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The Evening Star WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 23, 1914.

The German is likely to figure in the pages of history as the The Baby-killers greatest transgressor of Of Scarborough, the twentieth century. - The motive which impelled him to war was marked by a cardinal transgression of the moral law, and the practices which, characterise his conduct of the war are marked by a wanton transgression of the Law of Nations. His aim is' to subjugate and impoverish neighboring nations; and in the furtherance of it lie refuses to listen to the voice of scruple and repudiates nil restraint. Nothing in tho annals of modem warfare reveals such a heartless disregard of the rights of non-combatants as thei proceedings of the Gorman War Lords. Anciently the severity of war acknowledged no mitigations in the interests of those not directly participating in Ul3 struggle. If a conqueror sacked a town he was permitted to destroy its inhabitants, including women and children, without any hindrance other than that imposed by his own conscience. To poison wells, to direct the guns upon temples, upon repositories of art, and upon tho homes of the non-lighting portion of a eommunity was subject to no prohibition of human law when an army was invading territory or besieging a city. Tho influence of Christianity and civilisation has fastened many salutary restraints upon the license of war. These restraints all) spring from recognising as a leading principle that war is a struggle between combatants. The men that a nation enrols iti its fighting force, the ammunition they use, the food they consume, tho trains or ships that carry their requirements, the factories that manufacture them, and generally all the auxiliaries of an army and the things which contribute to its efficiency are legitimate objects, of attack and destruction. Destruction, whether of life or property, is no matter for complaint, provided that it is directed to weakening the fighting power of the enemy. International law to-day requires that war shall be a trial of strength between nations organised for conflict. All who are not directly or indirectly within the organisation comprehended by the terms army and navy are exempt from the violence of war. This is the ground of the immunity of non-combatants. Writers on the Law of Nations agree without exception that force is only to be used against an enemy country so far as it is nccessarv to accomplish the purpose of war, which is the overthrow of the enemy's fighting strength. "Tho custom of civilised nations," says Wheaton, " founded upon this "principle, has therefore exempted the "persons of tho sovereign and his family, " the members of the civil government, "women and children, cultivators of tho "earth, artisans, laborers, merchants, "men of science and letters, and goner"ally all other public and private indi- " viduals engaged in the ordinary civil "pursuits of life, from tho direct effect '"of military operations, unless actually "taken in arms or guilty of some iniscon"duct in violation of the usages of war. " by which 1 they forfeit their immunity.*' For tho same reason even soldiers, when taken prisoners, cannot ho killed oi- en- ' slaved, as was formerly tho case. Once they becomo by their imprisonment iucapaWo of combat all violence towards them must cease. The same principle governs the exemption of private, property ! from confiscation. When a country is in- | vaded the. invader cannot spoil and pillage j at will. Private properly may only be seized under the following- conditions:— 1. By way of penalty for military offences. 2. For thu purpose of providing sustenance for the invading force, or as an indemnity for the" expenses of maintaining order and affording protection to the conquered inhabitants; and 3. When taken on tin; field of battleor informing a fort re?*? or lortiiisd town. An invader must protect non-combatants and their properly so long as they take no part in the struggle. If they relinquish this character then they forfeit their privilege. Even forced contributions for tho support of the. invading army should only be resovted to in cases of necessity. Monev should be collected from the whole district to avoid the loss falling more heavily upon .seme individuals than upon others. The. conscience of mankind has circumscribed the theatre of warlike operations. It insists upon the cessation of that slaughter and plunder which, while Inflicting incalculable misery, contributes nothing to the settlement of the issue between the contending nations. The killing of women and children does not diminish the militarv power of the suffering nation, or augment the fighting strength of t)v> nation that inflicts the suffering. It is a mere barbarity actuated by the spirit of revenge. It is a total surrender to the indulgence of the passion of national hatred. It is the ferocity of tho savage, who puis beyond the pale of human sympathy anything, however helpless or innocent which is associated with tho ene:iiy. Here- lies the j enormity of the flennan raid npou the Enslish coasts Had the Cerman guns been directed against an arsenal, a garrison, or anything which was a. source of strength to tho Biitish Empire- in war. we should have submitted uncomplainingly to the. fortune of battle. 'But in what iray has the Herman design been advanced j by the destruction of the homos of peaceful citizen?,' by the shatt-eiing I with explosive*; of the bodies of liabies, aged men. ai.d terrified women? In what way could the success of such •shelling cripple the military resource* of the Empire? If tho Hermans bad contemplated invasion the raid would not havo been justified. An invading force, must reserve- their bullets for the. combatant elements of a nation. 'lTics-e "baby-killers of Scarborough" call for the execration of mankind. In pursuing their brutal purpose to establish tho power of the sword, they arj not only tearing up solemn treaties as "trrAps of paper," but liruvhing ntud.-j as negligible all the obligations of international lav.-. This cannot be. too strongly reprehended. In the great day of settlement the nations of Europe must exact reprisals for the, many gross, of the laws of humanity and the laws of war agreed upon by all civilised countries. Did Ihc atrocities in Belgium require confirmation they would find it in the wanton outrage on Yorkshire. The flag of honor has been dragged in the dust and trampled in tho wdro by a professedly Christian and cultured people. What an evil example to the nations of tho East to which' Germany has been sending her missionaries. Tho disgraceful means employed to accomplish her ends gives the world a foretaste of tho oppression which would bo exercised vrexo Germany successful. Ovcrlordship

by a nation Hint flouts its pledged word, that allows its actions to be fettered by no law of fJod, humanity, or of notions,'is too fearful for •thought. Surely here is a ground which would justify the intervention of the United States. Her President professes the moat exulted sentiments of national integrity and honor. Is he willing to wink at tho repeated violation of the most sacred principles decreed for the guidance of nations at war? Wo trust that the day of reckoning will come soon, and that America will aidi in tho imposition, of penalties upon the colossal lawbreaker of tho twentieth century.

Our Christmas supplement, which ia circulated with the, present issue, will he found to contain a variety of matter of interest to okl end young alike. Among the articles specially written for this journal are the following :—' The Glories of the Great Panama Exposition,' to be opened by President \vdleon in February next; ' Memories of Christmas ' that have a special flavor for Welshmen; 'A Study for 'Children'; ' Christmas or Our Dreams'; 'A iNight in the Children's Ward of the Dunedin Hospital'; and 'A Christmas Guest.' Among the miscel- | laneous contributions are : ' Simon I Burks's Experiences,' from the pen of Henry E. Dudney; ' Christmas Buttons,' by Martin J. M'Hugh; 'A Christmas Interview.' by G. Burgin j ' In a Christmas Fag,' by Evelyn E. Green; ' Tho Miracle of Christmas,' and a humorous chapter illustrative of the adventures of a Christmas kitten concert company. "Good wine needs no bush." During tho past few weeks workmen have been engaged raising the posts which mark the distance along tho railway line, and the section between Dunodm and Invereargill has been completed. An earth mound, in soma instances 6it in height, lias been built up, and the diV.nnce post placed on top in the centre. Th» object apparently is so that the post may be the mure easily seen, but one wonders how long the mound will remain inrai't, once Brer Rabbit discovers how easily ho can burrow into it. The Mayor last evening paid a wolldeecrved compliment to the citizens o[ Ihinedin, remarking that they had given £44,000 to patriotic purposes* and before Christmas £15,050 would have boon sent to Belgium. Eight tire alarms are now installed in the tit. Kilda- Borough, and in addition four firemen's houses are connected up. In drawing attention to the fact that the alarms were now in nee, Cr Harris stated at last night's meeting of tho council that it would he necessary to impress upon people that it was a serious thing to interfere with the alarms, and if any person gniltv of such an offence was caught a prosecution would foilow immediately. Thev did not to have the brigade turned out un.4scessarily. He added that the alarms had been finally tested, and they worked very accurately. lit the Local Option poll for the Dunodin district 22,813 valid votes were, cast, those for Continuance totalling 12,499, and for No-license 10,314. These are the official figures. Seven o'clock closing has not met with favor at the hands of the Dundein tobacconists. After a trial it has been decided to present a petition from the majority of the shopkeepers asking the Minister of Labor to extend the hour till 8 p.m. Citizens will be glad to hear that Cr Clark (chairman of the City Council's Gas Committee) assured the council last evening that the gasholder on its new site showed no sign of giving anywhere when tested after" the gasholder was in commission. The foundations were absolutely true. "It is in as good condition as it' ever was." said Cr Clark, " and we hope to have it in full commission in a low weeks." Thanks to the ;-ffoi te of tho executive of tho Otago Expansion League, the beautiful bush at Waipori is to be saved after all. Mr A. Bathgate informs us that _representations wore made to the Prima Minister on the subject, and Mr Masse.y communicated with the Commissioner of Crown Lands for Otago. who has been able to arraJige with the hoK'lci- of the license to cut the bush that bis license shr.ll bo limited to the. removal of dead wood under the supervision of tho ranger. This is a matter for congratulation. Tho bush, which begins just below the power .station and runs down to the end of the gullv, contains splendid kowhal and birch trees. and is one of tho loveliest spots imaginable. 'With the added attraction of the power-house, this spot is bound to become a favorite resort of tourists. Seasonable greetings were exchanged at the conclusion of the business- in the CMy Poh'ce.Comt this morning, Mr Widdowson, S.M., who presided, conveying to the. members of tho legal profession, the representatives of tho police and Press, and the Rev. F. G. Gumming (agent for the Patients and Prisoners' Aid Society) his best ■wishes for a happy Christmas and a prospprcus New Year-. Mr Han lon, on behalt of the legal profession, said ho had great pleasure in reciprocating the good wishes conveyed to the Bar by the Bench, and in referring to the good feeling which always existed between the Bench and Bar counsel said that it was in a very large measure indeed attributable, to the kindly consideration shown by His Worship and other Magistrates occupying the Bench to the } members of the legal profession. Ho was glad to have an opportunity of saying how much the legal profession appreciated His Worship's kindness. Mr Irwin endorsed Mr Hanlone remarks, and Senior-sergeant Dart also concurred most heartily with what learned counsel had said, also makiu" reference to the gr*at assistance given to°the Bench and police by Mr dimming and the. Rev. Mr Axclscn in children s cases. Mr Faulin advises: Strong N.E. winds and electrical rain showers. Cr Clark* (chairman of the City Council's Gas Committee) mentioned in council last nicht with pardonable pride that within "the past six months the output of the department had increased by 6 per cent. He felt confident that instead of making a loss during the summer months the department would in future at least pay its way in that period. 'Mr Justice Sim has granted probate of the wills of John Crowe. Thomas Simpson Martin, Andrew Martin, sen., Robert John Craig, John M'Kay. James Austin. John Jackson M'Baron, .Isabella Do-wnes, James Thomas Neve. .Limes Hughes, Matthew Carson. John MaHorh. James Eaweeit Farra, and Archibald Greer: and letters of administration have been granted ve George Taylor. Margaret Blackie, David .las. Robertson, John Hancock, and John Calloway. His Honor also dealt, with the application of Mr Gaseoigne for directions as to notices for claims in the estate of Samuel -Solomons, deceased, and directions were given as prayed. The Supreme .Court offices closed at 1 p.m. to-day. and will reopen on the. 4th January. The Judge will nob sit till the end' of January. The residents down the haiborside take exception to the recent railway time-table-alterations en the local line. Tho principal grievance is that there is now practically no local train reaching the City between 9 a.m. and noon, and a lessor complaint is that there is no longer a 4.30 p.m. train leaving the City. The deputation from the West Harbor and Port Chalmers Councils laid the matter before Mr Waite, the railway traflic manager, yesterday afternoon, and asked to have "it rectified. The traffic manager made it clear that in view of falling revenue at present extra trains could not be run. Only the. Palmc-rston trains had been altered, and that was done as an experiment for the summer months, sololy with a view to suiting people residing north of Port Chalmers. It was, in fact, to ascertain whether that traffic, which had been increasing, was yet"sufficient to justify an increased train service. A suggestion was made that tli* train leaving'Dunedin at 10.15 a.m. might be altered to leave at 9.30, returning from Port Chalmers and reaching tho City about 10 minutes to 11 o'clock. Such a train would take the place of the train leaving Port Chalmers at present at 11.30 a.m. After further discussion it was agreed to let the whole matter stuiid over until after tho holidays, more information on the points raised to be gathered meanwhile.

A ChrfetchurclL. message states that the Arbitration Court has issued its judgment joining the Canterbury Publishing Gompuߣ- ('Sun') as a party to the aChristchurch reporters' award, and fixing the minimum weekly- wage for seniors at £5 10s, generals £4 15s, juniors £3 ss, and tJio proportion afc two seniors, three generals, one junior, and two cadets on a staff of six.

Watson's No. .10 is a little dearer than most whiskies, but is worth the. money.— [Advt.] Mr H. E. Williams sends us £1 for the fund raised as a result of tho Christmas appeal made by 3fr W. T. Talboys. A glass of Speight's: beer at lunch and supper is better than all the tea in China.— [Advt.] The 41st Christmas gathering and gifts for all seamen in harbor will be held iu the Choral Hall on Christmas Night. In an advertisement in another column Mr A. R. Falconer requests the attendance of any seamen who may be ashore iu boardinghouses, etc. Unfortunately few ships are at present iu port, but as they come in during this season hospitality will be shown to the crews, and the ditty bags, full of useful articles, distributed. Friends of the mission are also welcome on Christmas Night. Tea at. 6 sharp. We havo received artistic calendars from tho New Zealand Express Company and Bell's Royal Garage. Troubled with insomnia? A glass of Watson's No. 10 makes a splendid nightcap.— [Advt.] The Railway Department advertises in this issue particulars as to the running of trains on the Catlius River branch extension to Tahakopa. Getting married Christmas? Get. our 50page catalogue; an eye-opener; prices and styles tinsurnassed. Martins, Octagon.— [Advt.] Tho Maheno is advertised to run to North Spit and Maori Kaik on holidays at excursion rates. Tho attention of those who aiv. in the habit of visiting; tho railway platform on th<; arrival of trains is directed to a departmental notice in this issue.

" E.D." scuds us £1 for the Belgian fund

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Bibliographic details

The Evening Star WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 23, 1914., Issue 15683, 23 December 1914

Word Count
2,809

The Evening Star WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 23, 1914. Issue 15683, 23 December 1914

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