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icontbibuted by the navy leaoub, Otaqo Branch.] THE BULWARKS. "The splendid spirit of gallantry and devotion which animates the officers and men of His Majesty's forces."—Sir- John jSYench. What though, with sullen roar, The raging billows beat Against the everlasting shore, Where strength and patience meet. At last the mad assault is o'er And broken waves retreat. So swells the Teuton wave Against the British strand — And so, indomitably brave, The British legions stand, While disappointed despots rave To see her living bulwarks save The threatened Mother Land. A.W. ('Daily Chronicle.') HOW THE NAVY HAS GROWN. Even those who are on duty in the fleet hardly realise, perhaps, how considerable have been the additions to the fighting strength of the Navy since „the war opened. Hostilities bejjan at a time (Auuvist 4) when a large number o£ vessels were on the point of completion, either tor the British Navy or for other Powers. The result is that by a little extra effort it was possible to make very substantial additions to the fighting strength. It is iiot permissible to state the full extent of this movement. On the other hand, a comparison of the, August and October Navy Lists is permissible, because from these sources the enemy can for himself calculate to what extent we have been able to strengthen the fleet. The October Navy List was corrected down to September 15, and it shows that since the war began the following vessels have- been commissioned for sea : Four battleships of the Dreadnought type : The Agincourt (of 27,500 tons), the Benbow (of 25,000 tons), the Emperor of India (of 25,000 tons), and the Erin (of 23,000 tons). These vessels embody all the latest offensive and defensive powers. They-mount 50 13.5 in guns, throwing a 1,4001b projectile; 14 12in guns, using an 8501b projectile: and 60 6in guns, with a 1001b shell. One battle-cruiser of the Dreadnought type : The Tiger. This vessel, of 28.000 tons, carries 8 loin and 12 6in guns, thus raising tho aggregate number of new battle guns to 52, with 74 6in guns. Four armored cruisers : The Arethusa, Aurora, Galatea, and Undaunted! These vessels displace 3,750 tons, have a speed of 29 knots, and each mounts 2 6in and 8 4in guns. Three armored cruisers or monitors: Humber, Mersey, and Severn. These vessels were purchased from tho Brazilian Government on the outbreak of war. They represent a type unique in the Royal Navy. Displacing 1,260 tons, these gunboats can steam lli knots. They are designed to operato in" shallowwater, and draw only 4ift at full load The armament of e'ach" vessel consists of 2 6in guns, 2 4.7iu howitzers, and 4 3-pdrs. Two flotilla leaders : The Broke and Faulknor. These very big destroyers have a displacement of 1,600 tons, a speed of 31 knots, and carry 6 4in guns, in addition to three torpedo tubes. Eight large destroyers : The Lance, Laverock, Leonides, Lookout, Lucifer, Meteor, Minos, and Miranda. The vessels of tho "L" class displace about 1.000 tons, have a speed of 29 knots, carry three 4in guns, and have four tubes for discharging the 21in torpedo. The craft of the "M" class, of which 10 others* are completing, are larger, displacing 1,200 to 1,350 tons, aiid more pou erf ul. WHAT GERMANY HAS DONE. It will bo, to some, surprising to contemplate this list of new ships which"have been completed since the war opened. As Mr Archibald Hurd has pointed out in the 'Daily Telegraph,' the enemy r.a-s nothing to gain by the policy of waiting, but is rather suffering owing to Britain's much greater resources. In shipbuilding, and therefor© in staying 00-ver, J-jn.*.uin is still Supreme. The nation has at its service not only the thousands of men ordinarily engaged in creating n;ival armaments for service under the British F,ag, but it. has now working for it ali the other skilled workmen who in ponce conditions are engaged in creating slrj.s of war for other countries. Germa.iy has nr> comparable resources, ind we "know what ships she can he completing irom the knowledge of the ships which were building when the war oponed. It takes roughly three years to build a battletnip, two years to complete a cruder, and at least a year to construct a destr.>ver or Mibmarine.

THE VALUE OF THE SUBMARINE. In the classification of ships of war the submarine has now a well-established place, but its importance will grow, and sooner or later, as it gains surface speed i;nd sea-keeping endurance, as it almost tntainly will, it will assume part of the duties of_ tha destroyer, while the email, swift cruiser will replace the destroyer in forac other of its functions. The destroyer will not, however, actually disappear. It will develop, as it is already doing, in the two directions indicated. Sir Percy Scott's argument that tho submarine has "sounded Ihe dcath-knell of tho battleship has not ye; been justified, and it is timely to draw attention to tho fact that the submarine represents but a new type of destroy?!. Those who are acquainted with the controversies of the past will remember that French admirals, and even a student of war like tho late Admiral Philip Coloinh, thought thai the days of the battleship were nuiubered. —Bases of German Submarines.— The submarine has attained such a seaeudurance within recent times that its. int'.uence may txtend even to tho sphere of strategy. Submarines' now possess a range of 2,000 miles, and if they can establish a base on some coast remote from observation they mav ba able to operate in waters far distant from their home base. The Oerraan submarines have gone out considtrable distances from Kiel or Wilhelmshaven, and one message from Copenhayei. gave the news of a steamship that thev had sighted even off tho Orkney Island*. The appearance of the enemy's submarines in such regions seems to give substance to the surmise that- a base for their operations has been established, possibly on tha Norwegian coast. It is not necessary to suppose that the Norwegian Government have any cognisance of such being tho case, for submarines do not require, many stores, and an oil depot would not be difficult to establish on some remote fjords, inlet 3, or island of the coast. The German fleet, in its annual visits to Norway, has made practical acquaintance with some of these little-known regions, and is. indeed, stated to have raised Norwegian suspicion by the curiosity of its officers in regard to them. --As Scout.— There is splendid testimony in admiralty despatches to the spirit and courage of our own submarine officers. Within; three hours of the outbreak of wax submarines E6 and E8 were acting as 6ruisers and exploring the Bight of Heligoland, and in tho words of Commodore Keyes's despatch, "had the privilese of being the pioneers ••71 a service which is attended by some riek." The submarines continued incessantly to observe the -working of the German "patrols, and upon their reports the scihMse of what was described as a great "scooping movement" was conceived. Theretore we have the submarine as a Boout, which practically opens a new sphere for its activities. —Defence. — We learn also from the Admiralty despatches that the submarine finds itself powerless when the ship which it hopes to make its prey uses speed and alters course. Sir David Beatty did not fear the submarines when he went to assist the light cruisers and destroyers. The ■moothnesa of the sea made their movements easy to follow. The Queen Mary, ■which is a very long battle cruiser, and the best target a submarine could wish for, was attacked, but she avoided "the blow by using her helm. The Lowestoft ■was also attacked without snocess. There £N other instances of like, failure. The.

submarine fa blind ■when submerged, half blind when she uses her periscope, and more than half blind when she uses that useful appliance in a bad light. But the submarine has proved that when her opportunities come she can use them to great advantage. Far or near from her house, if she_ gets her blow in it will almost certainly prove disastrous. We must therefore consider the submarine as assuming a larger place in warfaro, acting as a scout, and striking hard when her chance comes. —Officers.— The most encouraging feature of the whole of tho recent despatches is the magnificent courage of the submarine officers. Rear-Admiral Christian has paid a great tribute to them, and has singled out two of them for special mention : Lieutenant-Commander E. \V. Lcir, who rescued the crews of the Goshawk and Defender at a critical time, and Lieutenant-Commander C. P. Talbot. Lieutenant-Commander Max K. Horton and many other officers are mentioned also, and well they merit it. The fight was a gallant affair, and sucli action must be sure of receiving the encouragement and winning the approval of the Commander-in-Chief.—' Daily Chronicle.' VERSE PLATE FOR SAUCY ARETHUSA. In remembrance of the distinguished part played in the Battle of the Bight bv H.M.S. Arethusa, the Admiralty has allowed the following two verses to be engraved upon a brass plate and fixed in a conspicuous place on board the cruiser : Come all ye jolly sailors bold, Whose hearts are cast in honor's mould, While English glory I unfold. Hurrah for the Arethusa. Her men are staunch To their favorite launch, And when the foe shall meet our fire, Sooner than strike we'll all expire On board the Arethusa. And now we've driven the foe ashore, Never to fight with Britons more, Let each fill his glass, To his favorite lass, A health to our captain and officers true, And all that belong to the jovial crew On board the Arethusa. A gold plate has been placed on board; all vessels that took part in this well' known and successful engagement, bearing the words " Heligoland, August 28, 1914."

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NAVAL NOTES, Issue 15676, 15 December 1914

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NAVAL NOTES Issue 15676, 15 December 1914

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