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The Evening Post. THURSDAY, APRIL 3, 1873.

The coal beds .of New Zealand, although covering a tvide area, contain by no means so large a quantity of coal available for use as is popularly supposed ; nnrl, unless fresh and nnexppcted discovenes be made, we shall, before many years are over, find it difficult enough to provide for our own consumption, without attempting to supply other markets. Let us enquire what beds are actually known to exist m the .country/ Beginning at the North, there is tho Bay of Islands field, worked by the Kawa Kawa mine, where large quantities of coal ate extracted, and sent to Auckland, where it is used chiefly for household purposes, the amount of clinker which it makes rendering it unsuitable forsteam purposes, although ;'it in occasionally so used. Mining operations have been actively carried on, bnfr the seam which has been opened is of limited .extent, and could not stand a heavy " demand. Then, there i» a patch of coal at Wangarei. Large deposits exisfc in tbe Lower Waikato, and have been worked at two or three places. They are bufc fragments of an extensive bed of bt'own 4 epal, pnee. spreading over nearly the whole of the Waikato, the greater part of which has been removed by denudation. There is ah outcrop of the bed ab, Eaglau on the West Coast aud another lower down at Mokau, whence its spreads in vast layers towards the Wanganni river, IXnfoiHsunately, the" coal, except here and there, lies afc practically inaccessible depths, and ifc is only' afc Mokau, in places on the ,Warjgamti river, and at one or two other spots, that the mineral comes sufficiently near the surface to allow of its extraction afc a cost which would pay the miner. The country, however, owing fco the native disturbances, has nofc been thorougly explored, and it is quite possible that fresh outcrops may be discovered ; bttfc nevertheless, the fact remains thafc the body of the coal is at an ettormotts depfch, Ifc is, further, brown coal, of variable quality, and some of it very inferior. The mosfc important; beds are found • on the Wesfc Coast of the Middle Island, where secondary coal is diffused over an extensive aiea. Dr Hector divides fche coal fields in, this part of the Colony irifco-^(l-) - the Pakawau field, which extends from Oape Farewell southwards for about 15 miles, occupying a' great parfc.of fche surface of the mountains between the valley ,of the Aorere River, and Wesfc Wanganui Infefc ; (2) the Btiller or Mount Roehfort field, which occupies a narrow strip of mountainous country, 'extenfdrag sbnfchVartls-from the Karamea River to fche Bulier, a distance of forty miles, wifch a greatest width of seven miles ; (3) the Grey River and Mount Davy field, which forms a range, of mountains, lying to the north, of tbe Grey River, in which direction fche formation extends for seven.' miles, to where ifc is intersected by the coasfc. Traces of coal have been observed farther south, and fche area covered by these beds is very extensive, while the coal is freely developed near the surface. This, however, is no index of its availability. The country is mountainous, and the beds broken up, so thafc a large part of the Monnfc Roehfort field, for example, must remain unworked unless a heavy expenditure be incurred in providing means of communication with the sea coRSt. Some years ago, a careful estimate of the quantity of coal available for mining at Coalbrookdale, on this field, was made for the Nelson Government, and ifc was calculated at 150,0,00 tons,/while' fche cosfr 6& a railway 1 W convey fchd coal to Wesfcport was reckoned at .£IOO,OOO, a sum which, of course, it would be ridiculous to expend for the sake of carrying 750,000 tons of coal. It was in endeavoring to find coal seams .afc r a- lower level that*- the recent clisicoferiei atfNgakaw^an were made. In Canterbury the seams are of less importance. Brown coal, the quality o£ i which was * recently jtested^i ere, is fount!' "in thY Malvern liitls, but in small basins; and the deposits afc the Clenfc hills, aud at Ashbttrton, are of even less extent, the latter, indeed, being quite insignificant. There are patches of brown coal in various places along the East Coast of Otago aud Southland, of poor quality generally, (sometimes degenerating into lignite), but convenient for shipment ; and the • seams at Shag Poinfc and Presei'vation Inlet have attracted a good deal of notice. In tbe interior of Southland, several deposits are known to exist, but the seams are mostly thin, and the coal inferior, Afc present the Wairaki bed appears the most avatlalable, and it could be connected with the Winton railway by a line of 10 miles in length. A review of our stock of coal showa that we cannot expect to become a coal-exporting country. There is an abundance of metals^ — iron and others —in the land, aud when they come to be worked there will be quite as large a demand for coal to smelt them as our mines are likely to be able to supply, since it is not every kind of coal which is suitable for the furnace, Ifc is important to realise *this fact, because if,

unrler a misconception as to our available stock, v/e incsur expense and make sacrifices in order to force an export trade in coal, we may, before very long, find ourselves paying through the nose for that commodity. Private individuals, of course, cannot bp expected to entertain such considerations, but the Government ouaht to do so, and not to yield to political pressure which may be exerted in order to compel them to spend monr-y for the benefit of particular districts, where the Colony, so far from sharing the gain, will probably in the lony run incur loss. We fancy we see indications at Kelson and on the West Coast of a wish to look to the Government for assistance in the furtherance of commercial undertakings of an ordinary character, and which should be left to private enterprise to carry out ; and the claims are put forward tinder the specious disguise of developing the coal fields of the Colony. We cordially approve of snch undertakings, but there is no reason whatever why the Government should lend peculiar aid to the coal more than any other industry, and many of the demands which are now made can only be regarded as illustrations of that enervating" spirit which has been infused into the Colony by the expenditure of large sums of borrowed money. The work of geological explanation is one that properly belongs to the Government ; but in every otb.ee work required for the development of a coal field, we hope that, for the sake of the Colony, it -will see that it gets value for its money. Harbour improvements undoubtedly come within the scope of its duties, and if by improving a harbottr at a cost within its means, it could also form an outlet for a new coal mine, ifc would incur a "wise expenditure.

Four scads in the Hou3e of Representatives are either now or will shortly become vacant, Mr. Peacock is, ifc is understood, to be promoted to the Legislative Council, which will leave his seat for Lytfcleton open, Mr Calder, member for Invercargill, has resigned in consequence of accepting a Government contract j and Mr Cuthbertson, the editor of the Southland Times, offers himself as his successor ; while Mr Wood, who sat in the last Parliament, and whose drivelling speeches were the terror of the House and all connected with it, is also likely to come forward. Then Mr M f Gla9han, who was supposed to represent the district of Kosiyu, is going to England on private business, and must perforce give up his senatorial office. la reality, Mr M'Glashan did not represent Koslyn, but •Mr Driver, for whom he has kept the seat warm. Koslyn is a sorb of pocket borough of Mr Driver's, and the unfortunate constituency has the choice of Driver or M'Glashan, than which a harder fate could not be conceived. Mr M'Glaaban ; bas not an idea, of his own, but is a sort of Highland Gillie to Mr Maeandrew, and the only business to which he assiduously applied himself while in the House, Was the attempt to obtain a bonus for the establishment of a paper factory — a matter in which he takes a warm interest, and, in fact, ib is announced that he is goinghome to buy paper-making machinery. Last session, indeed, he made a feeble effort to act as a Government whip, hut we don't think he was very successful in that capacity. Then, Mr R. Kichardson, one of Mr Stafford's supporters, has resigned hia seat for .Nelson Suburbs, and Mr Andrew Kichmond offers himself as a candidate. This gentleman sat for Colliugwood some years ago, bub made no figure iv the House, The Nelson electors oughfc to be able to get a better man to represent them.

Nothing has* yet transpired about the future composition of the Ministry. A Cabinet Council was held at three o'clock this afternoon, but it was sitting when we went to press, aad any decision which it may Jia?e come to on the subject is not, therefore, publicly known. Through the Luna being compelled to pnt into Kawhia, an interview between Mr M'Lean and some of the leading Kingites was accidentally brought about. While the steamer was lying at anchor, a number of Maoris came off to her, amongst them being Haupokia and our old foe, Tapihana. The tatter welcomed MrM'Lean to Kawhia, bat qualified his remarks with the observation that if the Ltma bad not been a Government vessel, she wonld have been ordered to leave the harbor — a significant proof of the feelings still entertained by the Kingjfces towards the Earopeans. Tapihana, however, afterwards said, in tfce mysterioa.s language of which natives are so fond, that Mr Ivl'Lean, upon first visiting Kawhia, found it ©pen to him ; that he should now find it opsn to him, bsiag on board a Government vessel ; anrl that upon his third visit, it should be open to all European vessels — a phrase which may may mean anything. Of coarse the usual amount of speechifying took place, and later in the day the Luna steamed across the harbor, .in .order .that Mr M'Lean might meet Tutawahia, the elder of tbe King's sons— that distinguished individual deeming it infra dig. to go to the Native Minister, and coolly sending word for Mr M'Lean to come to him. However, Mr M'Lean, on landing, was cordially received, and was asked to wait at Kawhia until the King could be sent for. The request, of course, could not be complied with, but Tutawahia was invited on board the Luna, add after some hesitation, he went, and Was introduced to the Governor. After taking lunch, and receiving a present from the Governor in the shape of a pair of Saddle-bolsters, Tutawahia and his followers went on shore, Mr M'Lean having previously arranged to return to Kawhia in as

Bhorfc a time S3 possible. Hanpokia remained on board, and c?,tne on to Wellington. The tender of Zvlessr3 Allan and Stumbles for the construction of the pcrtion of the Timnru-Temuka line between Timiru and Young's Creek, h&3 been accepted, the price being £7,134 18s Gd. The same firm already holds a contract fcr the construction of the Waitaki section of the WaitakiMoeraki railway. A contract for felling j and clearin--' the underbush, for a width, of 1| chain?, between Mun^aroa and Kirontaka. on th-3 Wellington and Masterton railway line, a di-tinc3 of from 11 to 12 miles, has been let to Mr James Wilson, of the Upper Hufcfc, at £38 a mile. After onr leading article wag written, we received a copy of the "Reports of Geological Explorations during IS7I-2, with maps and sections," by Dr Hector, Director of the Geological Survey ; also, the seventh annual report of the Colonial Museum. It is high time that the police force at Porirua was strengthened, for something very like lynch law seems to rule in that locality. A tarring ard feathering case recently occurred there, and was repeated after dark yesterday evening, the victim in each case being the same. The assault was deliberately planned, a body of men, after consulting as to the mode of operations, marching to the house where their victim was residing, his offence being, his supposed adultery. He wa3 dragged out in the ponring rain, minus hat, coat, and waistcoat, and taken to an hotel, where, having been stripped to the waist, he was thoroughly tarred and feathered, and on being set free, was cautioned thr,t, if again offending, the tarring would be of an even severer character. We hope the Magistrates will enquire into the conduct of the landlord of the hotel in question, and that measures will be taken to prevent fresh outrages. A lawless spirit of this kind ought to be sternly repressed ; and it must always be remembered that while lynchers may sometimes puDish the right man, ihp. system enables the malicious to wreak their spite upon innocent persons. Yesterday evening a dinner was given, at Donecker's Hotel, by some members of the Wellington Rowing Club to the crew of the Dolly Vardexi, iv celebration of the recent victory of the latter boat over the Stella. About thirty sat down to table, Mr Stuart occupying the chair, and Mr Logan fulfilling the duties of vice. The chairman proposed the health of the winning crew, which was drunk with all honors. Each of the crew was then presented with a silver cup, in memorial of the occasion, and returned thanks. We understand that the Luua will proceed to Napier to-morrow, and probably go oa to Poverty Bay. D, L. Murdoch, Eaq, of the Bank of New Zealand, is now in Wellington on his usual tour of inspection. Some of the friends of Mrs Carley, wife of Mr Carley, of the New Zealand Bank, who has just been transferred to Napier, have presented her with a handsome keepsake, in the shape of a timepiece. The stand nf the clock is of black marble, surmounted with a bronze casting of the fight between St George and tbe Dragon, admirably executed. The face of the clock, besides marking the time, also presents a barometer, aud the whole is a handsome piece of work. In the lower part of the stand a silver plate i 3 inlaid, bearing an inscription explanatory of the intentions of the donors of the gift. The Auckland papers agrea in condemning the inefficiency of the Telegraph Department, and express their gratification at the changes which Mr. Lemon proposes to make in the Auckland branch of the Department. One of the main grounds of complaint there has been the delay in the delivery of messages after their reception at Auckland, several hours having sometimes elapsed from the time that the telegraphist finished the message until it reached the hands of those for whom it wa3 intended. The cause of delay in such instances doubtless rested with the messengers. This defect will be remedied by removing the incompetent messengers and increasing the staff. Fresh offices are to be obtained, the present being unhealthy. But what concerns Wellington is that an additional wire is to be stretched between Auckland and here, in order to meat the pressure of business. It is alleged by the Southern Cross that this would have been done long ago, had wire been obtainable ; but a supply has now been received, and the work will be begun at once. It is expected that the new line will be ready in three months. This piece of naws is very satisfactory, but as there is quite as much, if not more, delay in the transmission of messages between Wellington and the Southern stations, we hope Mr Lemon will see his way to erecting an additional wire on the Otago and Canterbury line. A correspondent of the Auckland Star suggests that the example of England and Australia should be followed, and the charge for the address of the receiver of a message be abolished ; and that the sender of every message be requested to give the name and address of the receiver as fully as possible. By this means, much delay would be avoided. The same writer suggests that, i? the address were taken free of charge, the rate for ten words might be raised to Is 3d, The conduct of Mr Worgan in reference to the leasing of the Te Kiwi block, at Wairoa, from the native owners to Mr Couper, was brought under the notice of the Native Lands Alienation Commission on the 28th ult, when Mr Sheehan, on behalf of complainants, addressed the Court, and said that the case had developed from an enquiry into the validity of Mr Couper's lease into an investigation into the conduct of the interpreter employed in the

matter. 2>lr Sheehan contended that Mr j "Worgin's conduct was i-epreliensible, and he called upon the Commission to express its condemnation of it, Mr Liscelles addressed the Court on behalf of Mr Worgan. The Chairman said the Commissiou would further consider the matter, bufc in tbe meantime they should oart-vnly make no recommendation, but; if on further consideration they concluded some notice should he takea, it would be embodied ia their report to Parliament. During Mr M J Lean's recenb visit to I'ao I Thaaies, he wjs asked if hfi coull give any information ns to wheu OSinrrauri wouhl be opened. Air M'Lsau replied that the Government Mere mosb anxious to opsn the country, but that any attempt to press on the opening would only hive the effect of causing further delay. Tho Government had already purchased a large extent of land on the peninsula. He would give them distinctly to understand, however, that the Government would nob do anything which might cause difficulties. Whenever there was a clear title, they were ready either to purchase or lease. The Raglan correspondent of the Southern Cross writea :: — !f A numerously signed petition has been sent by the leadiug native chiefs of this district to the Hon. Donald McLean, requesting that Raglan be the place selected for the native meeting to welcome the i»ew Governor, Sir James j Fergusson. They urge that Raglan ia more centrally situated, and that a larger number will attend there than at Ngaruawahia, or elsowhere. A great number of Han Haus have promised to attend the meeting if held at Raglan ; and no doubt advantage would be taken of their presence to disseminate our views araou? their brethren at Kawhia, Should the natives receive a favourable reply from Mr. McLean, there will, most probably, be a gathering of not less than 2,000 natives to welcome Sir James Fergusson to our shores," 11 Spectator," writing to tts about ths Theatre, Bays :—": — " The intervals between the acts in the scene piece ought never to exceed five minutes, for if an interval exceeds that time, we begin to lose our interest in the piece, and the sensation passes off, But last night an interval of thirty minutes occurred between two acts of " Camille," followed by an act comprising only one scene, which lasted scarcely twenty-five minutes." The special correspondent of the New Zealand Herald declares that whatever may be said of the Kaipara railway, the earthworks are completed, and if the permanent way were in readiness, the contractor could hand over the line in a week or two. The difficulties have been considerable, but the work has progressed from the commencement with praiseworthy regularity. The length of the line from Riverhead to Helensville is something over 16 miles. The surface of the country is irregular, and the divergence from the direct line of road, which is 12 miles, includes the c'irves necessary to avoid ' impracticable gradients, Mr Edgar, ths contractor, undertook the work at £3,000 a mile, which will make the cost for the earthworks about £54,000. The bridge across the Kaipara is an excellent piece of work. It contains eight; spans, those at the extremities being 20 feet, and those in the cantre 20 feet. These are formed of massive girders, and the old work presents an appearance of great strength. Preparations are being actively made for laying the permanent way way. The sleepers, 30,000 in number, are stacked along the Hue. The Timaru Herald contradicts* the statements made recently at Dunedin, to tbe effect that Judge Ward was to take the duties of Judge Gray in Ofcago, and that the latter gentleman was about to proceed home on leave. Nelson, about the most suitable place in the colony for flower growing, is the only one of the principal towns that cannot raise a horticultural show. There is some hitch about the Waimea water race, the early commencement oE which was announced some time ago. The following telegrams on the subject have been published :—": — " Hokitika, 25th March, 1873. Hon John Bathgate, Wellington. Will you kindly inform me when the construction of the Waimea water race will probably commence ? Very great anxiety felt on subject throughout district, which languishes sadly for want of water which this race would supply. — John White." "Wellington, 27th March, 1873. John White, M.H.R., Hokitika. Work much more complicated and costly than was contemplated. Expensive siphon may be necessary. Matter under serious consideration at present. Will advise you if any definite resolution. — John Bathgate." A petition to the Governor in Council is in course of signature by the inhabitants of Elokitika, praying that the Mikohinui Water Race may be speedily constructed. The Engineer, of a late date, says that much interest has been excited in the United States and England by the movement among the Japanese looking towards the introduction of the English language and its literature into the Japanese empire ; and it has even been stated that there is a possibility that our mother tongue may in time become their national language. The principal difficulty in this desirable consummation lies in the peculiarities of the English language, and the number of irregular verbs characterising it, as also the want of uniformity in its pronunciation. The idea has bsen suggested of forming an improved English language for the benefit of our Oriental friends by making all the verb 3 regular, and improving the orthography. The choice of "& new language by the Japanese lies, it i 3 said, between the English and the German, and the selection of the latter is warmly urged by the Germans. Indeed, that {language appears

;o be quits a favourite one in Japan, as is j ittested by the existence of an extensive jrerniau book store there doing a large ausiness, and by the establishment of \ number of schools for teaching the tongue. The construction of a suhrnarine boat for mining purposes is (says a contemporary) being pushed forward at Dunediu as speedily as possible by the sub-contractors for the Hull, Messrs Thomas aad Sparrow, and Messrs Villaine and .Nutfcall, the contractors, alPiVe that the remaining portions of the work v.-.li he sublet this week, in order that the various sections imy be completed at about, tho same time. The first section of the hull or bow of the boat ia almost completed, and a good portion of the stern is ready for fitting together ; most of the material required is on the ground, and, if no unnecessary dclsy occura, efforts will be made by Messrs Villaine and Nuttall to have the boat ready for removal up country before the roads are bad, A conviction of a publicau for refusing to admit a sub-inspector of police into his hotel within a reasonable time after demand for admission had been a. ado, was recently quashed by Judge Pohltnan at the General Sessions, Melbourne, on the curious point that;, though the sub-inspector had knocked at the door of the hotel, it was not proved that he had asked to be admitted. The different country public libraries of Auckland are now being furnished with their yearly supply of books, purchased out of the annual vote of the Provincial Council for the purpose, The average amount devoted to each district is £10. The total amount voted by the Council is £250. The Hobarl Town Mercury publishes the correspondence from Mr. D. Tallertnan, of London, to Mr. Dv Cane, the Governor of Tasmania, in which he urges the establishment of a rabbit-factory. He states that for £300 he could ship apparatus sufficient to preserve 2A tons per diem, and that the rabbits would fetch in England 6d per lb.

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The Evening Post. THURSDAY, APRIL 3, 1873., Evening Post, Volume IX, Issue 44, 3 April 1873

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The Evening Post. THURSDAY, APRIL 3, 1873. Evening Post, Volume IX, Issue 44, 3 April 1873

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