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Tin: present international situation has been precipitated because an absolute monarch with the resources oi Germany at his command lias hern ambitious to dominate all Europe. The Kaiser ha:; llui.* become " the greater "rereonal peril of ilie century to popular "liberty and huuvr.u devclpvinettt." Thic danger hes Ux-n by some, at least, of the free naiir.:it>; and accordingly Britain, Vnuire, lh;.~:da. :\vd Jicl.'.ium haw: combined to check (.!vin:any'j oppression. Thcr'j can he o-.ily wiv termination to the pr.'!cut couftici. l!i;:ht ui'i acsurediy triumph over Micdit. In this article vi' propose to discvxbriefly v.-hat si'iotdd he done to guarantee the world's pi-ace afkr the termination of

Tho Future Maintenance cf tho World's Peacs.

tho present stiu'-tde. Umlcss something can be done to make the foi thcoming peace a lasting one, let us icaw to talk of tho progress of civilisation and of wonderful advancements in many f-phcres. Of whai advantage is it all if the lives of thousands of our fellow-men are liable to be sacrificed on the altar of national ambition, or at the whim of erratic or despotic rulers? It is absolutely necessary, if al! our past progress ia not to prove a delusion, that the civilised and tree States o: the world shall secure themselves against aggressivo and undemocratic States. What is civilk-iition? Wliat are tho main objects of a eivL'isod government? We t;;k'it that the main functions of a civilised government (mere partieularly of a democratic one) are to prote'-t life and property, to secme to each individual justice acn.i tin greatest amount of ficedom compatible with the common f,\>.;tl. This is true of such nations as Britain, France, Belgium, Italy, Uniud States. _.Swcdun, Norway. Denmark, Holland, Switzerland, and the British Domirior.s. On tho other hand, Germany and Itussia. stand for abFordism and a. strong central government, in antagonism t._> democracy am! freedom. Austria, being a disunited conglomeration of heterogeneous races -loosely hold together, is not really a nation, i.knccralic in theory, her wcak-ines'-i has praetkaily made her Germany's. tool. Nov.-, there'must ho proper provision madj to carry out the objects ot government. So for I he protection of the ri-rhts of individual citizens, to guard their liven and properties, we have law courts, policemen, and all the. vaiicus officers connected with tho Department of Justice. In other words, we lwc made provision to gr.ard cliectively individual rights. The cifcctivcnefs of these imtitutions in securing the.-e aims is the maasuro of the civilisation of the particular State. If ill? lights of the individ"al citizens are held ae sacred, if so nrndi machinery is provided to guard those viihiji the State, why ave thei rights of ration not held equally saexd'.' International court* of justice, so constituted that they would have power to •enforce their iudeneeuts, are tho locical outcome, of civilised governments. It is of no m-e to continue conferences to promote international peace unites there can also bo some machinery provided to safeguard the rights of the various nations. Civilised Stales cio not; hesitate, alter other means ha-vo failed, to use force and penalties to compel obedience to laws safeguarding the ri-jrh'ts of citizens. Why should not the same principle be- extended in regard to the riahts of nations? For instance, when a feinaJl free Sioto like Denmark in 1864. oi- Belgium in ISI4, is crashed by a stronger nation like Germany, regardless of definite treaties, there should certainly bo some international Court of Appeal, or Federation of Free States, with full power "to court-martial the bandit." Wo believe this to bo an absolute neoessity for the fafcgtiarding of civilisation, freedom,

and democracy against tyranny and aggressive militarism. What wo advocate is th.it thero should be a definite alliance of the fico States of the world, including not only the great Powers, but ako smaller States, to safeguard the rights of the allied nations, with definito provision for enforcing its decisions. Another cogent reason why some such international alliance is necessary is that all free and democratic States have a peculiar tendency to be unprepared for war. They are also inclined towards disunion. A writer in a recent issuo of the Auckland ' Weekl News' emphasised this aspect oi tin- question in a special article entitled •Xho Folly of the Free.' The writer reminded us that there is a tendency to disintegration in some modern free and progressive States. Belgium and Holland were united until 1830; Norway and Sweden dissolved their national partnership m I£C5. It is obvioiw that this inclination of free, democratic nations towards disunion is a source of woakness. Free States arc prone to forget that to retain ou- national freedom we mnet he prepared to make sacrifices. It should also be noted that a closer co-operation of all the British Dominions, both for dofenco purposes and as a military and naval union, will enable o'ur Empire as a whole to exert an increasuurly powerful influence for worldwide peace. Furthermore, the existing treaties binding Great Britain should he extended to include United States if at all possible. This implies a revision or modification of the Monroe Doctrine, ana also a mora friendly feeling between Japan and U.nited States: but neither of these contingencies offers insuperable difficulties. An alliance of Britain, Franco, Russia, United States, Italy, and Japan, with the addition of smaller free States, would, we think, be able elfectively to guarantee the i-x.ild's peace in the munuor we have indicated.

Our Wc-llimrton correspondent advises thai, tho elections will definitely be held c,i Thursday, December 10 (as suggested bv this paper some time ago). Tho dissolution of Parliament wiil be. gazetted o;i Friday, and the writs issued on Saturday. It should thcreforo be borne in mind that only 43 hours remains for enrolment.

The Minister of Customs (Hon. F. M. B. Fisher) was in a happy mood when addressing his constituents at Wellington last night, ipcakiny in respect to Cu.3-tc-iiu concessions, he said that the Opposition had stated that while tho iniquitous Mr Fisher had allowed Lite Governor's cigars and v.ines to come in free, he had done nothing for the workman. A_ Bill was introduced in Parliament containing a clause which included free importations for Government House, at th.c instance of the Imperial authorities, who asked whether 'New Zealand would come into lino in this direction with the i\--st of the Oversea British Dominions. The Government said that they would do so. Tho proposal was not criticised by the Oppcdition, for their members had been imbibing the wine and emokia.g the cigars. (Lotid laughter.) The Opposition had not the face to smoko tho c.igaro and drink the, wine one evening and vote against tho clause the following morning. (Loud 1.-.ue-liter.) He would nut blame them.

Mr 11. Y. Widdowson, S.M., presided in the Police Court this inorni::g.' Mary \Y. Dunwoodie, charged with cscapn:.g from the Caversham Reformatory Institution, was convicted and discharged, and ordered to be returned to tho heme.

Mr W. Downie Stewart, the Government candidate for Dimcdin West, received a very patient hearing last- evening, when ho gave his first address. Ladies were present in very largo numbers. The candidate received a very fluttering reception from a large audience, and was heartily cheered at the close of the meeting. There was hardly an interruption throughout the whole evening. Thero was a little amusement when a lady answered a question for the candidate. T-h-e particular question was as to whother Mr Massev, beinsr aware of the dangerous state of tha Huiitly mine, was not responsible for the fatalities. "No, not at all," was the sharp, quick answer that came from a, female voice. Mr Stewart : " Someone appears to have answered that question already. But if my friend desires any further information I would direct tiis attention to tfe statement made by Mr Jtt. M'Kenzio in the House. Mr M'Kenzio, who is a member of the Opposition, had said that even if theproposed legislation had been passed it tvould have made no difference, and in anv case there, were ample powers in the existing Act for the Government to close the mine on receiving an adverse report from their inspector.' The foundation stone of a new building in Tasman street, Wellington, to be called " The Wellington Boys' Institute and P. A. Rhodes's Home for Boys," was laid yesterday by His Excellency the Governor. There was a large and representative attendance. The new buildin" will bo a handsome structure cestui- over £IO,OOO. At the North Canterbury District Methodist Synod yesterday the Rev. W. Layco'-k was olaeted representative to the' comin" annual conierencc. It was decided to recommend tho conference to it.'ition ministers beyond five years in a circuit on a 60 per cent, -conference vote being secured. , ; 'omo substantial plums came this month to New Zealand from Tasmania. The rich prize of £IO,COO fell to a resident of Belfast, near Ohristehurch; £5,C00 to h- resident at the Lower Hutt; and £I,BOO to a lady residing at Folding.

A layman of modest attitude and qtuet 6p?ech*{:ot "P at ie Presbyterian Ae-sc-mbly this mo.-ning to speak on the temperance question. For a moment or two he hardly canjlit the general attention. Then ifc'dawned on the fathers and brethren ihut lie was saying sonirthing. Thor. ho let flv a charge that hit like a ihell from a howitzer. "He had the daring to assert, that ministers were tiring the j.eople bv their sermons on No-license. He believed that men hea'.d ae much ae they wanted to hear about No-license on t -ix"dav3 iix the week, and when they went to church on the seventh day they did so to hear the everlasting truths of the Gospel and not exhortations on what were merely side issues. Occasionally cries of "\*o" were hurled at Mr Kirk as ho thus spoke, apd other members now and again apulauded him. In tlw end nine hands Mere held up in favor of his amendment. Mr Kirk is a Gisborne man. who was Mavor of that town, and eat on the Education Commission. He didn't seem to rare a pin's point whether ho was or was not backed. The attendance at the Art Society's exhibition yesterday atverr.oon 'nr-st have been nearly it not quite a record. Tea was provided by Mrs 11. S. Cray and Mrs Jas. Gray, liw art union ie to be drawn to-night.

Wo understand that property m the •Vucldand district of the value of about £6,000 comes to the Congregational Liy.on of New Zealand under tho will oi the late Mr Rout.

i member of the Royal Artillery Band, who visited New Zeajand, writing to a friend here, says that the band number 03* adult performers, but so many have bcu called upon for special duty, such oa military police, clerks for recruiting, etc., that only about 20 are left tor the misical work of the band.

With rospect to a letter which appeared in our last night's issue regarding payment to firms by the Dunedin Women's Association fo'r goods, we have been shown a most satisfying statement. The secretary of tho association expresses her willingness to supply similar imorm&tion on written application by any subscriber to the funds, but tho executive ere determined not to take any cognisaoco of anonymous contributors.

Tho abnormally high seas which have been coming up on the beach for the past few days swept away the ladies' bathing tbed under the esplanade at St. Clair and plso the bottom steps of the concrete stairs. A high bank of sand has been formed all along the beach, and this afternoon the look-out house of tho St. Clair 1/ife-savi'ig Club was in danger of being carried away. Efforts were being made to shift it back before high, tide, which. was duo at 3.15 rj.nu

Mr Paul in telephoned at 2 p.m. : Squally S.W. winds, and cold rain showers.

A pretty specimen of electioneering twaddle. Ihe Prime Minister'* political career, as sketched by Dr TJiacker, Liberal candidate for Christehurch East:—"lf Mr Museey had a receptive brain instead of a hayaeed brain ho would havo picked up a lot. " In 1911 Mr Massey produced an air machin-N but it would riot riso, and so ho got hold of some of tiio 'rats,' and with their help he cot the machine into the sirHe thought he could do all sorts of big things, but he did nothing of the sort. One thing he did was to show the drunkards at Koto Koa how to grow parsnips and to make a parsrdp wine Now Mr Massay is having big fchots pub into his. balloon, and ho will bo wrecked." Tho St. Clair Surf-bathing and Lifesaving Club .-ire apparently a very live organisation, for they have taken on their shoulders with tho" utmest complacency a fairly heavy burden of debt. That they aro optimists of tho right sort goes without faying, for they have unlimited confidence in tho potentialities of that part cf (ho Ocean Beach which is legitimately within their sphere of influence. There has been during the past month a vigorous whipping-up of members, and yesterday a forward'move was made when a contract was kt for the erection of a commodious and up-to-date clubhouse, which is to' b» located on a section that has been leased for a term of years from Mr W. F. Sligo. Tho land contains about a quarter of an aero, and runs from the beach to Victoria road, with a fro-.tage of 59ft to tho former. The building, which will accommodate 250 ladv and gentlemen batheia, will bo of two stories. The ground floor wiil be devoted entirely to die ladies; the other for the accommodation of the men, and thero will be a very large room in which life-savins demonstrations can be civen and physical drill ba carriwl on. A flat roof, for sun-bathing by the ladies. is also to bo supplied. The sanitary arrangements throughout arc to be on a comphifo scale, tho electric light will be installed, and everything within reason will ho provided for'' the comfort of patrons of hoth sexes. The successful contractors were- Messrs M'Dcmald Bros., of Filleul street (£320), and they have undertaken to complete the building m four we-ks irom date. With a view to reducing the debt on tho building, it is intended tot hold a bazaar and art union in the early part of next year, and to invite the co-operation of ladv members of affiliated organisations. With V.n-h hell) the St. Clair Sr.rf -nothing and Life-savins Club ought soon to bo on a comfortable wicket.

Amongst the arrivals by the Turah'r.n. which Tea-mod Wellington from London on Monday nierht. were 41 domestic servant? under tho care- of Mrs Shepherd. T!*-v havo all been bespoken, and are bei"''.' dispatched to their situation™ all ever the Dominion to-day.

Tho case of Barry v. Barry and others, in originating summons to vest property, will come before His .Honor Mr Justieo Sim in Banco to-morrow. A Chambers fitting will also bo held.

At to-day's meeting of the Board of Governors of the Otago High Schools complimentary reference was made to a contribution 'of £56 18s 2d forwarded bv the rector for the relief of dist-essed Bchi'.aus. On the motion of Mr G. C. lsrie! it wa« unanimously resolved that a vote of thanks be passed to the boys and all helpers iu connection with tho collection. Mr E. S. Wilson, secretary to the Huntly Mining Disaster Belief Committee, acknowledges receipt of tho following donations to tho fund : Waterside Workers' Union, £4; per Green Island Miners' Union— Jubilee mine £3 10s, Freeman's mine £5 Os 6d, Fernhill mine £1 7s. Christie's top mine ss. Baylev's tannery £2 4s 6d. Fairfk-ld residents £3 Ss. AhhoMovd residents £1 12s, Buruside Freezing Works £1 12s 6d, Mr V. Keen (Green Island) 10s ; total, £2l 6s 6d.

Speight's ale and stmit aro aeloiowledereri by the 'Jomininn p"blic to be ihe be.=t mi the market.—[Advt.]

Watson's No. 10 is a little dearer thin most wlnekies, but is worth (he money.— [.\nV ] 6170 Eczema Cure Is recommended for pivema and kindred troubles; 2s 6d box. Wilkinson and Son, chemists.—[Advt.] "Havo ono with me." "Thanks, I \vi".. m have Watson's No. 10. p!ca?e."—fAdvr."j We hive received from the New South Wales Government S atistician Part 4 of the. .Si-tti-tiaal H-giHer of that State, dealin" with tlie meteorologie.il records of uie State for 1913.

No lady should ba without ifarliu's Apiol and Steel Pi'ilis. Sold bv a.', rhernials and stores throughout Australasia.—[Advt.")

Mr Charles Watt, of Auckland, will speak at a Prohibition meeting at the Tabernacle, King street, at 8 o'clock to-night.

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https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19141119.2.27

Bibliographic details

Evening Star, Issue 15654, 19 November 1914

Word Count
2,757

Evening Star Issue 15654, 19 November 1914

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