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METHODS OP ATTACK. Tho successful raids of both. British and G-erman submarines in tho North Sea have gone a long way towards justifying the claim of Sir Percy Scott that this type of vessel, rather than Dreadnoughts, will be the deciding factor in modem naval battles. It is rather amusing in those davs, however, when Britain is rapidly adding to her fleet of over 100 submarines , —Germany has only about 40—to reflect that when Fulton, the American inventor, first propounded bis idea for au underwater boat, and experimented under the auspices of tho British and French Go vernmonts, his plana wore denounced as " revolting to every noble principle," both French and British admirals declaring that they wished to "fight like gentlemen and not to be drowned like rate. And it was really not until Jxird Fisher boldly adopted the submarine for the Royal Navy only a few years ago that such views and opinions in the Service vanished. —Tho Finst Submarine.— Indeed, the statement in the Nary Estimates for 1901-02 that five submarine vessels had been ordered took away the breath of old naval officers. Those five fnbmarines were of tho type known 03 the Holland, and precisely similar to tho first eubmarines of tho United States Navy. Inventions and improvements, however, followed so quickly that soon tho Holland submarine was improved beyond all recognition, and tho A, B, 0, D, and hj classes followed rapidh/on one another, each of those elates possessing distinct advantages over the previous olnss. J? or instance, while tho 37 boats of the 0 class, built by 1908, were vessels of 316 to a2l tons, with a speed of 10 to 14 knots fitted with two torpedo tubes, and a full-speed raneo of 2,000 miles, or submerged of 100 miles, the D class, which was begun ni 1908, were boats of 540 to 600 tons with three torpedo tubes and a range of 4,000 miles. It was in a D boat that the first gun was mounted, being a lißbfc piece which disappeared within a watertight compartment when iho uont v... s submoTged. —Further DevelopmentsThen came the E class, No. 9 of which recently sank the German cruiser Hela which are the newest and most powerful submarines in tho Navy. They have a radiTof action of 2,000 miles and are capable of remaining a whole day under water. K9 is fitted with cabins and berthing and living accommodation for her crew of 28 Four torpedo tubes, firing 21m torpedoes, and two Impounder guns are carried on these powerful craft, which attain a speed on the nurfaco oi 16 knots, j The Admiralty, however, is advancing still j farther, and pushing ahead as fast as pes- j sible with the building of a fleet of sub- ; marines which will be known as the * ! class, and which will have a speed of 12 , to 20 knots, and an armament of six tor- j pedo tubes and two fun*- j The methods of attack oi a submarine ; are very simple. Seeing an enemy she blows out the required number of air tanks, and bv means of her planes descends until the conning tower is just above water, from which the movements _of tho f distant cnemv are observed. Having appreached within a distance judged to be j safe from discovery, the submarine Is sub- ; merged completely, her courso _ being : conned solely by means oi the periscope, , and at the chosen moment discharges her i torpedo. A period of several minutes may , be required for submergence, and the sub- : marine caught in the act by destroyers 13 , in a hopeless situation. Tho aeroplane, j too. enables submarines to bo seen when ; submerged, and wireless messages may . convey Intelligence to tho big ships and j set the swift destroyers on the alert. At j night the submarine is blind, and ia bad ; light or rough sea she works with dim- , culty, owing to the obscurity of her { vision.

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HOW SUBMARINES WORK, Evening Star, Issue 15665, 2 December 1914

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HOW SUBMARINES WORK Evening Star, Issue 15665, 2 December 1914