets ot palace throwing the various colors gentlj omi the ensemble. Then there will be a battery of searchlights m '--Monro Castle on the breakwater of the yacht harbor outside the water's edge that w. 1 throw shafts of colored light into the skies and over the whole Exposition. Ihe arc standards will be flanked along the outsu e of the exhibit palaces, at the great aich- j wavs and before the front of the colon- i naaes in the interior courts W hilo each ; standard will hold from three to ten j lamps, these lamps will be screened from , view bv elaborate silk banners, hand- •■ somelv decorated. They will serve to send ; a. softened light over the palace facades. ; At the back of the columns of the colon- i nades lights will be concealed. They will ■ show th» outlines of the massive columns ; free of shadow, and will enable visitors ]
to see the mural paintings in their true colors. A pure white light will be diffused throughout the courts, "giving the. foliage and flowers their natural tints at night. In the Court oi the Universe there will be two illuminated fountains that promise to produce an effect entirely now in artistic illumination. High columns of white glass ri.-e from the centre of each of the Fountains, and these will hold lamps of high candle power. A soft, white light will be reflected from each of these fountains, penetrating every inch of the court There will be no shadows in the exhibit palaces. Here, too, the lighting will be done with the same scientific accuracy and perfection. From the ceilings of vhe various palaces huge chandeliers will drop, and their light will be soft so as not to blur tho eyes of the visitor. One of the most strikingly beautiful of the illumination features will_ be the use of the cut-glass prisms, which will give the appearance of vari-colored jewels. Thousands cf them will hang from the great Tower of Jewels, dominating the main group of palaces, from the cornices and turrets of the palaces, and about the interior courts. When light is thrown upon them, they will sparkle with wondrous brilliancy, and by alternating the
rays turned upon them by tho powerful searchlights they will bo made to look like diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and other precious 6tones. The prisms were made in Austria. Nearly every village has its glass workers, and'thcir products are the finest to bo found anywhere in tho world. They possess on art that far surpasses that of tho glass cutters of the United States or of anv other country. These experts select, for their glass, sand of peculiar quality, tnd exercise the greatest care and skill "in preparation. They pour the ingredients of tho glass, when properly prnparcd, into moulds giving the approximate shape desired. When the cast is taken out of the mould, it is then cut by hand, not by machinery, the principal cutting tool being a rotating sanded hand-wheel which cuts the glass at the proper angle, sharp and distinct. The class thev make is of great hardness, j and tho work' requires patience us well as art and skill and experience. It must be of .-rent order that it mav possess the omil'ities that result in the light-reflecting ! powers needed for illuminating purposes. 1 After the cutting the glass prisms are i polished with tin. which process makes i them of almost perfect smoothness. Iho | glass thus niado is culled Sumatra stone, I and t!ic dir*-rent colors arc obtained by tint in- with shades resembling the jewels they are to imitate. The diamond effect is obtained from pure white- Sumatra stone. Rubies, emeralds, garnets, amethysts, topazes, and other jewels are counterfeited with marvellous accuracy. In fact, when the jewels are exposed to a I brilliant electric light, as they already : are at the expedition, they are .strikingly ; :itvur;ite imitations of a collection of beau- ■! titu! '.'ems. and the collection at the ex--1 position will be a vast one, for each and j every one .of the ."rent exhibit palaces
will be covered with thorn. But tho handiwork of ihe Austrian glass cutters had not been all that has contributed to the wonderful effects possible in the jewels. For this occasion, in 1915, science has been brought into strong play. Able pliv.--ici.-ts and' experts in the science of liaht have made careful mathematical calculations to determine, theoretically at just what angles the detailed cutting shall bo done, and of what shapes the various prisms shall be. The result is that the effect will be hrillianl, the maximum efficiency having been determined by both theorv and practice. As these thousands of prisms are pierced by the rays of the searchlights, thev will scintillate and glitter with indescribable beauty, while the effect will he mirrored in tho lakes within the inner courts and on the waters of San Francisco Bay. Indeed, the perfection of the lighting "system, under the direction of WMVArEyan, will be in keeping with the beauty and magnificence of the_ architecture, sculpture, and other artistic features. T»v dav and by night tho palaces and courts will be " equally beautiful.
There will be shadows to mar tho sculpture and decorations after nightfall, but a diffused light will show everything in its proper color and natural beauty. CONCRESSES AND CONVENTIONS. As with mankind, so with its works—we love people who are intensely human—and by the same token we flock to see those products of their brains and hands which best express tho living thought and forward strivings of humanity. More and more wo measure the importance of any great project by the extent to which it ministers to human needs, physical, mental, spiritual, and .-esthetic. Wo are now more greatly concerned with the conversion of the greatest of our natural resources—human life and progress —than wo used to be. It was with this rapidly developing spirit of the new times in mind that the creators of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, having spread to the world limits of the field of material exhibits, decided to expand in the only remaining direction—upward into' the realms of "human uplift" and of education—that education which lies in a comprehension of the ideals of the other fellow, and in a wider knowledge of life based on the experience, works, and dreams
of mankind. Thus at San Francisco- next year the millions of visitors will, see not only the world of modern material achievements boiled down to square miles, but it will see this epitome of contemporary civilisation humanly busy, with practically every one of the 60,000 exhibits converted into a working laboratory, rather than an inert mass of products. The visitors will be given every facility to regard themselves as students in a vast universal university, with 50 acros of laboratories in the 11 vast exhibit palaces, with class rooms capable of seating 35,000 people every day of the 288 days of the Exposition. Of the many " human" features which will make the Panama-Pacific International Exposition pre-eminent over all other world celebrations one—the assemblage of the congresses, learned societies, and miscellaneous conventions, chiefly of a national and international character—will attain' an importance never beforo seen in the world. Under the direction of James A. Barr, chief of tho Division of Conventions, already more than 300 such great bodies have voted to make San Francisco their headquarters in 1915. Those, with sessions ranging from four to fifteen days each, will make an average of four conventions per day during the entire life of tho Exposition; and these are not half the full number expected. Mr Barr expects a total of not less than 500 national and international congresses and conventions. A resume of the larger conventions and congresses already scheduled to meet at tho Exposition discloses the following representation :— Agricultural organisations. 21 ; educational, 21; fraternal, 36; business, 20; Greek letter fraternities, 23; governmental and civic, 15; industrial, 15; labor, 9: scientific, 20; genealogical, 7; historical and literary, 5; professional, 11; religious, 8 ; social service, 6. These do not include the hundreds of smaller and State organisations; and many of the international bodies include under one head dozens of national organisations which, in turn, represent hundreds of minor affiliated bodies. A feature never before introduced is tho arranging of meetings to enable students of special topics to time rhcir visits to the exposition so as to attend the sessions of all conventions engaged along similar lines of aclivties. Organisation.* doing related work will ho grouped somewhat as follows:—April probably will bo devoted to congresses having to do with public health ; May to social science, religion, and ethics; July is the education"'month; September will be devoted to engineering, electrical, and ether technical congresses; October to tho world's insurance organisations. Others are yet to be assigned. Manv of ihose congresses will bring with them vast exhibits and working models, which wil! bo on view during the exposition ; and others, notably all the live stock, farming and related bodies will meet throughout tho entire 10 months of the exposition in a building already ospecially tonstructed for these interests. To accommodate the musical organisations, orchestras, choral focieties, and as a, house for visitors generally, a great festival hall irf being constructed, with a seating capacity of 3.000. In this will be installed one of tho l.irsrest pipe organs ever built, and hourly recitals and concerts will serve to soothe the visitors, wearied with prowling through the miles of exhibits, gardens, courts, and fun-places. For housing tho larger conventions, the Exposition has erected a .splendid permanent auditoiitftu in S>an Franciso's beautiful civic centre Its main ha/J, exclusive. of 12 smaller halls, will scat 10,000 people. This vast auditorium, which has cost 1.300,000d01, will bo presented to the city of San Francisco .it the close of the exposition.
One of the most, important of these conventions is that of the National Education Association, with a delegate strength of upwards of 40,000. With this great body of educators will be linked the Association of American Agricultural Colleges- and Experimental Station*, together with an International Congress on Education. Of peculiar interest to those delegates will be the unique and practical exhibits in the great live-acre Palace, of Education and Social Economy, embodying features for which the schools of each city are especially noted, with classes of pupils, vocational training exhibits, and displays throwing what boys and girls have achieved in agriculture and horticulture. Another important convention will be the international Engineerim: Congress, of which Colonel Geo. W. Goethaks, of Panama Canal fame, is president. This congress represents all the principal engineering bodies of tho world, and to tho 80,000 of their members, already bulletins outlining tho plane, of the congress have been mailed. The International Electrical Congress, the International Electro-techni-cal Commission, the American Electrotechnical Society, and the American Institute of Electrical Engineers will meet during the same month. Thirty-five electrical engineering societies are represented on the governing board of this congress, and 21 nations will send delegates. Accident prevention, fire prevention, and health conservation will bo some of the main topics discussed at the first World's Insurance Congress ever held. Eor the first time in history delegates representing accident, fire, marine, employers' liability, industrial, surety, heal-.li, and other lines of insurance from the whole world will fraternise, over 200 insurance organisations being represented. The International Conneil of Nurses will send fully 6,000 delegates to San Francisco. With them will meet the orgrimsalions representing the instructors in nurses' schools, and the N;u : onai Organisation of Public Health Nurses, dealing with tuborculosis, settlement work, and social centres. Ihe National Bed Cross, the American Academy of Medicine, tho Panama-Pacific Di-utal Congress, the. National Commissi m on Mental Hygiene, and many related bodies will meet during the summer at the Exposition. A unique feature wi" b; trie pr-.'-'eiiro of creat congresses hav.ug to do with th" pr duction, distribution and mark-Hing of One of t'fse, the World's Petroleum Congress, embraces 34 national organisations, and tho.-e from three great European countries. Another, the International Potato Congress, including the National Potato Association, will bring together from all nations many thousands of growers, dealers, and shippers of the homely "spud.'' The International Al-f-Jf-t Congress is a third. Delegates from 25 nations interested in grape culture will attend the International Congress- on Viticulture to be held in 1 June. .Seventy affiliated bodies will meet i with the National Live Stock Association throughout the season. With them will meet tho International Congt-e-s <ui I Marketing and Farm Credits, the International Good Roads Congress, the In- | temational Efficiency Congress and other bodies. I By a queer turn human conservation and" tho breeding of better babies will be considered by the United States Agricultural Department, along with the problem of breeding pedigreed pigs and poultry. Along the same line will be the work of the American Breeders' Association, and the American Society of Animal Nutrition, while eugenics and the problems of womanhood and childhood will receive ! special consideration—on the theory that I the proper study of mankind is woman—by such large organisations as the National Congress of Mothers, the Congress on Marriage and Divorce, the W 7 orld's Pnrity Federation, the Woman's Federation Council,- the Carnegie and Russel Sage Foundations, and the International Genetic Congress. So large is the part taken bywomen in this Exposition that no snecial building is being devoted to their interests ; they have an equal share in every building and in every activity. _ In many lines of convention and exhibition work they take the lead ; this is particularly true in "the departments of social economy and education. Other learned, scientific, and collegiate bodies which will foregather for discussion and social purposes at the Exposition aro the American School Peace League, the Harvard Clubs of America, the Association of Collegiate Alumni, the American Academy of Political and Social Science, the Astronomical and Astrophysical Society of America, the International Congress of Authors and Journalists, which will be largely attended, and the American Historical Association.
Religion and ethics are largely represented. Hundreds of societies are included in the Woman's World Congress of Missions. More than 100,000 members of the Salvation Army from all over the globe, led by General Bramwell Booth, will meet at the exposition in convention in August. With them will come elaborate exhibits, including model African and East Indian farms, a model leper colony from Java, and tho reproduction of homes for children # and women from various parts of tho world. The delegates and members who will attend tho sessions of the various conventions and societies so far as recorded will range from 250 to 40,000 each, not counting xnembesr of tho delegates' families, who in most cases will accompany them. This also is exclusive of tho great international gathering of 100,000 delegates to the Salvation Army Congress. These delegates will be men and women worth meeting—people with ideas and ideals — and they will be in San Francisco for from four to fifteen days each, for the express purpose of meeting and .exchanging ideas. Granting that there will be 500 such conventions, and that they will come with an average delegate or membership strength of only 2,000, this will bring to the Golden Gate the enormous number of 1,000,000 people warmly interested in uplift work and in learned, civic, fraternal, labor, religious, patriotic, artistic, and commercial movements. Granting that each delegate brings and passes along at leaßt one idea of survival value, what a contribution to the world's progress—what a post graduate course in the living thought of the world—this will be! Never before has the world seen its like. These vast world together with the other millions of visitors from every nook and corner of tho globe, will go further than ever yet has been done toward realising the poet's dream of the Parliament of Man and Woman, if not the federation of the world.
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THE GLORIES OF THE PANAMA EXPOSITION., Evening Star, Issue 15688, 30 December 1914