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ETHNOLOGY OF THE WAR. THE WESTERN PEOPLES. C. [Oy James Collier.] [Specullv Written - for the ‘ Star.'] It has been contended in these columns that the present colossal war is a war of the shoit-slainrid, dnrk-compicxkmed, broad-headed races against the tall, blonde, and long-headed races. Oyer against the wide-spreading dark Slavonian masses that cover almost the entire surface of fc/aatern Europe stands another very different human stock. Tall, longheaded, and as fair as the other is dark, there is gathered along the shores of the Baltic, and over the peninsulas and islands that shoot up or dip clown into the North Sea, a race less populous indeed. but possessed of commanding gifts, a conqueror of peoples and a ruler of races. It has a unity as great as that of the .Slavonian race, and, like that, it is distributed among different and even hostile governments. Some seven or eight peoples, lying along the Baltic Sea, make iiji the Letlo-Lithnanians, but these are, almost ail of them, an inseparable part of the compound Russian people, and are lost to the fair races. The origin of this light strand in a dark cable we shall presently see. They arc Finns, more or less pure. —The Fair Stock.— Cut these arc only maritime ontlinors of the fair-complcxioned race. The North Germans, including the Prussians and the Hanoverians, the Scandinavians, and the whole Teutonised cast coast of England, from at least Sussex up to the Scottish Lothians, form the great mass of the fair race in Europe. Whence did it come? It is a paradox to assert that the fairest race in Europe or the world is the lineal descendant of the darkest race on earth. It is almost dfl years since a. German ethnologist, with the peculiar but appropriate name, of European? advanced the hypothesis that this fair race—cal! it Finnic, with Qnatrefnges. or Nordic Eur.african with Sergi — was directly connected with that primitive .Mediterranean long-headed stock,

| j “ sprung from Dip same root ns the i i nr.;ro, and underlying all the olrUr races 1 | of Europe.” The, hypH hosis of Europeans | i was but little heeded a!, the time, though i there were abundant arehn'filogical dis- , reveries tiien recently made to support it. It is now in the ascendant. The leading ethnologists of the day. Die creators of the Newest Ethnology—Sergi, Ripley, and Keane, with a multitude of specialists ' like Rogdanof—have accepted, developed, I and proved it. How did tho race pet rid of its Nubian hue? By natural selection. which failed to preserve a. color | of the skin no longer serviceable. How ' did it gain its pronounced blonducss? 1 It is an acquired character, due to natnI ral selection, which enabled a fair variety of the. originally dark rare that had | started from Mauritania to survive and j thrive, and not due to the direct ini’ fluenee. of climate or environment. This ! original variety, doubtless influenced by ) its surrounding?, then spiit into several j varieties, but all—Finns, LettoEit huaniaiis. and Teutons—vere offshoots I from the same trunk. From its new norI them eentrf.i. where its acquired attrii Intles were consolidated. this black- ! turned-while and all-conquering race, i driven by harsh conditions and the neeesi sities of subsist cnee, repeatedly swept , down on its soiith-ru neighbors and. as in | Prussia and Ati'oria. made itself a cent re j of dominion. This mission I lie fair ne a j has ever since fulfilled : in Germany and ] Aunt i in. Normandy and England, it has i held tiie r.nnrh";* against the darker. j breadrr-headod, and shorter races. That ■ in jthe eyes of Kaiser Wilhelm, is hr. mission | siill. and even to the fading \ ision of I Kaiacv Francis .lc.-<>i<h it still dimly ap- • pears a.s tile call of Co I. Wry do; ply per- , plesed nine:. Vvitii these 1/7 *- : ip rulers I when they find Euglar-i, liithetlo tlicitj .ally. for once light in-; not with hut j against them, l! must event t.-> them afi if j tb>d himself lied f~roe I:them. For upon I t hem has de«eon led the Ividirship of 1!; ■ j fair races. At one tint - - it lay in hands 1 still further north. On,staves Adolphus ! and Charles X!l. were there to lead their hosts; against ihe .lark Slavonian mass as. .Then the electors of Saxonv and Biandenberp took it up when it foil from the grasp of the Swedes, who also owned a iKirticn of a he Continent. Fred-nek, indeed, fought, against Austria, but it was Austria with her Slavonian hordes, and, hj" fought as well against Russia. Even Bismarck fought to drive Austria out of the fp - ’ - . m.mie Confederation, hut, once driven out Austria, became, though under enormous difficulties, the Germanic lender of Southeastern Europe. —The British. —- Why is England, composed in large part of Germanic elements, not, a- Germanic loader .and the sure ally of every great Germanic rauf<-? For centuries it was such. It long took sides with the 'link againts the conquered Klavonians of ,Southeastern Europe. It fought against tira Russian Ead - : of the dark a - 1 ccs in 1851-55. Its sympathies were a git hint Russia in the war of 1877-78 and in ail consequent imbroglios. Even now it rinds itself calk .1 upon to sympathise, with Russian victories in Galicia, and does it. with the utmost difficulty. fs it that the dark ingredients of the British people arc at length gaining tiie upper hand and insisting that, the policy of the rulers to aid shall ha the dark races? Or is it that that policy, under a democratic Ministry, is spontaneously shaping itrelf ns pro- , Slavonian? That the darker dements of tho British peoplo are gaining predominance appears to he indisputable. Mr Gladstone Remarked that in his own lifetime ho had - hsorved a daikening of the hair and complexion of the, British race. Others have observed the comparative disappearance. of light hair and fair complexions in certain English and Scottish eastern countries. There is nothing peculiar in the fact. The tendency in all countries is for light-complexionod, populations to darken, as the bl.-.od that enters the, arterial system a bright scarlet loaves the venous system, darkened with usury, a dull crimson, 'ITu? fair and long-headed Danish and Northman inhabitants of the English east coast mingled with the earlier and darker hidheads of tho interior, as with tho more deeply darkened races of the west in Wales and Ireland, and slowly grow into a different race by tho blending of unlike ingredients. Thews have been for some time past engendering a different internal policy, and conferring on all ranks and classes privileges hitherto reserved for the aristocracy. They are now engendering a different foreign policy. Tho short, bruadhouded populations arc coining to have and to exhibit sympathies with tho broadhtado.i rates in other countries — with the Celtic race that peoples Franco and tho Slavonian race that peoples Eastern Europe, or with tho Cclto-islavic or Alpine race, that peoples Central Europe. Nevertheless, the obvious affinities of the fair-hoi red English east-coasters with their pa rent Danes of Denmark, tho Northmen of .Scandinavia, and tho Angles and Saxons of Germany made the alliance of English and Germains natural and inevitable. -is Jong as tho English aristocracy maintained its ascendency, tho Whig leaders favored an alliance with Germany. In our own days Joseph Chamberlain, originally a Radical, with the French affinities of his party that dated from this first great French revolution, endeavored, after no had joined tho opposite party, to conclude an offensive and defensive alliance between England and Germany. To this hour tho sympathies of the British aristocracy and upper middle classes axe with German and Austrian empires. There they witness the embodiment of their political ideals. There they see finished examples of aristocratic ascendency and Byzantine chivalry. Had the Conservative party been in office and in power when the present war broke out, it, is doubtful if war would have been declared against Germany, or if it had, it would have been a single issue— that of a threatotving rival navy—that determined the old Germanic patty to break away from ?-n ancient alliance. Let it only bo noted that, this is the first occasion when England has dc-

aerted "her Germanic kin and allied herself ' with a race varying from her own at eveiy point, if indeed not quite opposed to it. —TTio French.— The race with which, she has allied herself had originally the same characters ae the population of her own eastern counties. It was tho Gaulish or Frankish people of tho early Christian centuries, and it had long, blonde locks, with long, fair bodies. It was a conquering caste, and for 1,800 years, more or less, it ruled in Gaul and Franco over an inferior race, with dark complexions, broad heads, and ehort stature. It was only one division of a conquering caste that had spread over half tho world. The Brahmins in India belonged to it, so did tho Amorites of Palestine. The monuments of Egypt, Chaldea, and Assyria reveal the same type. The heroic type of Greece, which succeeded . the Pelaagian, or the brown Mediterranean race, was that of the Gauls, Germans,' and Scandinavians. Achilles, not Hector, was ono of the fair-haired race. So wag .Apollo, the Hellenic god par excellence; eo was Mercury, and so weie most of the Virgilisn heroes. So were most of the goddesses. It has been the same in later times. Almost all the sovereign families of Europe, even in Spain and Italy, present the same Aryan type, as it used to be called. In Russia the masses are OcltoSlave, but the governing class, sprung fmm Scandinavian, Northman, and Germanic founders, are tall and fair. So has it been in medieval and modern France. The long-haired Merovingian, kings were of the same haughty race, and right-down to the great revolution the reigning dynasty and the governing aristocracy belonged to the same caste. Nor did it cense with that great cataclysm. The Orleans dynasty- still preserved the commanding physiological type of so many previous generations in so many countries, and it is probable that a large portion of the older hereditary French aristocracy shows its Germanic origin by the comparative fairness of its complexion nnd hair. But it has long ceased to control cither tho foreign or the inte,rnal policy of Franc?. The revolutionary ware, like the revolutionary internal policy, of the first French Republic were the outcome of the uprising of tho long-sub.iect masses. Tile dark, short, broad-headed population that covered the centre of France got, for a brief space, the upper baud of the fair, long-headed race (hat had invaded tho country from Germany. But not. for very long. Restored and re-enthroned by Europe (which was still governed by the Germanic the old hereditary Germanic governing class diverted the policy of the country back to pre-revolutionary lines. The democratic revolutions of 1830 and, still move, 1848, reversed tho direction of French policy, and ever since then both the internal and the external policy of the country has been controlled bv the French masres. Hence, it cost the French democvaiv never an effort to ally itself with Russia. The two peoples belong to the same race—the Celto-Slave race of Eastern nnd Central Europe. They have the same sympathies. They fight for the same causes, Iqindly in the Far East and the Far West of Europe they are contending for the brachyoephnlie democracy that will one dav govern Europe. Ihe tall, fair-haired, 'long-headed German _ avistocraev is making its last stand. the Austrian division, to all appearance, has gone under. Hie North Germans division is ,sGll at, the height, of iff fighfne strength, nor will it soon he «»rmusly reduce!.. Wars of the Future.— The pres-ml war. it is to he feared, will not cud these I,attics. It may he. rather, onlv the beginning <>f a new ethnological warfare, which may last through centuries. To believe sonic of the- ultra-Darwinians — Gumplovich and Von Ammon. De Bnpouge. and Dr Gustave. Be Bon—men will one dav sir.v one another by the million for otii' or two degrees more c.r less in the cephalic index. They are already doing so] ir inr.v be said. - The cephalic index of’ the. Belgians is just one degree less than that of the Prussians, and therefore .shall we savVi the Prussians are slaying the Belgians! So are tlv Russians killing tlv Austrians and the French kiUing the Germans because they belong to differing racial tvpes. No longer are Patties fought for a dvnasty. The battles that are fought, tor advantageous geographical positions will soon lie reduced to equal insignificance. The grand redistribution of races to 1„. effected by war will tic the supreme, result. Put war, in its crudest sense, is siociy the creature of a day. The worst, third von can do with a man is to kill him.” ‘ Widen the, field of competition. Formidable though they sre mi the battlefield. arc not the Germans infinitely more dangerous in the. chemical laboratory, where thev devise new medicines and new dves: in tho thinker’s brain, where new philosophies and sciences are conjured into existence; and in the. heart of the poet and musical composer, whence are every day brought forth things as new and magical as the Creator Himself was supposed alone able to produce? There is the real danger of Germany. There her deadliest blows have been, and will yet be. delivered. No reverses on the battlefield will nullify these achievements. Tho future will belong not to those who have invented the most destructive weapon, but lii those who are nearest God s car and have most of Ties riches to unfold.

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SCIENCE UP TO DATE, Issue 15660, 26 November 1914

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SCIENCE UP TO DATE Issue 15660, 26 November 1914

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