Pacific and Atlantic Coast Steam Marine. (From the San Francisco Evening Journal, May 19.)
We derive the following highly interesting and valuable information concerning the Steam Marine, operating between the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts, from a very elaborate article, in a late New York paper on the " Steam Marine" of the United States. — We have little doubt this information will amply repay a reading : — The " Pacific Mail Steamship Company," which s in connection with the "United States Mail Company," on the Atlantic side, carries the United States mails to California and Oregon, was established in October, 1848, to carry out the coutract awarded to Arnold Harris as the lowest bidder for the mail service. It numbers at this time fourteen steamers of the following denominations —
Of these the California, Panama, »nd Oregon, were the first built, and sailed from New York to California, via Cape Horn, respectively : the 6th of Oct., 1848, 8 th Dec, 1848, 15t Dee. 1848. The two first named were built by Wm. H. Webb, York, and are of equal dimensions, being 200 feet on deck, 83| feet beam, and 20 feet hold. The Oregon was built by Messrs. Smith and Dinion. The engines of the California and Oregon are single side levers of the same diameter of cylinder and of equal stroke, being 70 inch cylinder, 8 feet 7 inches Stroke. They were constructed at the " Novelty Works of Messrs. Stillman & Allen. The engine of the Panama is of the same description and power, and was constructed at the " Allaire Works" of Messrs. Allaire & Secor, New York. The Carolina sailed for the Isthmus of Panama, Feb., 1850 ; the Columbia, Oct. 14, 1850 ; Tennessee, Dec. 5, 1849 ; Golden Gate, Aug. 5, 1851. We have been thus particular in giving the details of these ships, they being among the first placed upon the line. Their dimensions vary from 269 feet on deck, 40 feet breadth of beam, and 30^ feet depth of hold, which are the dimensions of the Golden Gate, to 159 length, 29 beam, 12^ hold, which are the dimensions of the Columbus Besides those we have named as the builders of the first ships of this company, others have been purchased and built respectively by different builders. The engines woried in these steamers are principally one side leavers of 75 iaches cylinder, 8 feet stroke, in these from 13 to 1,000 tons; and in those of a smaller class, of the description of the Columbia, of 800 tons, they are of 57 inch cylinder, 5 feet stroke. The engines of the Golden Gate and 'the John L. Stevens, the largest steamers in this line, are ossilating, of 85 inch cylinder, 9 feet stroke. They are constructed principally at the " Novelty Works'" and at the " Allaire " The originators of the " Pacific Mail Steamship Company," are the Messrs. Rowlands & Aspinwalls. Aspinwall, on the Isthmus, has been appropriately called after Wm. H. Aspinwall, one of those eminent merchants. These steamers are inspected and approved of by the Navy Department, and carry the United States mails on the Pacific side. They leave Panama on the arrival of the Atlantic steamers, and San Francisco on the Ist and 15th days of each menth, and touch at Accapulco. They connect with the , ports of Oregon. Chas. A. Whitney, Esq., is the agent of the company. In addition to this largely increased service, this Company announced, that on the 20th of March, they would commence a weekly line to California, running every week direct between New York and Aspinwall ; and in connection with the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, once each week between Panama and San Francisco. The United States Mail Steamship Company, contracted with the American Government, under an act of Congress, to construct five steamships of 1,500 tons, suitable for war purposes, and to carry the mails twice each month between New York and Aspinwall, via Havana, and between New York and New Orleans, via Havana, twice each month. This Company has not only built the five ships under the contract, with a tonnage of 12,800, and own five other steamers of an aggregate of 8,300 tons, exceeding by 12,000 tons the contract requirement ; but it now conveys the mails twice each month between New York and Aspinwall, direct ; twice each month between New York and Aspinwall, via Havana, and twice each month between New York and New Orleans, via Havana; thus performing more than double mail service, and empkying double the number of steam-ships required by the contract. The number of ships owned by, and now in the service of the Company, is nine, with one recently launched, and soon to be placed in the line. They are of the following denominations : —
Total tonnage of the steamers of the United States Mail Steamship Company (Law's line) 19,000. Of the ships of this Company, the Ohio, of 3,000 tons, was launched Aug. 12, 1848. The size varies from 248 feet on deck, 49 in breadth of beam, 33 in depth of hold ; which are the dimensions of the Georgia, the largest ship of this line, and of 3,000 tons burthen, to 204 feet length, 30 beam, and 21 depth, which are the dimensions of the Falcon, the smallest, of 1,000 tons. The Cherokee was built in 1848, by Wm. H. Webb. Her dimensions are, 215 feet on deck, 35 feet beam, 21J bold. Her engine is a oneeide lever, 75 inch cylinder, 8 feet stroke, and was constructed by Stillman and Allen. The Empire City and Crescent City, were built by Wm. H. Brown. The dimensions of the former, are 245 feet on deck, 39 beam, 24 hold ; tbe latter, 235, 35, 23|. The El Dorado is of similar dimensions of the Cherokee, and was built by Thos. Collyer. The George Law, the magnificent new ship of this line just launched, was
built by Win. H. Webb. Sbe is 280 feet on deck, 40 beam, 32 bold. Her engines are two inclined, 65 inch cylinder, 10 feet stroke, and are constructing at the Morgan Iron Works. The engines of the Georgia and Ohio were also constructed at these works, and are respectively, two side lever, 90 inches cylinder, 8 feet stroke ; those of the Crescent and Empire City, are of the game description, from the same works, and are of an equal diameter of cylinder and stroke of piston, viz : 80 inches, 9 feet. The steamers of this line are dispatched with the California and Oregon mails from New York, on the sth and 20th of each month for Aspinwall; and from New Orleans on the 7th and 27th. These steamers establish, with the Pacific Mail Company, a connecting line between New York, and ports in Mexico, California, and Oregon. Since the operation of the Panama Railroad, the transit of the Isthmus 13 performed in from 18 to 2-4 hours. This work bears such an intimate relation with the subject of our paper, that we cannot conclude this branch of it without alluding to its importance. In steam it is emphatically an isthmus in enterprise, connecting the two great Atlantic and Pacific Oceans with the steam communications between them. It is now in rapid process of completion to Panama. The contractor of the work is C. M. Story, Esq., of New York. The President is Win. C. Young, Esq., vice John L. Stephens, Esq., deceased.
Extracts from a Paper by Professor C. Piazza Smyth, Astronomer Royal for Scotland. Speaking of public works and measures for the good of the country, he says : "No one, I believe, has lived -any time in those countries, and entered into their affairs, and felt with the people, and sympathized with their struggles in the battle of life, and tried to assist them in their contest with nature, but will agree, more or less, with these opinions. Accordingly we find in the case of the East India Company, living to so great an extent as its members do in that immense empire which they rule, : they have caught something of the better spirit of the region in times past, and have, in many instances in various parts of the country, proved themselves worthy successors of the great potentates of old, in that which forms their truest glory, and the chief foundation of their yet existing popularity amongst the people. "But in the Crown Colonies, alas ! the case is far different. The minister has never been in any of them, and knows little of their natural circumstances and social wants. He governs them by deputy, and on the same principles as the home country ; proper enough there, but inapplicable to the colonies. At home, it may be very right for a minister to do only that which is pressed upon him by the people, and this only in the easy department of gathering the taxes ; for safely may be left to the people of the mother country to find out what is good for themselves in politics, in business they have a voice to insist on the one, and they have abundant pecuniary means to carry out the other ; and they are fully as well educated as their rulers. "But in the colonies, the people are weak, and few in number, scattered over an immense extent of territory, they are seldom the best educated, or of the wealthy classes ; and more untoward still, they are not allowed to govern themselves. They are in the hands of the Colonial Secretary and his Governors to do with them as he pleases, almost unquestioned. If, then, he takes to himself the honours and privileges of a despotic ruler, he ought also to perform the duties of that situation. He ought not to be content with the mere taxing, and with the police regulations of the people lying under his power, but he should exert a fatherly care for them in all their interests, and in all their phases of life ; he should study all their wants, and understand them better than they do themselves; and even be carrying into effect intelligent and far seeing measures, for developing their sources of industry, and increasing all humanizing and civilizing tendencies among them. Unless he undertakes thus to be the father of the people he despotically governs, the minister omits the payment which he is morally bound to make, in return for the honours and -emoluments which he enjoys. "But will the absolute colonial ruler, with the assistance of his engineers and surveyors, carry out his bounden duty towards those whom he rules in making roads, bridges, and other works ? "If the ministers at home, or the governors abroad, knew a little more about -engineering mat ters, we believe they would, but surely the education of an officer of the line, or the navy, is not that likely to make them conversant with such matters. Occasionally an engineer officer is sent out; Colonel Sir W. Reid was sent to Bermuda, where he soon acquired the name of the "Good Governor," from his attention to other than the mere legislative duties of his station. He saw plainly that, however well it may answer at home to leave everything to the energy and intellect of the people, that such a theory does not answer for the colonies. He did not, therefore, think it beneath him to enter into the farming and gardening, and various other industrial occupations of the inhabitants. He found them a distressed colony, dependant upon a shipbuilding trade fast leaving them, with only a bitter orange, not eatable ; he left flourishing farms, and a plentiful supply of sweet orange trees, branches of which he had introduced and grafted on the bitter stocks."
The following extract is from the "Illustrated News/ a paper having the largest circulation of any in Europe, it is only valuable politically as being the reflex of the current opinions of other papers, and spreading wide the fact that Military and Naval Officers are not fit to govern anything larger than ships or fortresses. "The attention of the Legislature will also be vigilantly directed to our colonial policy. The Government, of whatever party it be composed, must wholly abandon the system of regarding our transmarine dominions as mere sources of patronage, and must view them as markets for the products of our industry. The local administration must be vested in the permanent inhabitants, or natives, who best understand colonial wants ', and not in men who have no knowledge of the country, and whose only desire is to realise fortunes, and return to Europe."
The Golden (rate V,bW tons. Tennessee 1,300 tons. Northerner 1,200 tons. Republic , 1,200 tons. Oregon ... 1,099 tons. Panama ......~ ~ 1,087 tons. California 1,050 tons. Columbia - 800 tons. Carolina 600 ions. Columbus ♦ 600 tons. Isthmus ,• ~~~ 600 tons. Unicorn „...„... » 600 tons. Freemont ...„..,.»„.,«.« 600 tons. John L. Stephens , 3,500 tons. San Francisco.. ~ ~. 3,000 tons. Total tonnage P. M. S. €o. ...18,536,
Georgia ~ 3,000 tons. Ohio 3,000 tons. Illionis 2,500 tons. Empire City - 2,000 tons. Crescent City 1,500 tons. Cherokee 1,300 tons. Philadelphia 1,200 tons. El Dorado 1,300 tons. Falcon 1,000 tons. George Law 2,800 tons.