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PANAMA CANAL LOCKS

i n.K<Ti:i(\\;, woukix*'; \\i> ; I | ,\\ Tv,;;KM(iVS IV-T.Vl.!..;'[ I: iv. j i T> ;n;'i'-!a Can.il from i <:-■ o!:^ir-f: iittr f..irt ; jot" ". ; 'V-- i- {}■■<- ;•:•)•; :_—'ii,-i>t s ".-.pf--! '-it !i- k- :'■■ ':. i :.i- : '. 'i>'/'!n. '.-;,,;;'m;,'-','- ! !!• r,v T!- <■!.-,•! .-i.':;! .-.,!.•;->- To,- ; tnilt.'fl ;(!-.-->< :!■,-■ l<.f hi.nv, i-.y .-.. .tJ.O n 0 v .,]; ! til ■•- Vvo call ..p-. Tl» (■»« .-j-,,,! i.,;',■;' ; i;n v ."" iho i-,.--i.i!!,i!i--.'is ir.-iy K- i ' ii'itf Iho (;».-: i ;,;■: .1: ('l.r.vi: 7 ,-,. j.. ,;,,,,■, i •.i- ?lf o>-c-t t-;.- i-'.i-r,. ~t 1' .;,.., m: ~. ] , 190.I 90 . ;.i,<! at AlilM,!-.!.v 160. :;. t. t,t! •■ i 'V'-l. I Th<n- r-.'in'p in c.uiaoitv !";m;ii J 'o 70 1i.,... ; apd'tVir h.p. ::■, 12.C20. 1,3 ..'«■"! j ■ liliop Tnni'.v otho:' tp ■for th" st'lhf;:-- jnlo-, :ho r;:,:-,p vmnttiJ. | r--■! .. ; -Tii." t, ; .:k M.i,-hin.-Y. I Tho PU-chirK-rv pioviilcd ■■ r 'Aorki^i fliv't. phro of tii/i kirk tr.lr.:. A r ,-,j r r ,f j is yihifvd at --ark P"'tH \vk"ro a I'lirnigp of writer low] oerpr?. • iividiii.i Iho lorks into <-hnm!"H>r.; 1 .COOft I'm:. In nrioiliop. it ihn lak" ar.rl or-an >'-!:'!'- ■!' ili(» K-ks art- pin.-'-! dt.-.jlr-v. pal'v of itr.t.r. tvhi'h art re p-ti.iT-'l ?.'!*•"«. niKl t ! :' - ; rr : int'P mcdiat" wb'rli d]\-r ; " <hp I.oooft. cliunihers i'!,:<- t".'c. r-ompar! ir-viMi, , t'lir'ii 1 rmrpof.-' V>'-ii■,_' In <■ ropomJFe, 'valor '.v!:on wiai! vkt!s ;•: oh: ipr; pa-w=.i d fhroncrli. At Gn'tui I]icj« are 40 motors of | 25 h.p. oa."]i f.r n:ovi;i ; ti;f I'M-vrs of tho [ rrn-U--.s. --it l'i"lr ■ M irrno] 2'. a:,d a'. Mira- ! floros 28. ""A'i-,. n (he u»U'.-. an, .-!o«v! rW ;i!-o heM in p-jsition liy n. ile-ci'-"-- oa!'o<I s jniitro forrip r 'r'.Tcli:ti«\ f!;rt opv-r.'i.tioi! of :-.vLidi three >-ck = . 1m <i" H'-'-'" "'lv"'': 'Mi: I** o*i to t*!■-■ !'t.;--r Vii-k l-'vi-i timi :!>■• ir l']-. , >;":f <~f t/f it'MT'i ;:.!(;'.'; :jt t Ji-> '■•■'avt i-; «J li'.ii!:;-! 1 :]!-.! t-ni(. mlip;i tJi.o (.rntfs li'hind arc •]<--.!. !::f .-iiy; IfiT.-nyl \v!i;--i ;i s'li'.t ii.is ■■'! p;i-". Tit" f- I !si",.<: ay. - * rai- r '<! .ami lom-'to.l Iv a nK'*!io'l to inat tno'o:-.-' ■:!''• '!-'••'! in <■■■»<■]) (.-i.-v. nun 'lrivinjr I iio. ii'.'iiii j'firiti t!i;;t '--ii])i)ii-'"= wn.irr urnVv r.:-"':-Tiri-. :••::! :h-r- wo;-fcinur t-)w vaJvf -v"* 1 : r■: • rciirn!., t!lo W >T tt •.;' ;m." fVtj'-. T!:r- mmm niofirw aro of 70 h.p. «v».rrS. nit'l tk.o. valvo :notors of 2 h.p.. ,!■!.■!■■-• ■)."■::'j in ti'l "H of <"aoh port at the ,\. r l-fvj-rlaticir 1 :io tim.v rf irat<T in 1):o :'-)!-.-'■!'(.> hy iiiiirli t'i'.-i: 10.-ks aro '■inptiH iivl ftlii'd a. Litvo rrjmbo: <>f rnv' r-!ii]iiuy*<l, -.rith an ola,bornto E'.f-tom of rjitriiifstion t<"> prevent •.? "■vorkii" j. Tlieso vaives are fcjicKvn .tt-s risir.'.' F-tcni paf'' v raJvce. <:y]iiidiical valves, jruat« valvos, and auxiliary culvert a.r.i for thoir oneration at. th© thTee locks s.r? re-onit-rd 266 motors, of 7, 25. and 40 Kr>.. rn«l v.-itli an a.fT;sTej;af« capatif.y of 5,014 "h.p.

—Central Control Boards.— 'V'br-n it is remembered that the flight of looks :h I'lat.-un extends over a length of approximately 6,200 ft, and that the principal onera-ting machines are distributed 'over' a. length 01 some _ 4,COoft, it will bo seen that the selection of the methods to he enir-10.-od for controlling the mitnbtT <a motors installed presented, a .-eriuiis and difficult problem. Local control of the ina-ehii!'>s by men .rationed tiii' locks would have entailed a itail', anion:: -.\bidi it would liot

»f have been easy to eeenre efficient co-ordi--1 nation, while any mechanical system of J control from a central point seemed almost [, | impossible, in view of tho .great distances [ involved. In these circumstances it was , decided io adopt oentralisod electrical con- , trol The whole of the operations are [ effected from control boards placed m r houses on tho middle walls between the > locks, and although these hemees in every case are built at the points which com- . mand the Lost view' of the locks, the, operator does not depend on his own eyes ' r for information, as to the position of the L gates and other apparatus, because tha ' control boards are provided with indicating apparatus which reproduces ever' , movement of the various appliances. J The control boards are of the flattop bench-board type, 32in high by 54in wide, and 64ft long at Go-tun, 36ft at Pedro Miguel, and 52ft at Miraflores. The three together weigh about 39 tons, and their •construction required the employment of I about 6,000,000 ft of control leads made s up in 5 and 8 conductor cables, 732 indii cator motors, and 464 control switches. The water in the locks is represented by i blue marble slabs, and the side and centre I walls by cast-iron plates. The indicator i for each of the lock gates consists of a • pair of aluminium leaves, shaped to correspond to the plan view of the top of i the gates, which travel horizontally just, 1 above the top of the board. The position of the chain fenders is shown by small aluminium chains which, follow the movements of the chains in the locks, the. , actual position of the chains from tha bottom of the lock being indicated by the angle of semaphore (arms attached to them. The position of the rising stem . valves is indicated on an arranger"nt . wliich resembles a small elevator, the index ' being constituted by a email aluminium i cage which moves up and down. Tho i level of the water in the various locks is given on vertical scales, and an accuracy of l-20lh of a foot was required by the ! specifications. In the locks themselves the water level is obtained by steel box floats moving vertically in wells 55in square in the lock walls, communicating with the '. locks by a .small opening at the bottom. —Synchronised Indications.— It. was required that all these indicators ' should move in absolute synchronism with the apparatus they represent. For that reason contacts or ratchet mechanisms which would have resulted in a step-by-step action were regarded as inadmissible, and special methods had to be worked out. The apparatus consists of a transmitter worked hy ca-eh machine at the lock and a receiver working the corresponding indicator on i lie control board. Both tha transmitters and the receivers have a stationary and a rotating part. Th«_ sta-tors have three-phase windings, energised by induction from the rotors, while the rotors are bipolar, connecter] m multiple, and energised by 110 volt. 25 cycle single-phaea current-. The voltage, induced in the J Mat or coils of the transmitter by the ! motion conferred on the rotor by the I movement of the lock machinery is transj milled to the receiver Ma tor coils in which ;it dunlicat'-s, though in the reverse d-irec-M'oji. "the rondifion- of polarity and voltI ace present in t!v trrtnsvnHtev. The rotor lof ;J]>' receiver. peine; energised by the rvtevral pmiiro in the same direction .-!■- I lint <■{ the tram-milter, is reacted ion bv tin- polarised receiver stator j until the lu.is.'ii'tie ax-s coincide and the I i.it.i;; ot hotli transmitter and receive•• I arc in the -ame relative position. Any | difference in lb- po-i:ir>n of the transmitj tpr and iorivor rotor.; causes a difference iof potential iietwi-- ; ii the Ma tor winding-. j vcitl; a fon--rpiriit flow of current, and , the re Hi' ni:l tnr'pie move:; the receiver j r-l-'r to tie- -.'.riv 1 ir-l.ilivc position as that;of the traii-movr rotor. Hence the re;<rhar i-'"i follow- 010-.dy and smoothly !(!.,-, ..,,,>. ■,-,,-, ~« ~l the transmitter rotor. ! ar.-i e<ni-e.p!entl\- imparls to the position j indirato;- .•■' tuovmeot identical with that lot' the machine- in the lock, though on a ; I.dcecr) ~.;,!... >■,))]■" extra rr-rinemenl-, had to be in- : i'odt'ccil in the ca-.c of Ihe water level in- | diiitor- in order to g-t the required aci curacy, \ihjie for -nmv of the machines \ -yv limnon- mdma! ■ m> were not needed, a-, i.ir cxar.'od-'. t!ie mitre forens mn- ! eii:'■:■.'. lb" i ;i. !i and cioscd portions 'if ;i\hi--h -ire -h'C.Mi hy rrr) and tureen lights, ! and n nu- h-mb-al indicator on the control ! hoard i crac-'-rni iirx the machine. i -• Mecli'oiical Interlocking.-- ; V: liije liv nan in charge of ihe control be,,id- .-ii - ih'.i- ;jiven full jnforirn.tiori as ;t" the j■— i* i• ni of affairs in the locks, it \ v.'.- •i'ioii-.r|ii iiv-.;in: to iutrfdnep srj ramp-men: - which ■•houhi pi event, tlmm j,ro:n ic-c. -in", the coiitri--! switch handles I c\e..>a in >hc order cirresponriino' to ,-i j j.rc-h-tc; ,n : cr-,i -f-ipmnc ■'■ of operation of I ai-o prevt Hi i rn.'.'ii hi oharco of one chntt- ; der tin- jnri-'l.-. ;l--, ' i a man in chapm iofl he o"irr '"rim:. ; . For this pmpo-e ' the , ',1,1: i -" ttcj.c ;..,,■ pro', .led With :::! Ymaiial -had-. , ~i!..'-d !r connecting , rods from Ibe .■ aiti'ol -•. itclies. avtcn-l bo --v..,'- I ;,,-: d, rl.-.-tmal met ■ to 1 !•". il.ler], ci.in.r' '!.■■ ."ha-. i-,.1. -.hicll i- di - ! 1,e1..w ae'l ed.r. ~i :]-.■■ col.tr.:'. !,.',-, rds i that ;! ,-, • i , :•,,.,,<, ,■-,] ~;;d r.jled iion: ,t ' tic ~ -,. b' J : , ai.oti' ,;- i,,.i,, v .- the flo. r ! hj i. e-:-u-:-! ; v ■: i ,': ctai k mcchaii! ■! '. \ tio.-tedt :: ii.. ■•.-.-. hie ),..,-i/.oi!tr.l liar to .i ; \.-rt]..-..-i an ;a'ili:i :h >H ivlli'cil ('MI or liami- i u,-.'..■ ;.o. ordni'; to the ridalive po- ; -ic.n ..t I-:.-- i'.terl.M-kh;- bar, and do--. I; - ■■ ;i-.u d"pe;ai- main!,- r,., the engag •- ntent -.>' i-- . I do-. , -..-i-i-d or, i oii;'.ontal nn.-l vertical bar-, tlt- okc cmtnt of a- horizontal heir ienditr; to lift a vertical bar b;. '.i' 1 ■- .'■ a, ,he doss'. A hinV-n----til h.o .-.:,-,,, ; ),c movei "without raising' '■ v-aiied bar. Tha- if r-t anv time .i do;/ on a ! ; oi i/ont;,i l.ar rc-(= against the-..jipi-r end if a doc- ,-,n r. vertical bar, u-» nio\c;i.'-i;t of the boriroi.tal bar wliete ill') do;; ,n., a--- with the v-oioil bar ca u ta'-e piae .. am] the .--ntiol h.indle conncctcd tn thai pnrticn'ar hon'ronta] binis locked. Over 21 miles of interlocking rod aie ompioYcd ir tie- or.nl to] boaifh at the. thro. ),-,,■ k<. Some Example----may In f e-."ii pi idluMra'c the functions id liie j'literlo.'a.ir._' nieciianisr;). To ensure that a chain fender shai! always be in the lau; or up position to protect a cio.-cd pate, it,',...; ic.'j;' prevent the chain from b-'-i -. iowei-e-l until the adjacent e'ate- ha-. .■ l.e.T: fr-::: lim'c' .ip.aie.l u!:til the chain is in the ra'-ed )■■:>;; ioti. Again, the switch contrracr! _• the not re forcin- machine cannot !„. liii.vd niiie:-... liie -rates are closed, rind v !;;]•■ tli- iiiitrc- forcing machine is open t!a> .-'isin.: sri-ai valves of the side ■a ai! ue.-.t .-■',,ro.e or beitr.v a gate must be closed -'. i.at is. tiie valve.- above or below a p..:;.- ■.:::><:■ remain closed until the gate iisr!:' is .raised, thus preventing the operator from causi'i.T , L ."urreiit. of water round the ga'i ■< \\- '.*:!-- i hey are open or are being iiio.cd for opening or closing. Again there are elaborate interiockings to safeguard tiie muiiijjuiati'ju of the various v.iivr.-. Thus, to pi •vent any possibility iif the locks being flooded when the valvej are in a certain position, the rising stem valves of the side -.vail are interlocked with t h'jsi ot the middle wall a lock length away. Such diagonal interlocking when the cylindrical valves are open is wanted to prevent the flow of water from, say, ihe upper look bv way of a sidewall culvert to the middle lock, and thence by v.-cy of the. middle wall culvert tn tli.' Viv.ei' lock, with the result of flooding the lower Jock walls. In som« cases an interlock can be released by means of a Yale key, as, for example, when a large vessel is passing through and it is necessary for the intermediate gates to be thrown open to obtain a I,oooft level. Tha specifications for the generating, distributing, and lock controlling -easterns of the canal were prepared under the supervision of Mr Edward Schildhaner, the electrical and mechanical engineer to fh« Isthmian Canal Commission, his as-'ir-tant, T\fr C. I'. Larzelere. being especially associated with tho problems of the Jock contrail; and the loci; machinery motors, control pain-is. and central toturol boards, together with the T-rwer stations a'.d other ejiictricui equipment, were niunnfitcLin'ad bv -i;c C.ftiL'iv.! Electric Company, *\ T i-w York.

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Bibliographic details

PANAMA CANAL LOCKS, Evening Star, Issue 15635, 28 October 1914

Word Count
1,964

PANAMA CANAL LOCKS Evening Star, Issue 15635, 28 October 1914

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