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STEEP STORY FROM BLACK SEA HAWKS OF THE AIR. ! THE RUSH IN ZEPPELINS. \ [By A. Spence.] Those following the Wows of the Russian steam hammer in Poland with interest will find the- position* mapped ekewher© in this issue. The Grown Prince is developing his counter-stroke. 'llia line is given ns from Czernstochowa to Cracow. It might be more broadly described ae from Thorn to Cracow. Tho battle i& the first phase of a dire struggle to get to Breslau and take charge of the good roads to Deri in. The general lie of the Russian armies is noi safe with respect to the fortresses, but it is much safer now than it was two months ago. Turning to other 1 matters, one notes that the war in tin; air hae not really yet begun. From first-hand information- supplied to the writer by a Wellington engineer, who has looked over Germany in general, and looked at Zeppelins in particular, the estimate was given in these notes some tjme ago that tho big factory at FriedrichsJnfen, r.ear Lake Constance, could turn out Zeppelins at an approximate rate of five a month. Zurich intelligence to hand to-day places the number at one a week, which is about the same thing. The cable goes on to say that the shops are working night and day, and 40 airships are ready. Presumably this relates to the Fried lichshafen factory alone. There are- two others—ono at Berlin and one (established since tho war) at Wilheimshaven, where Count Zeppelin has taken up his headquarters by special de-j-ire of the Kaiser. The Zurich cable says that certain gui.s and bomb-dropping appliance* arc being mounted below the rigid envelope. Tho fact is that the Zeppelin carries guns both above and below. One at least is mounted on top of the envelope—a precarious position for a gunner, one would think.

Photographs of Zeppelins give tin impression -oli clumsiness which they are really free from. The speed in calm weather ie easily 60 miles an hour j with the wind much more. They are not such an easy target for balloon guns on land as might be supposed. Ranging on air targets us diflicuk, and when tli« target is moving nt. a mile a minute, the gunnej must hit with his first three or four shots, or the hawk of the- air will be gone. Incendiary shell, it seems, will not always set a Zeppelin allame, for the burn in the shell goes out as soon as it enters the hydrogen. It requires a first-class knowledge of chemistry to open out this question—a beyond the writer; but the view given is that formed in eu'ch treatises as • Rethell on Artillery.' It seems, then, that if a burning shell enters a Zeppelin its light is apt to bo put out, and the projectile passes through a* an ordinary shot. As the Zeppelin lia« fully 25 gas" compartments, oho might be hit six or seven times without losing her buoyancy in the ai". As for the radius of action of the6c air machines, it may bo sufficient to say at present that thev can easily go from Lake Constance to England snd return with a margin of fuel left. So the war in the air is going to be interesting whichever wav it turns out. "Wo may, I think, trust the" bin armament firms of England to turn out something which will meet the. case. THE GOJaBE-V AND THE BLACK SEA FLEET. ] am not too pure of the story of the engagement between the Goeben and the Black Sea, battleships, though it is told with circumstantial detail which looks convincing. The Russian* opened fire at 40 cables—a favorite range with them. It was the. range they chose for opening at Tsu-shima. Admiral Eberhardt's flagship, the battleship Evatafi, had 33 of her crew killed and 25 wounded. This docs not j look like a fabrication, and, above all. the | story is liall-markcd as " official" from I'etrograd. Some action seems to have taken place, but the form in which the account is given leaves one doubting. In the first place, the. CJoebcn can steam something well over 26 knots, and the designed horse-power of the Evatafi only provides for 16 knots. Obviously tho captain of the Goeben could take "up any position ho chose with respect to the Russian line of ships. Obviously, also, that position would be to run on ahead of the Russians. The Dreadnought cruiser would then play the part of the scorpion, Mingjug viciously with her tail. At each blast she would despatch six llin shells, filing sternward. The Evstafi. firing from her boiv turret, imihl <;H off two 12in shells in reply. This would be no match at all. The other Riuwiau vessels following the flagship would only ho able to use their bow suna with ditlkuity. The cable tells that the Goeben was " surprised,' 1 and the Russians immediately manoeuvred for position, no doubt coming up into line abreast and afterwards bringing on a beam action. This U tho only explanation, but it is unlike a German captain to be caught that way. THE MESSINA MESSAGE.

The Goeben seems to be a red streak, glaring in banks of fog. Our interest in her lies in the escape from Messina, round which portion of the British Meet closed. How did she get away? Admiral Troubridgn ha., been eourt-martiailed. The night move of the Goeben out of Messina has been described. Wo have been given the last two chapters of the book, and left to guess at the. others. The ouing at Messina is wide, and the British ships would not close in past the territorial limit of three miles. (hi the afternoon preceding the flight to sea the Goeben's chimneys began to belch stacks of Mrioke inseparable from tiring with German bituminous coal. The hand was playing on deck. We have never been told what the British were doing. The easy course would have been to send the British steam pinnaces into the bay and have a look, but probably a British admiral would not care to do'that, for it is breaking the spirit of international law. So ho just lav off and waited. As it turned out, the Goeben got away that night, In older days the chances were always in favor of the ship making the dash to

sea. In the American Civil War it hap- , pened in Cuba more than once. The captains of Confederate cruisers rightly assumed their own invisibility against the dark background of the shore, and they ventured all. On a starlit night the seaward horizon gave them their clue to the positions of the blockaders, and they themselves were never seen until too late to catch them. That, however, was half a century ago, in the days before searchlights came. The searchlight has altered all. It is impossible, however, in view of the poor news we have, to say whether the Goeben should have got put of Messina or not, but further intelligence in the Home files will be eagerly read when it comes. THE FOUGASSEI Members of New Zealand engineer corps who have seen that dreadful contrivance the fougasse constructed—with, its road metal, >t» segments of iron and broken bcttfes to be burst in the face of the foe—will appreciate the meaning of the land mining) now going on in Belgium. The message f?ceine to read as though the Belgians were doinjr it, hut tTie Germans are the likely ones. There is no counter-stroke to tho land mine. You just walk on it and get blown up, and no military measure wili save. The cable eays that if the whole way from the present front to Brussels u rained the march of thi* Allies will be strenuous. It will What is there in sight yet which will detach the Germans from Belgium? To be sure, 'Le Temps' told bs yestex-day that it would be all over in a few days, but sofar we have no other source of information which will transform Belgium from one vast chain of fortified posts to soma Elysian field where the soldier* step out gaily over the dairies, einging as they go forward to the Rhine. BURSTING THE DEAD. The menace to the health of troop* presented by a battlefield which lias been won and has to ba held by the victors need not, be enlarged upon. 'The vanquished relegates to the victor the taek of disposing of tho dead. The method of cremation, adopted by the Japanese in Manchuria, seems to lx>. the way in Europe now. The Germans are said to be roping their dead together and despatching them to " a blast furnace." The message is brutally put, but is no doubt true. A British, oflicer, it is said, saw thou- • sands of German dead who had been stripped, indicating that there is a shortage of German uniforms. The first thing done, by the Germans, after a battle is over, is to prudently collect arms and unifoima on the field. The disposal of the dead comes after. Doubtless other belligerents do the same. We have been told Chat a number of German wounded have been driven insane. All the madmen are not on ono side. Yesj terday we. learned that Tommy was charging with the bayonet to the accompaniment, of shouts of "On the ball!" or "One for goal 1" lii the 40-hoiurs' foot-to-foot carnage at Ypres a man must do something like that to keep his reason at all. One of the saddest features of the war will be the thousands and thousands of men with their reason- permanently impaired who will be thrown on the world by and by. OFF CHILE. NOVEMBER 1. An independent account of the sea battle on the South American coast on the evening of Sunday, November 1, is furnished by the Glasgow, now refitting at. Valparaiso. We have had several of these accounts, and the view taken in these notei at the start—that it was no match at all—receives further confirmation. It teems that when -AHmiral Craddock found himseltsilhouetted in the setting tarn with tho Germans inshore of him, amd realised th-s difference in artillery, he felt that there was no chance, and signalled to the Glas gow and tho subventioned liner Otranto to stand away. The battleship Oanopus. which wae last reported as 16,000 yds away when the engagement began, could not get up owing to her interior cpeed, but it would not have altered matters perhaps if she had. It would still have been a onesided encounter. The German gunnery is testified to by the fact that one of the Good Hope's 9.2iu guns was out of action in a few minutes. On the other hand, the spirit of the British Navy is well illustrated by tho breezy letter of Stoker Evans, of tfeft Monmouth. STOP THOSE MERCHANTS. It is fine to see that the United States is being given to understand that she can not feed and clothe the foe to any extent her unscrupulous merchants choose. The State Department at Washington has got its cap off to our Admiralty now. America is prepared to give England every guarantee against re-exportation of certain raw materia) if tho embargo is b'fted. Let us hope it never will be lifted. It is long since we have seen the spectacle of " Uncle Sam" walking cap in hand this way. Why not keep him so?

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THE GOEBEN., Issue 15656, 21 November 1914

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THE GOEBEN. Issue 15656, 21 November 1914

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