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WHAT BEFELL TEE BULWARK ? LOSSES COMPARED. FRONTS IN NORTH FRANCE. POSITIONS MAPPED. THE STRATEGY NEAR LODZ. [By A. Spence.] Bonders will be enabled to form some opinion of the Bulwark from the sketch. The shaded parte indicate armor, and the darker the shading the thicker arc the plates. The 16 watertight compartment' from bow to stern are drawn. Two points catch the attention. First, the armor grows steadily thicker till it reaches the turrets, which are highest of all. The plates are 9in at best on the waterline, but attain a maximum of 12in or. the chief gun stations. Like every other warship in the, world, the Bulwark was top-heavy. It is a feature in all of them, and one. that cannot be avoided by designers. It, explains, however, why the end of a battleship comes so rapidly by the destruction of her metac-rntj ic margin of stability after one or two of the compartments have been flooded, and why she turns turtle faster than a merchant chip would do unde.- similar attack. The. range of stability of a mcrchanlm<.n, especially when her holds are nicely loaded, renders her stable in comparison with the kit lieship. it is doubtful if any up-to-date merchant steamer could disappear in the short interval of time in which the Bulwark vanished, and this, of course, affects the question of Ices of life. In view of the sad reality of the news, the foregoing may he, considered uselessly academic, since v.e do not. know whether the Bulwark capsized 01 fell to pieces. A second point, however, affects the Just battle.-hip more, closely. Her torpedo flats were located in the same watertight conipa.rt.memu as her main magazines. The n.nvard magazine was: in Xo. 4 compartment. and the forward torpedo ilat wa.; theie too. Aft the magazine was in NM. 12 emupai tmciil, and the after torpedo flat in X'o. Ik When the s! Ip exploded it would not he merely a question -of the magazines going off, but of magazines and tor; o Ices together. It as not wonderful to read, therefore, tint, the i onci;ss:o:i shook Southend. IS n.ilos distant, across the Thames Kstr.arv, and that the (lash was pmvoivable 145 miles a wav in Wales.

Wind adnally In fell t!!r Jlulwark may - never h- known (ill the end (he war. Sir Hiram Maxim. ;i wcild/s authority, ; Seouls ill!- rh:: <-l f pou: arif’MU' explosion ■ under modem Pnitic/t eonditVm? of inarm- | f.'K’liir-. Admiral IJergeford vouches f'.-r i the fart flint 1 horo wes ever d-.-vh on | t!ir Bulwark '-nI(■ uiati‘ii lo main'.>in a enit- 1 able tennu-rat mit in lie- ;!,./! romns. and ; th-n (rofen 'i’t, no i<>>ilit, to tin' n/t'n- j tflycrnw oli'ii'.r-i' in pro) HlnntM ]a.-.-v.s • •n to- j:iv that even tin- fo-iil. iii;i! tali o' a fall i ai * i a!- centa ; il;-- 1 :>i;• 1 of .-■■•••(I't • V. liir’: pv- Tfni'.vai 1; earn'd v. ••!!!'( . not d-. lona to the T.’i-'-ro ;s a collari-iai rr great riant;.. ’I In mint of i’-r lon ark. ix; in ill" II lath-mi iMiiiiii 1. hnv-- lu-<-n v.-yi <! an o|MT.ati- M w tpeh vccml no,t be ;!. Tl'-.' observers find tlial flip renciin-. :n-.' 1\ill;: -,u ; 1, • ncody i!"(;r of tint j rl ao-'-l in tin.-' - I lot a. in:.‘l < and fun- I n Is g-an. 'Hi * ('.artit ion of :h- .'inn tn j (in i wav i • -11 .* : o;:iv In: i In r;i .-If 'l' ! I-y i two pc]-a; ato explm 'one (In'- ol I he Mil - , vivnr< incut i- -ns "im heavy t' ]■ ■ ■ rt, and ; then tlm - lion- snip - • n i ■<l to .Imp to | fragment-. A smog,-I .-y. -wit:/-ss al-V ,-i'irins that tin v i- v.<T" I '"o oypio-io: ’- mil. foro and om* aft. ll’ I- m'-v-t tiait. , (bn- wet- simn't ancons ( xido-i-n Ft thr-o arroiiiiif.-* -"iKct. timy d--moßs’i t!v thorny n'" ,: d n' in the mazarines, for tlicm siirclv -T-uld not have nayi, pound .<!mu!t tneously nndor tie Pnv /ml aft turrets in a navy wh-te explorim' : a v.< no rav*. fit i/enfi yesterday wm-e rigcdv, padlv aiseussnng fhr ehait' e>- I ton c,‘railor in German pay. borne on Pm Bitl’t-uUV may hate done the STUMAR I S KS I N ’HI!' ‘IIAXNoI.. The ml ana ri nr trouble was Strongly forecasted in thr-se notes at Hie beginning of tlie war. when thus.- who did not know nnK’ii ahum, the matter lanJ.-tI at, it. just, as they still do about Zeppelins. It is

a sore day indeed to rub Ibis kind of thing homo, but we must endeavor to open our eyes wide to the facts. To-day the cables furnish the painful intelligence that German submarines have been operating far south in the English Channel. Two merchantmen have formed the targets, and the localities given in the cables speak for themselves. We have probably not seen the real beginning of this kind of warfare yet, but we may serenely trust the ingenuity of the British Admiralty and armament makers to deal with it sooner or later. There never was a mechanical device by man which could not bo met somehow. LIST OF BRITISH LOSSES. Exclusive of submarines and armed merchantmen, the following tables furnish the sea losses on each side, arranged in order of size. The date given is the date of launch, indicating the age of file ship. The total loss of British tonnage is 89.745; that of Germany 42.060. The Germans, however, have Inst more vessels. The Bulwark cost just £1,000,000, and each of the three tressys £BOO,OOO. Cruising vessels varying in type between the Pegasus and the Ampluon cost between £250,000 and £320.000 each

Four destroyers In a-Mirim Germany has lost the minelayer Konigin Luiso and several armed liners, among others boiifg the Kaiser Wilhelm dor Crosse and tho Cap Trafalgar. The costs of Gorman warships are not easy to obtain, but such a ship as the Vorek would run to about £OOO.OOO. The cost of the Mainz and Kohl was £381,480 each, and that of the Konigsberg £319.000. Of the ships given in the table the Magdeburg came to grief in the Baltic, the Gier is at Honolulu, and the ltd is and ether gunboats were those stationed at Tsing-tao. THF PENDULUM IN POLAND. Much of our hone looks to Russia, of course. A r nmeeUd account of the battle of Lodz is given—quite a- probable account —by the 'Daily Telegraph,’ but nothing J-r-.s than a set of malts would make it clear. Mill, those who follow the spots named on the atlas will find a study of interest, for there has been groat strategy

on both sides. The capture of a German ,\nny (' :os no! (■•■rtain yet. The account of tn- -to i rains sent to receive the pri; -i-is iew less convincin'; when it told a-, that th-y had yone forward “from Warsaw/’ It, ;« at Warsaw that the IJusinan i'iiu?p ends and the Gcrnian ganpe ip- dns, and the lin- .onld not yet have 'neon iiroad- ncd front Warsaw to Lori/.. la Av. is 11 1 .■•fToinJ city in Poland. It is halfway hot ween the (dnn.tii irontier and Poland, and 70 miles in straight line from tl," Polish capital. .It is iiinto distant by r- ’a .i railway and road. On the Pussian . id- of I,od,- f 1 1 i*cf: viiiiiLM-e spread fa.n----w i.o . Tiic.o- Jii'i/iny, Kolnezki, and .aiy/c”;. K-diis.d;i is Id ii.?»es due oast of Lndz. Pn/iny is Id miles fftry'inc.v is 10 miles r-irth-east. 'J’hese will a-d to be hs.hcd at. hut it is necessary ii:-t to set 1 lie general battle line, in order. Far south from these points the (Town r.-ii,".- w.-us operalimr. Indding the, central army ami grand rci-civcs under his immediate direction. lie had the line from ( st-indoi howa to (Taiow, his Hgiit flank joinin-T the fr.ri i-M of the Austrian General J Pinkyi in tlm so-n hj. and Jiis left joining 11 ii’.detlbiiry m tic north. There central (.■('ICS ia -upr- nT- rrio.s at J- ast I.A d.n .s a;;--, and then H indrnbnrg, the left i ii “i.-c. A strong foies: was thrown atanist Kolaazki. where, three railways join, and where- part of ’h" 15.0C0 tons of storea nni't < ii-- ;n> daily for tic- Pitssian arit was lielicvcd that it would be s iniposi Id-' for the second Gent nil .Russian Ana I .' (tha ,\io«'Aw army) to face round :ii .lira’. I'nforl innately for him self, tins old ’-'■■at' fox was a. little l-oo quick. Such . r-’at wounds had boon lorn in the tailv.av hiidy<-.-» after the battle of the Vistula that he did not imagine that blocks of tlic Moscow reserves (intended to feed ! ■;Pat! I- ii-rainst the (,'rotvn Prince) w.*ro will hailed near Lodz.

These stationary masses got the news that Hindenburg was driving in a wedge, land, mud-bound as they were, they wheeled half-northern under what must have been very skilful direction by the higher leaders. Finally, marching wonderfully fast, they touched Hindenburg s southern flank. Simultaneously the Petrograd army burst through Hindenbuig’s centre north of Lodz. It is now a case of “Pul} Devil; pull Baker.” Hindenburg’fl own /ight wing ia between the anvil and the hammer. AH that we know yet is that it ia “endeavoring to hew its way northward 5 but its chances of escape are slight.” Another message says that it is retreating “under favorable conditions.” All that we can see is that it ia swerving north from Koluszki, through Bresiny to Strykow. Forces despatched from \Vielun by the Crown Prince to help the retreaters * did not get up in time. Only good foot-slogging will get them out. Incidentally the cables furnish an additional note of interest. They mention the name of General Von Mceken. Ha is the commander of the 17th Corps based on Danzig, comprising tho 55th and 56th infantry divisions, and tho mention of the name furnishes further due to what Gorman first lines are now engaged in defending the Polish re-entrant. However it may all be, the Russian accendancy in stategy seems to have been fairly substantial, and Lord Kitchener, speaking in the House of Lords, hints at the German loss on the Vistula as being the heaviest of the war. It is not certain whether the Secretary of State_ for War refers'to the present battle, which began about the middle of the present month, or the previous battle, which commenced on October 11. In any case, previous accounts of the battle of Lemberg must have been much exaggerated. It was told us that the Russians took 200,000 prisoner. I here. THE ARMIES MAPPED. Following the usual week-end. practice, a map of the armies is given. Positions have not varied much since the previous map was published a fortnight ago. The chief difference is a thicker concentration at Ypros, where tho Duke of Wurtemberg commands. This has been growing since October 18, and is the German setting of the pieces for the third phase of the battle of West Flanders, Ypres was occupied by the French as long ago as October 12, but they quitted it, or had to quit. The second phase at Ypres was decided one month later, when Sir Douglas Haig repulsed the Prussian Guard. The third phase began last Sunday with a typical German bombardment, and it is now developing. Facing the Duke of Wurtcmberg’s concentration are the Belgians among the inundations nearest the sea. Then come the British and Indians in line from Ypres to La Bassee, 20 miles as the crow flies, but much more if the sinuous front could be estimated. About this point the fortress of Lille, now in German hands, marks the twist of the battle line south to Compiepne. On this 80 or 90 miles front Von "Kluek and De Castelnau face each other. This position is said to bristle with artillery, and on one day of the fighting the town of Arras received shells at the rate of 4,000 an hour. At Compiogna the German line bends sharply to' the east, presenting a dan-gerous-looking salient. Von Bulow apparently commands between Rheims and kiissnns. and tho line is carried on to Verdun by an army which was lately under the Crown Prince. but who is now in Poland. The direct distance from Compiepne to Verdun is about 120 miles. Lastlv. the battle passes down along the Lorraine frontier to Belfort, another 15t miles at least. Measured from end tc end. the battle of North France must be well over 500 miles in length. A? far as can he judged, matters in tho centre, bet ween Goiimiegne and Verdun merelv amount, loan artillery deadlock, but we bare received repeated hints that tin ‘ e.-nfii.'. »m the Alsace-Lorraine front is 1 deadly. It, is still uncertain what tba I fate of the fortress is to he. German i siege trains were approaching it as lor.; j ago as October 19. j TO CORRESPONDENTS. A correspondent asks whether the whole of the Seuts Greys are Scotsmen, and whether the whole of the Highland re-,., ments are Highlanders. If not, what percentage are ? The position is that th« large majority of the men in the Scottish and Highland regiments are likely to be Scotsmen, for the recruiting depots are convenient to them. At the same time, an English or Irish recruit of suitalvo physique would not be refused. The proportion of Highlanders in Highland battalions must obviously vary.

Shin. Date. Tons. Crew. Hahvark 190:? 15,000 780 (fond Hope ... 1910 14.100 900 (?) Abnnkir 1902 12.000 700 If 01! (10 1902 12,000 700 Crpssy 1901 12.000 700 Monmouth 1903 9,800 678 Hermes 1900 5.000 450 Ainpliion 1912 5.360 320 Pathfinder ... 1904 2.9J0 268 Pegasus 1839 2.135 224 Niger 1892 810 85 T1IK CHUMAN LIST. Ship. Date. Tons. Crew. V'-rrk 1906 9,050 557 Mainz 1900 4.550 562 K A o 1910 4.350 362 Magdeburg 1912 4,700 580 Km don 1908 3.600 321 Konigsberg 1907 .3,400 295 Ariadne 1901 2,660 264 Mela 1910 2.040 178 Dior 1894 1.650 150 Tiger 1899 900 121 Hu-'lis 1899 COO 121 1 'anther 1901 1,000 125 Itlis 1898 mo 121 .lagnar 1898 900 121

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THE SEA’S TOLL, Issue 15662, 28 November 1914

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THE SEA’S TOLL Issue 15662, 28 November 1914

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