Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
Article image
This article displays in one automatically-generated column. View the full page to see article in its original form.

THE GLORIES OF THE PANAMA EXPOSITION.

The Croat Art Collection—Among the " Movies "—What the New Zealander Should Not Miss Seeing—An Up-to-Date Garden of Eden.

rspeolaixy wbitten fob tub 'evening Stab.']

i WORKS OF ART. In addition to assembling the most notable historical loan collection of great paintings and statuary from the world's art centres, the officials in ohargo of the Fine Arts Department of the PanamaPacifio International Exposition have arranged to make an equally comprehensive display of the crapbic axta, the growth of which in the United States.in the last 10 years has been remarkable. Included in this display will bo etchings by all processes—lithography. wood engraving, monotyping, block printing, ana other autographic processes The European war only aids the art exhibits of the exposition, for each, nation is willing to eend its art collection out to save the work from destruction. Iu order that this display may have not only the greatest educational value, bnt that it may stimulate a lively interest in the study and collection of prints, • large? numbers of duplicate prints will be admitted, and these when desired will bo offered for -sale, and for immediate delivery. Expert print salesmen, employed by {ho exposition, will bo constantly in attendance in tho galleries of the Palace of Pine Arts, and especial effort will bo made to effect the largest _ possible number of enles. For this service the exposition will make a charge of 15 per cent, selling commission. This innovation, it is believed, will stimulate, collectors in add-

the world. One of theso addresses was gmn at the convention of the American Federation of Fine Arts, at the Art Institute of Chicago, on May 23 last, and another before the Federation of Womon's Clubs in Chicago in June. The United States section will occupy one-half of tho Palace of Pino Arts, each of about a dozen of tho most representative artists of the nation being given a special exhibit room. The other half of the palace—a 6tructuro of enduring concrete and steel, nearly one-fourth of a mile in length—will be filled by tho finest loan collection of art works ever sent to America from Europe, Asia { South America, and Australia. Argentine alone has been allotted 250 running. feet of space, while tho great European galleries, public and private, have contributed of their best. For tho first time at any exposition the great loan collection of statuary will be exhibited out of doors. The marble and bronze groups and figures will fill the spare between tho long, "curved fmnt of the art palace and the colonnades, where, with their setting of blossoming shrubs and trees, thoy will ba mirxorod in the wilderness lagoon. Only in the mild winter-to-winter climate of California is such an outdoor display of tho world's art *r3asures possible. The Palace of Pine Arte, I,looft long, with tho wonderful rotunda and colonnades facing an oblong lagoon, is complete.

ing to their possessions, encourage the beginnings of new collections, and bring aid and comfort to many creative artists. It is the desira of E. D. Trask, chief of the Department of Fine Arte, to obtain tho fullest possible collection of representative works, and the co-operation of arts generally is invited. From the prints submitted a representative group from the work of each artist will be selected for uniform framing and continuous; hanging throughout the exposition period. Duplicates of accepted prints will be kept in hand for sale, and it is expected that exhibitions of other unframed pictures will be shown in cases. In addition to a gallery devoted to contemporary etchers and makers of prints, in which about 500 prints will be Tiung, a special room will be allotted to each of such. eminent etchers as Whistler and Joseph. Pennell. Among others, a complete collection of the prints of Wolf and Cole, the two greatest living wood engravers, already has been received. Congratulatory letters on the unique exhibit and sales plan have been pouring in from the most eminent print artists in the different countries, for the exhibit is world-wide in scope. In addition to the contemporaneous display, there will be a historical loan collection, which will contain at least 100 examples of the best American prints, beginning with the por--1 trait sketch of Washington, sketched in church by Joseph Wright while the immortal George was serenely unconscious of the creation of this first etching ever made in the country. There will be prints by Paul Revere, noted as the first American engraver, but ctUl better known as the midnight rider who bore the news from Lexington of " the shot heard 'round the world." Other historically interesting- prints to bo shown will bo tho work of Bass Otis, the first American lithographer, and first to use aquatint; of J. Foster, the first wood engraver; and of Peter Pclham, whose portrait of old Cotton Mather, the wit<;h-finder of Salem {the first American mezzotint), will be shown. As a nucleus for the print exhibit, the exposition expects to present tho collection of prints—along with other works of art—belonging to the Library of Congress at Washington. So complete and all-em-bracing is the array of paintings and statuary embraced in the international loan collection already secured for the exposition that the great eastern art galleries are throwing up their hands and abandoning their projected art exhibition for 1915. They frankly confess their inability to mai;o a showing capable of coming within gunshot of competing with tho unequalled display secured for tho flvo-acre Palace of Fine Arts down by the Golden Gate, to say nothing of about three acres of sculpture which will be shown out of doors, mivrorod in the lagoon in the "front dooryard" of the Expedition Art Palace. Some of thorn arc even complaining that Trask has forestalled them by stripping the great galleries of Europe- and America of all their choice art treasures, leaving them, (the eastern folk) but litle to exhibit save second-rate s'.tuff. An instance of this surrender of the "effete cast" to the hustling west was revealed in a letter received by Air Trask from John W. Beatty, director of fine arts of the great Qarnegie, Institute of Pittsburg. "In view of the fact that the Government are to present an important international art exhibition in San Francisco in 1915," writes the Carnegie director, "we have decided that it would be patriotic and wise to omit our international exhibition next spring. * I stand ready to co-operate with yon in any way possible. In view of the fact that the Carnegie Institute is the only institution in America which has held annually for years a great international art exhibition," explained Chief Trask, " and that it has not omitted this display for 18 years, this action is a very great compliment to tho big work being done at the Panama-Pacific Imposition." The truth is that the Caraede people hare abandoned their bier exhibition for 1915 because they realise that they cannot compete. To make final choice of the moat representative American painting and statuary to be exhibited in the Palace of Fine Arts at the exposition, Charles Francis Browne (superintendent of the United' States section of the exposition fine arte department) went for an extended tour of the leading art centres of the. United States. In ad«Hi«n to visiting the private and public galleries in the various cities' between Sar. Francisco and New York, Mr Brown, whose work as an artist and critic of distinction arid as president of the Society of Western Artists has given him a high place m American art, will deliver a series of detailing the plana for the unique series of art exhibits at San Francisco in 1915. These, while chiefly contemporaneous, also will illustrate the chronological development of all the chief "•cbools" «ad styles of «rt/ throughout

AT THE EDUCATIONAL "MOVIES." It seems but a few torms ago, that a child who was backward, and did not sho>v the aptitude for study displayed by his classmates, was considered stupid, dull and mentally deficient. Tho science of pedagogy has far advanced beyond that stage to-day, however, and now, when a child falls bohind the class, the teacher immediately seeks the cause; the cause is (often) found to be some physical defect, easily remedied. School exhibits ct the world's fairs and stato exhibitions prior to this time, always consisted of specimens of drawing, writing, needlework, carpentry, and similar work, taught in the schools, all neatly tagged and labelled with tho name, age, and residence of the child responsible for the work. This has been in accord with the prevalent idea that the school was a place whero uniformity was most to be desired. In the Palace of Education at tho Panama-Pacific Exposition, there will be no exhibits similar to those described in the foregoing paragraph. It is now realized that far from being a result to be desired, uniformity should bo avoided and dreaded, and therefore a hundred or a thousand specimens of penmanship, all similar, would reflect shame upon the teacher instead of being a cause for con-

gratulation. Instead of such exhibits, there will be classes of children actually leciting; instead of an exhibit of maps the visitor will see and hear the method of experienced teachers in making the study of geography fascinating and the actual result of tho lesson by the manner, of response of tho pupils. How children, who have little aptitude, apparently, for tho study of mathematics, are trained to a liking "for the subject, and the resultant advance in arthmetic, will be demon strated by a class of children and an ex-

pert tutor in tho subject. In like* manner, every branch of the school curriculum, will be treated with living examples, of teacher and pupils, of the result that may_ be gained by the modern method of teaching. Classes of children in every part ot the world, have been invited to attend with their teachers, mid will be shown demonstrating the solution of some problem from which that teacher has derived tho greatest results. All of the exhibits relating to schools and teaching will ba exhibited in the Pajace of Education, one of the handsomest structures -t the exposition. For the first time in tho history of expositions, a comprehensive exhibit of vocational training and its advantages will be presented and the pro gress of the various foreign countries along the line of industrial education folly explained. France and Germany lcaet the world in this branch of study, and the exhibits displayed by those two nations, will be of incalculable value to the student »t teaching. In this connection must be mentioned the methods adopted to get away from routine class drill, by the wide-awake teachers. The motion picture machine has done much to accomplish this-. The means of best displaying historical and geographical,

botanical and like features, by means of this marvel of ingenuity, .will be # shown at the exposition. The picture which can show upon the screen a seed planted, its germination, the shoot rising abovo tho Boil, and the final flowering and producion of other seeds, is so interesting, that it. will not be forgotten by the youngster watching the unfolding of the mystery of nature. It has been proved that it is easier to impress great incidents of history upon tho child by means of tho moving pictures than in any other way. And after witnessing tho coronation or abdiction of a monarch, tho triumph of some general over others, or the persecution of a religious sect by the followers of a dominant creed, even the dates aro more easily remembered, and the added features of tho horror of tho war, the humanity of spveroigns and the need of toleration, will be indelibly impressed upon tho mind. Hundreds of the best will be exhibited beforo classes of children at the exposition, and the effect upon thorn may bo accurately gauged by the visiting teachers and those interested in education. The business and formal meetings of conventions of educators from all parts of the world, which have selected San Francisco as their placo of assemblage next year, will be held in tho milliondollar auditorium, which is to be a permanent monument of tho exposition. From this structure as headquarters, the teachers may visit such, parts of tho educational exhibits, in bodies or singly as they please. Features of the exhibits will be the classes of doaf and dumb, blind, crippled, and mental defectives, showing just how each class should be handled. Physical training of the child will play an important part in tho Palaco of .Education. The playground systam and the gymnastic and cahsthenic systems will be explained, and tho most modern methods of " setting up " the youngsters fully explained. WHAT THE VISITORS CAN "DO." When tho gates of tho Panama-Pacific Exposition aro formally opened on February 20, 1915, a stream of visitors from all parts of the world will commence to flow into San Francisco, and dining tho lifo of tho exposition millions of poisons will havo' become acquainted with the Stato of California and its chief city, San Francisco—tho metropolis of tho West. Tho wonders of tho golden Stato have made lovers for it of all who have ever visited tho eastern 6hores of tho Pacific Ocean. AVitli a climate unsurpassed by that of the famed Riviera, and with scenic wonders which are tho marvel of tho world, California has become known ae tue "Playground of America," a title which it justly deserves. From tho southern boundary to tbe dividing line at tho north the Stato is dotted with hotels and inns of the most modern character, and excellent automobile roads criss-cross tho country. .Nature ha 3 given to San Francisco its best. It is a city with a climate that is mild, even, and tonic; in summer, cool and invigorating, and in winter mild and warm. Psdms and wistaria grow in San Francisco's outdoor gardens, and oranges ;ue raised as fur north as 15U miles front San Francises. Rcsas bloom outdoors during the entire year, and it is worth a special trip to see all ot tho residences surrounded by plots of lawn interspersed with beds of growing .rich toscs. Lite average winter temperature is 51deg, and the average summer temperature s£kleg. Snow has been soon in San Francisco but eix times in its history, and then but a few flakes. A feature of the exposition will be its living gardens, which will bloom during tho entire 10 months of tho exposition. By a system, of rotation specially devised, there will never be a moment during the entire time when the flowers will not be in full blossom. Tho points of interest in the city are many and of varied character. , Whether it is amusement, or entertainment, or instruction, or a combination of the three, that is desired, San Francisco can supply them. OnO of the feature, spots of the city is Chinatown. In the old days beforo the tiro that district used to attract many visitors, who were fascinated yet shocked by the wickedness oi the district. Chinatown of to-day is a thousand times more fascinating, but the wickedness ie it thing of the pn&t. A picturesque comer of the ancient empire, Chinatown seems to oo a part of one of the principal cities of that country. Tho buildings are most modern, although retaining their picturesqueness and natural form of architecture. Thousands of tiny Chinese children play in the streets in their quaint .costumes, and may be seen walking through the principal shopping districts absolutely unconscious of the fact that they aro objects of interest. A resort which is especially popular in San Francisco is the Oosan Beach.. In addition to all tha pleasures usual to beaches, such as excellent cafe 3, inns, automobile boulevards, and amusement features, there are the wonderful Sutro Gardens, which compare favorably with an/ in the world. Tho rarest of flowers aro growing there in tho open, and the collection is valued at hundreds of thousands of dollars. Clo&o bv aro the Sutro baths, the largest in tho world, which are fed directly by pipes leading into tho ocean. The Sea Rocks, within a stone's throw of tho baths, upon whioh disport hundreds of living sails* present a sight worth travelling across tho continent to eee.

Commercially the city is one which ranks well forward with the great marts of the world. Situated cr. tho shores of the wonderful Bay. of f?an Francisco and the Pacific Ocean, its area is 464 miles. It has 32 parks and squares totalling 1,396.6 acres, or almost 5 per cent, of tho area of the city. Embracing 38 denominations, there are 208 church-as and 136 schools. Three hundred and sirty of the miles of streets aro paved, and as there are no extremes of heat or cold the sight familiar in other cities of constant repairing is lacking. San Francisco is the eleventh city in 6izo in the United States, and the fifth wealthiest city. It N tho best fortified city, and posse joss sonic of the most famous army posts in America. —A Few of the Side. Trips.— View of the historic Golden Gate and tho old Spanish fortress guarding th* entrance. Military prison and infantry post on Alcatraz Is'.ind The finest immigration and <jjaara#itihi« station on Angel Island, lisrhthotre and fog slniion at Lime Point. United States naval training echool and station on Yerba Buena. The pioturesane, wooded slopes of S.ausalito. and the towering tops of Mount Tamalpais iu ths

distance. Sweeping view of Oakland, Ala- j .meda, and Berkeley, and tho ever-green hills of the beautiful Marin peninsula. A comprehensive outlook commanding San Francisco and the transbay water front. A delightful steamer ride across San Francisco Bay, landing at Oakland, thence by electric car to tho university town of Berkeley and the University of "California, with its splendid buildings eet in beauti-fully-cultivated grounds. Tho Greek Theatre is a reproduction of tho ancient Greek Theatre, Epidauros, and is entirely open to the sides, its staged background of columned concrete facing a semi-circle of tier aftor tier of massive atone soats, with a setting of ornamental trees and tropical plants nestling at the foot of tho far-famed Berkeley Hills. Mare Island is located at the extreme northern end of Sam Francisco Bay. and is the site of tho United States Naval Headquarters of tho The Government have expended many millions of dollars to mako tins the most complete navy yard in the world, with a dry dock capable of holding tho largest war vessel. The beautiful city of Vailejo is also visited on this trip. On an automobile trip through the city the visitor will be given an opportunity to view, in passing, tho splendid stores of the shopping district, tho Persidio, San Francisco's great military post, Fort Mason, thj Cliff House and Golden Gate Park, and tha Boulevard skirting the Pacific Ocean for miles, the century-old Spanish Mission Dolores, "Fisherman's Wharf," and tho scores of Neapolitan fishing boats with graceful lateen sails, and the waterfront with its shipping viewed from the shore. Prom tho heights of tho city a magnificent view of the exposition is afforded and of tho roadstead in tho bay, where tho fleets, of all nations will be riding at anchor. Sausarito, the "Sorrento" of America, is a picturesque village clinginß to the wooded hillsides of Marin County, skirting the bay, which is always dotted with trim, whito yacbta. The trip up Mount Tamalpais 13 considered the niost interesting of the San

Francisco sido trips. Ascent is made to the summit, 2,592 ft abovo Mill Valley, by what is known as "the crookedest railroad in the world." In order to nu<ko tho steep accent the track parallels, itself live t/mc-s in 3CO feet From the summit may be seen "Muir" Woods, the redwoods of Blythedalo, the Japanese village Lonioa Prieta, Mount Diable, and a thousand other inteiwUng siehts. . „ The historic " Portola Discovery trip takes one along the rugged and picturesque shores of the Pacific, and com banes wonderful rconery with a vibrant historical interest. From Montara, 23 miles from San Francisco, the tourist is in a etago to the spot from which Don Gasper Portola discovered San Francisco Bay, October 30, 1769. A trip to the orchards of Santa uw Vallev is an extension of tho San Francifco "Peninsula, where it leaves the hay and broadens out into the beautiful country It is one of the most prolific truit valievs in tho world. The Leland Stanford University, built in the mission stvie, as well as the oldest university m Gab forma (Santa Clara College), aro located there.

THE GLORIOUS CARDEMS. "Conceived bv man, but inspired by God," rhapsodised a South American poet as he cnaeci upon the site of the I'anainaPaSc Kxrocition, and watched the great palaces-triumph* of a rchitectu rinsing from » tropica Garden ot Eden on the shores of the crystal-blue Ban Francisco Bay, VtL™ f virc 1 tho lofty green portals of tho famed Golden Gate. Ilomembenng that, v.Jne now the Exposition has alrcaay taUi .a visible shape with tho buildings piactically completed, there but one short year ago was notliing but sand dunes, rubbish piles, and great waste land, the marvel of its present appearance makes •even one lacking in idealism realise th.it the poet but expressed in words tho thought that is uppermost in tho mind of every visitor to the site. Marvellous palaces of exceptional beauty and grandeur have been erected in Europe, in the Orient, in Africa, ar.d in all parts ot tho world. Tho building of great dtructural piles has been the pride of nations since man first learned tho art of making and using implements. And while the palaces at the Exposition will arouse admiration, it is not they whicn will awaken tho wonder and awe of the visitors ; but the Glory of tho living gardens, the flowers, the plants, the shrubs, and the great towering trees which bank the buildings, lino the avenues, and dot the interspaces will in&pire and bring one to some true conception of the •■■•onderfnl work which has been done at the Exposition. Tho Exposition s«ite was formerly a great basin of water formed bv a sea wall running east and west along the line of wTiat is now the northern boundary of the grounds. When the site was finally accepted, and President C. C. Mooro started tho machinery of the groat dredger, "John W. M'Mullen," on April 12, 1912, there were 71 acres of watercovered land to be filled in, and more than 3.100)000 cubic yards of silt were hydraulically pumped in from tho bay. A" combination cf sand and salt-laden silt lay outstretched before the eye 3. of the landscape engineers, headed by John M'Laren, when they were brought to the site to make plans for planting of flowers and hedges and trees. Such a combination would not grow oven a. blade of grass, and it was for tho engineers to devise some plan by which tho sand could be fertilised properly. "Thero is but oue solution,"' said M'Laren, and turning to his companions he continued: " Le.t us emulate "the example set by Mohammed, and bring tho mountain to us." Thus was conceived the most daring and absolutely unprecedented plan of bringing 25,000 cubic yards of soil from a point on the Sacramento River 70 miles away to the Exposition site. When M'Laren determinedly spoke of doing this, and whimsically recalled Mohammed's mountain, he was not far wrong in simile, for 25,000 cubic yards of dirt piled into a cube 100 ft sqivme would rise one-Half mile into the air, and its top would be far above the clouds. In all reality, a. mountain of dirt! Immediately the engineer corps was called upon for advice, and

a set of plans drawn. Permission waa given by the United States Government to cut away the banks of the Sacramento River at" Collinsville, and as the huge steam dredges removed tho earth in great bites at was loaded upon 'barges and towed to the Exposition grounds, and there spread by skilled workmen over the entiro fiito to a depth of from six to oight inches, While the., engineers were attending to this feature of the work M'Laren, who ia Superintendent of Parks of San Francisco, and creator of the famous Golden Gate Park, was busily engaged with a large staif of landscape engineers in planning a veritable tropical paradise. .-■ Horticulturists in all parts of the world were communicated with by cable_ and asked to sond their choicest specimens of the flowers and plants and trees indigenous to their particular climo, all of which may be grown in the remarkable climate of San Francisco, where flowers bloom the entire year, and the daintiest of blossoms may bo picked at any time during tho winter. A map of the site was carefully marked with the positions of each bed of flowers, lino of hedge, and most advantageous location for each tree. In the case of these latter deep holes woro dug, and theso were filled to the brim with tho precious soil. Nurseries, grcenhousos, and lath-houses were constructed near tho site of the drill ground, upon which the troops of all nations will pass iu review daily, and in theso were planned hundreds of thousands of cuttings and seeds. Then Jules Guerin, director of color for the Exposition, arrived for consultation with M'Laren, and explained that in selecting the flowers only those which would harmonise with the' general and individual color scheme of the Exposition and Iho buildings musi be chosen. The plans were then revised, and as Guerin selected his colors for each palace the flowers) which would best harmonise with those colors were chosen from the worlds collections. But most certainly tliis color scheme would be spoiled

completely it' the flowers were not in full bloom every moment during tho 10months of tho Exposition, including all of the four seasons. Would it be > possible to make thorn bloom all of the time? .M'Laren was asked. His master scheme was then revealed. By a series of rotation the engineer has promised that there will never be a minute during the year 1915 when nil of the flowers in sight o£ the public will not be in full bloom. For every plant growing on the Exposition site "there will be duplicates in tho greenhouses, lath-houses, and nurseries, and when any one of the plants ceases to bloom, another—a duplicate—from the Hardens will replace it. As immensity is the keynote ot the plans of tho architects building the Exposition, so great numbers plav an impoi I ant p:]v< in the Garden ot' Eden plans of the landscape engineers. A great avenue of thousands of date palms, hundreds of which are valued ;:l mo::; than lOOdd each, leads from one great court to another, and a hedge 60ft high protects the gardens from the dust of the adjacent rtroots, and this hedge itself is a masterpiece of conception. It i< formed by placing large flower boxes one upon another in such a way that beautiful vines (evergreen) trail down from them and form a continuous wall of living streamers and festoons. More than 70,0€0 geraniums are now growing in the nurseries, an-d will be olanted on the site in December, _ 1914. They will at that time have attained a growth of from 2ft to 3ft in height. Thousands of acacias are jiow blooming and being boxed to bank the buildings, and these have been selected so that the many varieties which bloom at different times provide rni equal number which will be always in bloom. The acacia will be tho only* blooming tree on the grounds. Spa<'e has been allotted to tho 25,C00 veronicas now on hand and blooming in Temiefiste Hollow, ar.d 4,C00 rhododendrons have ben ciderexl from England and Holland. An equal number of begonias and fuchn'ar> and livdrangeas and Iv.v7li.sh laurel will delight tho eye of tho visitor. A great orchard has been <losr.oil.xl of ;-.., orange trees, ntid these will bloom f::r th? benefit of tho tourists from the icy regions of the United states, where only <nld storage oranges are_ known. To the t-nin iet' tho great variety and number of olive trees will also add to the interest, and 6,000 eucalypti will rear their towering tops 60ft above tho evound.

Tho beautiful Eino Arts Palace, will be with massive jv'p?n plants, and a bank of greenery and vines will trail down from a, pergola high or; the top of the building to the base. All of the palaces will receive an appropriate "dressing" of flowers and shrubs, in order that the scheme of the exhibits may be accentuated. The great labo-.- of assembling thc-e wonderful plants and great frce.s from all parts of tho world cannot be described and only imagined. To keejj iheni nlivo afterward i.« a task in itself which would daunt many of the foremost garden experts of the world. Great trees—lo, 15, 20, 30, and 50ft in height, and weighing to 10 tons—are transplanted to the Exposition grounds. To accomplish this transplanting without enda.ngering tho life of tho tree is a scientific task. A cut is made around tho four fiides of the treo some distance from the base. Boards are then placed down these cuts to prevent the side roots from again joining -niih their severed appendages. Six months must then elapse before tlr.' tree 'can. be touched. At the expiration of that .time a elideway to tho base of the roots is dug on .-:io side and tho bottom roois cut far down. A board is tlmi passed tinder tho bottom, and a derrick brought into play. 'lhe tree is lified, and the four side"boards and the bottom board fastened together, making a huge box. Loaded by drrriek on steamship or fiat. car. the tree was readv for transportation from the farthest corner of the earth to the wonderful Panama-Pacific Externational Exposition, there to add to the onjoyinont of the cations of the world when thev afsemble in San Francisco in IS] 5.

This article text was automatically generated and may include errors. View the full page to see article in its original form.
Permanent link to this item

https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19141223.2.70

Bibliographic details

THE GLORIES OF THE PANAMA EXPOSITION., Evening Star, Issue 15683, 23 December 1914

Word Count
5,011

THE GLORIES OF THE PANAMA EXPOSITION. Evening Star, Issue 15683, 23 December 1914

Working