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GARDENING FOR THE WEEK, Issue 15656, 21 November 1914
GARDENING FOR THE WEEK
Our eoniributoT, a well-known gardener, u>3t be glad to answer questions, which uutt be received not later than Tuesday of each week. —'l he Vegetable Cardan. — The general advice givan lsat week will do very wel\ for this week. Vegetable marrows are most valued as a aumnier vegetable, but very often they are spoiled by attempting to grow them too yr e }\ —either by overmuch manure, or being overfed by liquid manures, or too much moisture., "or waterinct them when they do, not require it. All of these things are most detrimental to the marrow. Another grave mistake often made is to try to grow them too large. Whether large or small kitds are grown, thay should never be allowed to reach their" full size. Attend to this, and vou wili secure a much larger crop than if ttiey are allowed to grow full size, besides reaping the advantage of having a much finer quality marrow at- tho table. Now is a good time for planting marrows. They axe very aecommodatiiii;. and will grow in most places, providing climatic influences are favorable. The weather of the. last few weeks has been trying in the extreme for this crop, and those that- were planted out early will have received a severe check, if not destroyed altogether: but there is still plenty of time to replant or even to resow. M°.ke holes 3ft to 6/t apart, place a barrow-load of short stable manure'in each hole, with a covering of 4i;i to 6in of soil (sandy rich loam, preferred), and'put the eeeds or plants in this. Lay over them a covering, say a 12in l>ox with both ends knocked "out. with a square ot glass on lop. This will he all that is necessary, excepting a little attention by watering whwi they require it, and that should not be too" often—only when :ha soil is really dry on the surface. Tnke off the glass oil fine days, and remove the box and all when the "plants have, got fairly well established. —The VineTT. — Fairly full instructions upon stoppini', damping down, and ventilating were given n week or two ago". I will now touch upon grape-thinning. This is of considerable im parlance, because if the bunches are left to themselves they will certainly be spoiltWhv do the bunches require thinning? The" answer is: to obtain fruit of superior quality to that which could possibly lie obtained from unthinnrtf fruit. Tho cutting away of surplus berries constitutes the a-t of thinning. Nothing but experience earn teach the cultivator how much space to leave for the berries to swell tq their full extent. For instance. Gros Colmar will need more room between the berries than most other kinds. The berries of ihia black grape swell to a large size when properly managed in all respects. When not thiiraed enough, the skin of the grape cracks. It is so thin and tender that the least pressure put upon them through over-crowding causes cracking, and the grapes are spoilt, as they cannot ripen off no matter how close to ripening they may I*. ' '
Another point to be considersd is not to overdo the thinnm?. Not only does this mean a loss of weight of fruit, hut it gives n. loow appearunca to the grapes when hansins on' the vine- anil when cut, arid they are useless for exhibition purpose*?, for'instead of standing up plump the berries fall away the moment the hunches are laid down for the want of thus exposing the stalk of each berry, -which is greatly against the appearance of the bunch", besides the disadvantage of having the bloom rubbed off the berries.
The operator must know what variety he has to thin. Gros f'ohnars must have a space as large as to admit a man's thumb; Black Hamburg, a man's finger; Other varieties, such as Muscats and Sweet Waters, a trifle less. The implements used are a sharp pair of grape scissors and a piece* of clean stick Sin in length and jin thick at one end with a notch cut resembling the figure V, thi3 space being to support any portion of the hunch, such as a shoulder, in any position desired. Clip out mostly the inside berries, leaving those that stand out prominently. As a rule the berries are. formed in threes. Tho host guide is to clip the two outer ones and leave the centre one. Such varieties as Barbarossa will require tyinij out, as the shoulders of this variety are very long. By this tying out the berries have a better opportunity to expand. The best tying material is thin strips of raffia. Do not allow too many bunches to remain—never two buni-h.es upon one lateral or branch. The proper weight to take from a vine is lilb to the foot of running cane. Tf much more than this is tak?n from a vine it will have to be paid for later on by shanking and other ailments to which exhausted vines are subjected. —The Tomato House.— Attend to watering and pinching out side shoots and tying the plants tu supports as growth proceeds. When a good (Top of frjit has been set they should receive liqnid manure or other "chemical foods scattered over the surface and raked in. —The Rose Garden.— Disbudding must be attended to as soon as the buds are sufficiently formed to permit them being pinched "out with the finger 3 and thumb, or clipped out with a pair of scissors; but if quantity is preferred to quality they may be left. Disbudding is removing the small buds and leaving the crown or centre bud, but if any defects are visible in this particular bud select the next strongest and best shaped. More about roses' next week. —Answer*.— "Kaik." —The leaves of apple twin forwarded are badly affected with mildew. Position has a great deal to do with the attacks of mildew. Tii the Kaikorai Valley is not necessarily worse than other places, but the immediate surroundings have a g*eai d«al to do with the trouble. . Damp and shady situations are about the worst. Cold and draughty positions are also bad. Rarely does * mildew attack tree 3 so badly in an open, sunny, and warm situation, where the soil is free and open. I cannot say what is the direct cause, a? I do not know how your trees ar<> situated or the nature of the soil; but this I do know: that the weather we have experienced of late, the cold cutting winds we have had, are enough to bring en mildew anywhere. The best advice lean give is to spray once or twice at an interval of 15 days -with summer formula of Bordeaux mixture, made as follows: —2Tb sulphate of copper, 21b fresh rock lime, 20gal of water. Dissolve the copper in lOgal of •water, slake the lime elowlv, and make np to lOgal of milk of lime. Strain this milk of line into the copper solution, stirring briskly. See that the lime is fresh and unslaked. Spray upon a fine, calm, drv day. Tho amo'nnt may be doubled or" haired, as circumstances dictate. This should be used fresh, and not kept long. "C.8." sends a doable or divided-centre rose, and -wishes to know the cause ard the-remedy. There is no apparent direct ' cause of this trouble. Douhle or divided centres occur more or less in roost situations. The variety has a great deal to do with it. Some" varieties are very bad i for this trouble; in fact, it is hard to get V-. a perfect-shaped bloom on them. But condittos* bars a good deal to do with it.
Soft, sappy growth and wet soils aggravate the troiuile. Dry, poor, starved soil will also affect the blooms; but the trouble raiely occurs upon good, well-cul-tivated, and fairly-firm soil. In the case of this particular* rose, it appear* to be poor and undeveloped—u. poor specimen. Had you given me some particulars a* to the conditions under which it is grown, and age, I might have been able to gfve you a more saAfactory answer, or say now to deal with it iu the future. H.O.
GARDENING FOR THE WEEK, Issue 15656, 21 November 1914
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