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RISKS AT THE SUEZ CANAL [By A. Spence.] There is much good news, but the nows about Russia is the best. The fortress of Cracow is said to be once more within reach of the six or seven mighty armies now moving forward in the mud. It will be noticed that Earl Kitchener has made reference to “the brilliant leadership of the Grand Duke Nicholas.” Earl Kitchener goes on to say that the victories achieved arc of vast strategic importance.

If Earl Kitchener means that the road 1o Cracow is really open, the importance of the message ran hardly lie over-esti-mated,

Forty-four clays ago we wore led to understand that the vanguards of two of the Russian armies had touched Tarnow, which is only 45 miW from the fortress. The preliminary phases of the siege seemed only a matter of a, week or so distant. A great silence about this operation supervened. Then came the astonishing news of October 11 that the Germans had offered general battle on the Vistula, thereby turning the whole movement on Cracow bv the flank'.

If the news, ns wo receive it to-day, has a particle of truth in it. it means just nhii a Roma message conveyed on Gep{ember 50, There need not necessarily be a. serious assault on Gracow with intent to capture. The plan which promises more is to cordon the place with troops, wheel tin- field armies in Galicia, to the rigid, ad vane.-, on Breslau, and then join hands with the centra] Russian armies for tiie main invasion of Germany. It will, of rourse. lake time—take many mouths, I think—for the vaster the armies the slower thev move.

it is not yet quite, certain whether the A ust ro Germans have let go their latest bat tie line from Thorn south to Cracow, but. the Russians have broken in on Lodz, winch was the centre of that line.

There i.' an interesting account of the battle of the Vistula to-day. and not the, least interesting part ie the passage describing how the wide, cloomy river was passed. tin- advanced guard crossing in skiffs to gain a lodgment on the enemy's side, so that the arduous labors of the engineerthe man of pontoons, balks, chesses, road bearers, ribands, and rack lashing—might be at. least moderately protected while all tins, gear was lysing floated out.

GROWN FRINGE GOE-4 TO POLAND. The i’ corrcMiondciif oi •Be Mutin' hi.;, s tint tin- Crown Prince will now in •1 i 111 jll - > i tii.. mtiic /if his activities mi tin- Vr-rdim region and go In Pfiland tv ;u-miiii<- the chief command. The Gernn n 11 indrnliiirg will act as his lett- wing c.uininndcr. and the Austrian Jtankyl as h;s right. He himself will reG-ibi the miteal direction. ‘ l.c Matin’ gets some good news at times, and this may be a genuine enough item. It should. limvover, be read with reserve, at present. I.vcrm>- OF PRISONERS. flue is i ll - -i;io< 1 re wonder what tile RvwtnP" ai” rlointz with ail their prisoneis iv-vv. Prior to (he battle of the Vistula it was staled that they had no less titan cOOXHO cap!tired Austrians and Germans on their hands, and hardly knew what to do with them. The lot of a prisoner cf war is not altogether a hard one, so lon.g as he is willing to work. When the mails left Home it seemed that- the Russians were employing many <*f the prisoners on new drainage works in Turkestan, and also in keeping up repairs to the railway in Siberia.. The economic cpiest ton of employing the prisoner ns a diiTh-nH one. He comes into the country of his captor, an enemy. Ho must work to earn his food. At the same time car/- must bo exercised that In- does o-l throw other workmen in his captor's count ry out. of employment. Perhaps this ire why Russia, sent, her prisoner? so far ati- Id .i- Turkestan. British prisoners in Germany are also rnimeroiifi now. and German prisoners in Eu-gland are numerous, too. According to iv.-i-nt- files of the I.'-ndon ‘Times’ some anangomeiiis have been mad;- to effect, an e.xcha npe of prisoners, which, of /•on---.--, v. redd be the hot thing for both THE LITE CAPTAIN M’XAB. Manv of the old students of Otago 1 niver.-ity will have affectionate memories of Hie late Captain Angus M'Xab. a Malaura boy. and brother of the Hon. Pobert M'Xab. On Tuesday the ‘ Evening star ' published a private message that (’aplain M'Xab bad mot death in action on fin* Fvc-meli frontier on Friday last. To-day (here is a cable that hr teas killed in bis first engagement. Those who knew Angus M'Xab must have been impressed wre’b thing. IBs cbaraotc-risiio was ly. rtr.-nur,unless —on the fives court, on the Gin' bail field, and in the class room. Win-n Hie ’Varsity was not the powerful ciictiuislanct; in Rugby which it has bcynie, when the elpb looked like dying, in 1 Angus M'Xab was one of the big i.onions men who helped to set if, right . I: lonics only like yesterday since some of nr saw his athletic wiry figure coming mi. hag in hand, to catch' the cab at. Manse street corner for the usual .Saturoay afternoon's game ; and games in those days were intense enough struggles. 'I he dentil of Captain M'Xab furnishes as telling a comment ary on war as anr. It depletes nations of their best manhood lt, is always tin* best until who falls first. It .scorns that at. the last. Captain M'Xab ■■as far forward in the .'-.hooting line wearing his red cross. The peri] of the silua.tion would not tmi bio him mu'-h. SG,RMAP,IXE .'.GAIN. ’lbe io.-s of the torpedo gunboat Niger by si ib re a: im> a;ta--k is reported. She was a mu.'ill thing of no more (ban fa 10 (out-, and officially known as “tender to the Vernon.” Lieutenant-commander Arthur T. Mnir took charge of Ivr on November o. 1912—flu* s::.:!;iV, Guv Fawkes IJav again, the day which m.-ih, iu-eparable from explosions. A r ~i,-ulai.:,,u of the striking ii.rce of the-e undei-water cxplo- '* -SM.'fif y o;t rs if”') hj v Mr vViiiiain Hovgaard, profe-sor of naval de--ign in the Massachusetts liotituto of I echie-]og\, and fonnerlv a commander in Hm il.mi-h navy. He e,(i;r,at.-d tho smashing power a model n mine at 70 tons p--i .-qua re incli—an ahno-t incredible lignre. If th'- new torpi/jo. s carnVvj bv s’lbmarines can do anything like that it K not wonderful to read that, t-ho end of tho ship conies rapidly, notwithstanding watertight compartments. Bull a small vessel a- the Niger would go almost at once, but ;t is interesting to note that there was no loss of life. Tho new swimming collar issued by tho Admiralty is apparently doing great work. Tho locality of the affair is tho disconcerting thing. _ These German submarines are evidently in tho Strait of Dover In some force, for tho spot whore the Niger was sank is' on tho coast of Kent. The loss of the Niger is only the overture to a greater piece which will come unless the land armies push back the Germans from the Belgian coast. What can stop submarines t Observation from the sky seems to bo considered the chief measure. It is another good old magazine story. Ruffie the water with wind, and observation :s at an end The countorstroke to the submarine seems to me to be the mine. If the Allies fail l*> di.-lodge the Germans from Belgium the Belgian coast will have to be -own verv thickly with mine?. Even tiiat will not 'stop the submarine, but it will make mission tnnr* difficult.

PASAN FOR H.M.R SYDNEY. Tlie world is, as we see by the messages, ringing with the paean for HALS. Sydney. The Emden blew out 17 British merchantmen, aggregating over 80,000 tons, as well as the Tasmanian dredge Pou'rabbel, a small Japanese merchantman, and the Russian cruiser Jemtchog. The consensus of the world's opinion appears to be that the captain of the Erode n was a sport in his own dangerous way, and satisfaction is expressed at the fact that he survived ana is being accorded certain honors of war.

It is an emotional situation, of course, and all to be found in Herbert Spencer’s chapters on egoism and altruism. Someone hits you to-day; yon throw your arms round his neck the next. In our crude sociology one can offer no comment. The presence of a nephew of the Kaiser on the Emden was reported in the September cables, and this is now confirmed. The name is given as Prince Franz Josef of Hohenzollern. This young gentleman enjoys the full name of Franz Joseph Louis Mario Charles Tasaillon, and belongs to the Roman Catholic side of the house of Hohenzollern. He is 23 years of age, and ha,s been in the navy since boyhood.

Regarding the. part played by H.M.S. Sydney, one is struck by the fact reported by the doctor of the Eastern Extension Company that he had to treat about 200 wounded. The Emden carried only 521 men, and the detachment which has tjone away in the schooner Ayesha is part of her complement. So the battlo losses for one ship are probably a record in the wars of the world. The Sydney must have blown the Emden’s gun stations to pieces. THE KNIFE AT NIGHT.

Tho Balkan exploit with the knife on the picket, lines of the Wurtembergera is past every conception of a white man’s war. True, it is only the injunction of the Woiseley drill book of 1896, but it is now expressed with a novelty which startles. The old injunction was: " Kentries, if encountered at night, must be rushed with the steel, and without a moment's hesitation." The reference, of course, was to the bayonet, but the Pat ban knife baa come now. It must be a rather weird time for the German sentries. Ghastly as the whole thing is, it is not altogether new. On the testimony of the late General Delarey, the most skilful ami tho most stubborn action fought by the British in the Boer War was the doK'ncj of the Nooilgodacht camp on U«-cemM-r 15, 1900. It began when tho moonlight of the tariy morning faded. When the dark hour before dawn came sumo of Beyers’s men rushed the sentries of the 2nd .Mounted Infantry with the knife. The countermove to the stealthy night hands carrying this now expression of what they tall “tin; white arm” is the deg. A soldier who went with Lord Roberta to Ivanditiiai once told the writer that a night on the out pest line—every shadow possibly an Atghan—was a strain on every nerve. Some of the men took fox terriers up the country with them, and v. a c old "Bidis” aid not veto it. Theta uogs prov. d very useful during the night halls ni me desert. Tho night operation in Belgium it v.hich wc read i.o.v seems to ha,.' been earned out conjointly by J'aUrui.' and Moors. 1.810,000 BRITISH !

| Time is it, caoJc which gives the Fit-ncli I tones ti-ov jiieicnl lor duty as 4.000,000. • jms is neany every man they will ever niiicter. j li.-ir Jiu-ses arc set down as -nAt.UvU. Ine me.-sage g.H* on in an interesting Ina obscuie way. It states that Britain nas i.Bu'J,cAXJ men under arms, but does not say wJiero. Since the London N.-oltisli were reported in battle (betokeniuy the arrival 01 the Second British. Army i in Belgium) it is not unreasonable to supI pose tiiat wo may have some 700,000 or ( otiOjOOd men at me iront-, and the cahk I may Ik- a telegraphic error for the latter ! figure. On ilu oiner liond, it may mean i tiie total mo’oiiisa.tion at Home and abroad, it is credibly large if Earl Kitchener lias managed such a concentration in three months and a-half. Tiro LTpon armies of tlio I'iiiied Slates only reached 1,000,000 after four years of war, and it was thought to bo a wonderful achievement, as, in fact, it was. BATTLE IX FULL BLAST. From trie communique given to-day we see llie battle of Flanders in full blast once more. Dixmudo has passed into Herman hands without much notice, but there it. a. cable to-day explaining that the A 1 lice have merely or.nvn back from it a little so as to cover part of their front witti t-ho lino of the Tsor. Frankly, 1 never like these .-.-.ih-.ii.-es in the cables. Routers, ! for instance, was heavily fought for by St be T’io-nclt, ami finally captured by them j f-nno tutu: ago. be did not hear how | limy camo to Jose it again, and it was im- : port ant enough, for it is a strong point j in tin; Kittle now swelling round Yprce. | Hixmude, 100, is jttrong. It is the pl.n e | wliieli .'Mr Thilip Gibb and .Mr Asbmea-1 | Bartlett gave Mich a lurid picture of some little time sime. If it was worth simii fierce fighting, it was certainly worth holding on to. it may bo well enough to say that it is only a heap of smouldering ruins now, but that docs not explain the position. It Inns Ken a heap of ruins for more than a fortnight. I l IE GURKHA STORY The ;v of the, German penetration of j tho Gurkha lines must bo viewed witli | Mi-rcrioii. It -•-.-ms that some German or I Germans got in —" silhouetted against tho i nioonligh' ‘ - and began to direct soma I 1 Ir.i ■ oj. n; i; t ud to .doso to a. fianl- f kd j i.notii-i- Gurkha regiment was coming in. i ITo on was put- “ What boat did | von cii.v-s inf’ and tho German fled inj <. -;;tin>-mly. If this kind of colloquy is going on nightly on the picket line it must b.- a. very different war from ot-h-r ware. They are beginning to grow veiy talkative, these modern sentries. I A stoiy is aI so told that some of the I (J<-rman 1 Tin guns have eomo back to j Liege damaged. Who is the stye-witness | wtio vouches for that? | ADMIRAL COURT MAIITIALLED. IG at-Admiral Ermet Charles Thomas j T; olihridge, G. 8., G.M.G., M.V.0., hj. ; been court mat liailod in respect to tint ; escape. of tl«: Gocbcn either from tho eoact 'of Algeria, or from Messina. This ottl* -i’ j is a grandson of ono of Kelson’s famous Ii a plains. IBs command at tho outset of j the war was in tho Mediterranean, where : the Inflexible is (or was) flagship, and ;h • i lb-feme sub-flag. It is probable that the | proceed mgs at' Iho court martial were 'hi-KiK' one*-'. n<d with the escape of th» I (j.-ipbcn fiom Messina. The Goebou Ims I u f ast , pa-: r of heels, and when all the facts I - i: -o known the Admiral will fate his pla<- - in pubiic e■ j.tfiio l l. It is Impossible to i.'>vV. J THE SUEZ CAKAL. C;, f..\ preparations are being made; ::: Svri.v f< r an attack on the Suez fana! - tlto Vable fiivs “against Egypt.” In e-o:.-1 h.Viah.n with this the message about th * Ir-ii.t e-wilt G-tto Mors must also bo read. I H-, had. we am told, a commission to block 1 the canal and a prospective reward of I £IO.OOO. This /Lunger was mentioned m these notes long ago, and especially tin I danger of allowing Gorman merchantmen ! ii ft Jr. tho canal. They might be sunk at ; inconvenient sputa, full of dangerous dead- | weight. As far as can be discovered from I thi/'c abke, there were «iot many German ■ merchantmen or doubtful neutrals in or ! -..bout the canal when the war broke out. Everv one of them must have been seized erenow. We have yet to learn, who was first in the rush for the artillery positions along the canal. It is Kitchener’s old country, of course, and he will know what to do. -Treat as the odds are against him at present. The ontlcok of the Foreign Office — our most efficient department of Stale--ia more wonderful, however. It fsw the danger to tho canal long ago.

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IS CRACOW OPEN?, Issue 15649, 13 November 1914

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IS CRACOW OPEN? Issue 15649, 13 November 1914

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