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The telegraphic announcement made a few days ago that Carol 1., King Rumania, of Rumania, was dead is full of import when considered in connection with the European turmoil that may lead to disruptive consequences that can only’ be surmised to-day. It is not a little surprising that Rumania in the cast and Belgium in the west itand in a closely juxtaposition, as far as geographical similarity can influence European politics. As far back as 1869 that archplotter Bismarck, in the interests of Germany, wrote to King Carlos I. (then Prince Charles) that Rumania’s idea! should bo to become “la Belgique des benches du .Danube, - ’ and the Prince, in writing to his father six years afteuvards, said: “It is Rumania’s destiny to become the Belgium “of the Lower Danube. Why do the “Cabinets of Europe hesitate to make “known that fact? We in Rumania can " wait a little longer, but such, a step “ would be a guarantee of peace in the

“L’aot.” The historical parallel follows tho geographical, though not so closely. Tho Kusfo-TurldfJi War broke out in 1877, after Prince Charles had been 11 years in Rumania, (lining which time ho had established order and disciplined an illgoverned, impoverished, and intrigueridden country. Tho arsenals had little ammunition, the fort ideations wore almost worthless, the troops were ill-armed and unreliable; but in that short period Prince Charles, by skill and devotion, had brought into being a powerful and reliable force that had to'he treated with respect by Russia, who asked permission to march her forces through Rumania to Turkey. That 1 ermksion mis granted by treaty, and the autocrat , of the North was proffered assistance from Rumanian troops. Tiro assistance was declined in offensive terms that reminded Rumania that she could only continue to exist ‘'in tho shadow' of the Russian army.’’ Yet it is a matter of history that if the Russians at Plevna had not been assisted by Rumanian forces, that were, urgently asked for, tho Grand Duke Nicholas's army would have (differed a crushing defeat, if not practical annihilation. Tho pareliels, therefore, are that on one hand a small country like Belgium in tho west of Europe has control over an important shipping pent on tho Scheldt, and acts as a buffer State between Germany and Franco. On the other hand, Rumanian territory includes the mouths of tho Danube—the second largest river in Europe—and also a* a buffer State between Russia and Austria to the north and west. Tho parallel is made more striking from the* fact that Russia in 1877 entered upon her invasion of Turkey with a grievance against Rumania, because tho Powers had given her a very important strategetical position in Bessarabia, and to-day Prussian fury is relentless because gallant little Belgium stands as a lion in tho path of the Kaiser and in’s Parisian objective. Whether the parallel will hold good after the war is over is on the knees of the gods, Wc know that, notwithstanding the promises of the Tsar, Russian diplomats and generals talked of taking away Southern Bessarabia (which was given to Rumania by the Powers at the Peace of Paris in IS56’, in spite of the Eusso-Runianian Treaty, that distinctly stated that Russia hound itself to preserve and defend the integrity of Rumania- Thus was furnished another proof that written obligations between high contracting Powers are worth no more than the. “scrap of paper” on which they are defined. At that time (1878) Prince Charles appealed to the German Emperor for sympathy and support, but in vain, and Rumania was deprived of Southern Bessarabia, but received instead the fever-stricken swamp of the Dobrudja. No wonder that Lord Beaconsfield in this connection declared that “in politics in- “ gratitude is often the reward given for “many sendees.” These antecedent political conditions, coupled with the tricky part that Turkey seems disposed to play at the present juncture, may well set us speculating as to wdial part the new King of Rumania will play. The problem is as knotty ns it i« interesting. If she was able to take so important a part in the Russo-Turkish War 57 years ago, her weight cast into tho balance to-day op either side will be much more- ponderable. Rumania mobilised, but took no share in the late Bulgarian War. to the astonishment of so many that London ‘ Punch’ in a striking cartoon pictured a Rumanian assassin in the act of stabbing Bulgaria in tho back. The. animosity had some show of reason from the fact that Silistria, a stronglyfortified city on the south bank of the Danube, dominated the river traffic, and neutralised in a large measure the value of having the command of the mouths of that great waterway into central Europe. Since, however, the status quo in the Balkan Peninsula has been shattered, tho Rumanians have been able to obtain the wished-for adjustment of their southern boundary, so as to secure 2,969 square miW of country, including Silistria, on tho southern bank of the Danube, inhabited by a population of 286,000, mostly Turks. This brings the total population of Rumania up to more than seven and a-hal£ millions, and from 10 to 12 million of Rumanians reside in Austria-Hungary. Russia, and adjacent provinces. This diffusion of the race may have a very important bearing in the near future, if the- probable break-up of the Austrian Empire takes place. Writing two years ago about the peace of Europe, Mr J. Ellis Barker, with almost prophetic insight, pointed out that an Austro-Russian war was not improbable. If, in such a war, Russia should be defeated, Rumania might obtain Bessarabia. If Austria should suffer defeat Rumania might double her territory and add to her population not only 3,500,000 Rumanians, but 2,000,000 of other races living amongst them. “ It is obviously,” says Mr Barker, “in Rumania’s interest to keep neutral “in a war between Russia and Austria- “ Hungary. On the outbreak of such a “war Rumania should- mobilise her “army, and as soon aa tho issue becomes “apparent, join the victor, and claim part “of the spoils.!’ To these anticipations must bo added tho fact that the Kaiser is now a dens esc machina that did not enter into Mr Barker’s anticipations. The late King was a Hohenzollern of the better sort. He was not tainted with that damnosa hasreditas that in a large measure, there can bo no doubty is responsible for deluging the plains of Belgium with blood to-day. From his father, Prince Kail Anton* he inherited greaV

political gifts. Tho parental advice, largely followed by King Carol, was : " A " wise, and especially a faithful, ruler " must never pursue a personal, but " always a national policy." This, surely, is the very antithesis of that egoi&tic impulse that has guided, and is guiding, the most hat-ad potentate in Europe at the present time. The late King married Princess Elizabeth of Wied, who is better known in the world of literature as " Carmen Sylva." The heir-presumptive is Prince Ferdinand, nephew of his late Majesty, and is married to H.R.H. Princess Marie of Saxo-Coburg-Gotha, daughter of rLB.H. tho Duke of Edinburgh. All these family and political interestsGerman, Eussian, Austrian, and British--added to 'the present instability of thrones and dynasties, will beset the new ruler's path with difficulties. Between the Triple Alliance'and the Entente it will be difficult for the new King to know whether Codlin is his friend or Short. If he can keep clear of surrounding complications there will be plenty of good work to be carried out in Kumania. Keforms have already been formulate?! by tho Cabinet that holds office. Under the present Constitution all land is inalienable, except for military purposes, railways, or for reasons of public health. Such considerations make cultivators of tho soil dissatisfied, and set them clamoring for political rights. Reforms will no doubt come if the- wise policy brought about during the late King's reign is continued. ___ Nominations for the vacancy in Central Ward in the City Council close to-morrow. Onlv two candidates have been nominated [ to date—Messrs J. Carroll and J. Limn. I At tho Supreme Court at Wellington today (reports an Association wire) the Chief Justice sentenced Chas. Ridley Cooke to six months' imprisonment for embezzlement of tho sum of £223 collected from | various firms while ho was employed as secretary to the Marton branch of the Farmers' Union. His Honor Mr Justice Sim has granted the following matters in Chambers: Ingle v. Ingle, a motion to lis time for filing answer (Mr Scurr). Respondent to be allowed 42 days for filing answer from date of service. In the matter of Ellen Wootton, deceased, a petition for leave to distribute estate (Mr Callan), an order was made in the terms of tho petition. Many sensational stories are current ol the activities of German spies in the countries of their enemies. Ojijg of these, which went the round of the daily Press, whs that the German proprietor o£ a Paris j hotel had been found communicating with tho enemy by means of a wireless plant on tho roof of the hotel, and that he, along with his staff of German waiters, had been promptly shot. The facts, as told in the French newspaper*, are that tho manager of the Hotel Astoiia was denounced as a 6py, but wireless plant was merely a toy, constructed by a youth who was staying in the hotel.* The' hotel manager was tried by court martial, and acquitted of the charge.! Shortly after * o'clock this morning the City Fire Brigade received a call to a .shop at the corner of Stuart and Albert streets. The shop was practically gutted by the lire, and the dwelling-house adjoining was also considerably damaged. The "highpower wires alongside- took fire, and were burning for a time. The shop was insured in the State Office for £SO, the house for £550, and the stock and furniture for £250. The promises were owned and occupied by Mr Thomas Pledger, painter. Mr "Paulin telephoned at 2 p.m. : Strong S.W. to N.W. winds; fine for 24 hours; indications unsettled.

At a meeting of the Queen's Drive Boating Club Bazaar and Art Union Committee, held on Friday evening, it was decided to postpone ths bazaar indefinitely, and so enable the various ladies’ committees to concentrate their tjmo in assisting the Belgium relief fund. Tire church that stood at the corner of Forbury and Cargill roads is now down. The walls were knocked over to-day. The corporation can now take the 7ft necessary to bring the mouth of the Forbury road into line. It is officially announced that the Union Steam Ship Company and the HuddartPnrker Company have arranged a newintercolonial time-table, to bn put into effect at once, under which intercolonial steamers will include Dunedin and Bluff in their itinerary. Ibis should dissipate the grievance that consignors and consignees have labored under since the abandonment of the Dnnedin-Melbourne service compelled transhipment of goods to and from southern ports.

The receipts to date of the Otago Patriotic and General Welfare Association are £25.479 14s 3Jrd, of which £22.624 5s 7id is still available for distribution. The’funeral of Robert Walter Saddler, the schoolboy who, it will be remembered, was accidentally drowned in the Kaikorai Stream on Wednesday night, took place on Saturday afternoon. Over 60 Boy Scouts, representing the various City troops, as well as the Green Island Troop, of which the lad was a member, attended the burial service. The drummers of the, Dunedin West-Central Battalion Band plaved the slow inarch on the way to the cemetery, where at the grave-side the ‘Last Post’’ was sounded by a squad of buglers. The Green Island Scouts’ ambulance team, in which deceased had taken an active interest, acted as pall-bearers. It may be added that his late comrades have undertaken the care of his last rest-ing-place. Arthur Plunkett. 15 years of age, a son of Mr Plunkett, Morninaton, met with an unfortunate accident while he was out shooting with two mates on the hills at the back of Wingatui yesterday afternoon. They had occasion to go through a fence, and Plunkett pulled his gun after him. The hammer was caught by a w ire, ana the gun exploded, the full charge going into his left arm just below the elbow. He was taken to the Green Island Hotel by the caretaker of the water race, and was attended by Dr Edie, who ordered his removal to the Hospital. There it was found necessary to amputate the am below the elbow, and this operation was performed at a late hour last right. The Rev. B. S. Hammond, who is_ at present lecturing here under the auepicts of the No-license League, addressed more than a. hundred of the workers at Messrs Reid and Gray’s foundry at midday to-day. and was given a most attentive hearing. In the course of his remarks ho pointed out the great advantages which would be the working man's under National Prohibition and the many benefits he would receive. It was the man vho went to excess with alcohol and made himself nonefficient that added another burden to those of the worker. Mr Hammond quoted figures to show the far greater number of convictions for sly ‘ grog-selling in licensed than in areas, and the overwhelming number of convictions for drunkenness in licensed than in No-licensc areas. If they were progressive they must vote for No-license and National Prohibition. At the conclusion of his address Mr IJammond invited questions. Those present appeared to/ he very much interested in the address and facts Mr Hammond had put before them to prove the advantages of Prohibition. The average daily attendance at the Carnegie Public Library for the week ended Saturday was 723 persons. The following is the list of hooks added to the various departments during the week:—Reference Library : Basil Lubbock, ‘ China Clippers ’; Woodrow Wilson, ‘History of the American People’ (5 vols.); F. Kick, ‘Flour Manufacture’; G. S. Fraps, ‘Principles of Dyeing ’; J. H. Vanderpoal, * The Human Figure’; H. S. Cooley, ‘Vacuumdeaning Systems.’ Lending Library: E. H. "0. Oliphant, ‘ Germany and Good Faith ’; A. W. Holland, *‘ Germany ’; Prince B. Von Bulow, ‘ Imperial Germany ’; Arthur H. Engdbash, ‘Anecdotes of Pulpit' and Parish ’; H, L. Havell, ‘ Republican Romo ’; A. E. P. Weigall, ‘ Treasury of Ancient Egypt’; Henry Newton, ‘ln Far New Guinea ’; Douglas Carruthers, ‘Unknown Mongolia’ (2 vols); Harry C. Jones, 1 New Era in Chemistry ’; Joseph C. Woodroffe, ‘ The Upper Reaches of the Amazon,’ ■ / ’* ! V '

Our parliamentary reporter wires from Wellington:—Mr Arthur Myers, M.P., has received a cable from his brother Leo, advising that nearly 5,000 Jewish Belgian refugees have reached London in a distressful condition. An appeal for help is being made from Anglo-Jewish communities throughout the Empire. Th-a Rothscilds have headed tho relief fund with a substantial donation. Communal action has been decided on. New season's photographic goods: Excellent stock now arriving. Cameras from 6s. Send your order early to H. J. Gill, 11 and 13 Frederick street, Dunedin. 'Phone 1,144. —[Advt] If you wish the service* of Mr Morris personally, ho now makes portraits at his horn* or gurden itudio, 554 Georg« street; telephone 859,-fAdYt.l Watson's No. 10 is a "little dearer than most whiskies, but is worth the money.— [Advt." A gfeus of Speight's beer at lunch and «upper is better than all the tea in China,— [Advt.3 The annua! meeting of tho Hospital Saturday Association will be held in the Town hall this evening, when all interested in the association's work are cordially invited to be prcspnt. The greatest possession is self-possession, but Watson's No. 10 is great too.—fAdvt.] Liquid Paraffin, "Three Star" brand, the purest for internal use. Wilkinson and Son, chemists; 3s largo bottles.—fAdvt.] The Navy League (Otago branch) will hold their annual celebration in honor of Trafalgar Day in the Garrison Hull on Wednesday evening. The programme will include, brief addresses by Dean Fitchett I'Tho Discipline of War'), Rev. W Hay ('Moral Aspect of Imperialism'), Mr W J- Morrell ('Germany and the War'), and tbo tcretarv f'Th'e Navy of Old England '). The latter'two will bo illustrated by several fine lantern views. The Fourth Regiment. Band will play, the Lyric Male Quartet will sing, and 31 r W. W. Crawford will recite London 'Punch's' famous verses, 'My Boys.' This demonstration is held every yciir by the league, and is distinct from all other functions that have been arranged for this day. The adult members of ih>« general public are invited to attend after the main doors arc open. There will be no charge and no collection. Its object is to remind us of the past and to hare confidence in the future.

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Evening Star, Issue 15627, 19 October 1914

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Evening Star Issue 15627, 19 October 1914

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