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R. Opie, the well-kncrcrn Canterbury sprinter, has received tho following telegram :—'"Can you compete, Coronation Sjwrts, London, if selected?" - So far Opie has returned no answer but expects to bo in a position to be able to do so to-morrow.




If anyone who had not visited that part of .South Canterbury lying between the Orari and Opihi rivers for some twenty-five or thirty years wore asked what changes had struck hun most forcibly, he would undoubtedly say: "The remarkable growth of trees. ,. And he would only re-echo what former residents of that part note upon their visits or when passing through by train, but it is a change that people who continuously live under ita progress scarcely seem to notice unless their attention is called to it. There is probably no part of Canterbury, and certainly no other part of New Zealand outside of Canterbury, wliero trees have been so well planted, nor where they have thriven bo well. If one looks from the level of the plain, tho view, except of the mountain ranges forming tho background, is obstructed by plantations; if ono ascends the foot lulls a little way, the plains appear almost as if covered by a forest, and if ono ascends still higher, till the open farm lands can be seen, the vista is like that of an immense park. Yet one can readily understand, once ho knows tho character of tho country, why this change has been brought about. And, after all, it is only going in somo way back to the condition of tilings in tree life that existed centuries ago, for thero is abundant evidenco that the native forest covered the area that is now, in part, planted with introduced trees. This part of Canterbury has not been covered like the great plain with a deep layer ot shingle. It lies, for tho most part, at a comparatively low elevation above the sea, the rivers run but little below tho level of tho land, the formation is for the most part alluvial, and in sliinglo or free soil the water is evorywhero found not far from the surface. This is indicated by the abundance of springs and creeks, and it is under such conditions that trees thrive remarkably well. One has only to notice the difference in the growth of tho railway plantations after crossing the Orari river to bo aware of this. Almost any piece of waste ground, if j>lantcd, will produce a prolific growth of timber. The shingle reserves for road-making purposes, x'la-nted somo twenty-five or thirty years ago, are now little forests of pinus insignis, and it is also noticeable that they have made much finer timber trees than they have done in other parts where planted- This is partly, no doubt, due to being planted fairly thick, and partly to their more rapid growth under i favourable conditions. Scarcity of water rarely ever affects this part of South Canterbury, at least not over any large area, for streams, large or small, aro mot with everywhere. The district is bounded on the north by the Orari, and through it run the Waihi, Hae-hae-Te-Moana, and Kakahu rivers, these with their many small tributories uniting to form the Temuka river. Tho rivers aro chiefly fed 'by rain, the only snow country drained beine tho Mount Four Peaks range, and tho enow usually disappears early in the spring. As was mentioned, the land is largely alluvial, much of it is rich in tho essentials for growing good grain, and root crops, and even the poorest is eminently suitable for grazing. THE FIRST SETTLERS. There were two classes of settlers who were first attracted to this part of Canterbury, the pastoralists, of whom the pioneer was Mr Alfred Cox, now residing in St. Albans, and the bushmen. Mr Cox was an Australian who had heard from other of his countrymen of tho wonderful resources of New Zealand, and especially of Canterbury ' from a pastorajist's point of view, and in his "R-ecollections" published in 1884 he gives an account of his first visits to New Zealand and his taking up a large run. The bushmen, whose work was divided between pitsawing timber for dwellings, etc., post splitting, and rail cutting, had three splendid virgin forests in which to commence operations, as the Arowhenua bush at Temuka not only proved insufficient in its supplier for tho Temnka and Timaru districts, but it was ultimately destroyed by fire. The advent of tho pastoralist and btishman in the Geraldine district was almost simultaneous, and now not only have the pastoral runs disappeared in the form in which they were first occupiod, but, alas, nearlj' all £he beautiful bush has gone as well.

Mr Alfred Cox first visited Canterbury from Australia in 1854, bringing over stock on tho recommendation of a Mr Sidey, who had been engaged in this trade -with Canterbury, Wellington and Otago. Mr Cox intended to sell the stock if the lookv.of the country did not satisfy him, and to hold thorn if tile story of the grazing excellencies and future capabilities of Canterbury had a sound foundation. Before coming over from Australia Mr Cox had accidentally met a man •who had recently returned from Canterbury, and for the sum of £150 he purchased from him two liconses to occupy grazing runs in South Canterbury. These runs consisted of practically the wholes stretch of country from tho Orari to the liae-Hae-Te-Moana river, from the foot of tlie hills tt> tho eea, and a portion of the country west of the latter river, and Mr Cox occupied ami stocked them. He was a huge importer of stock from Australia, shipping in all some tfGOO sheep, 350 head of cattle, and 10 to uO horses, though in the small sailing vessels of those clays the losses were considerable. Tho only man -Mr Cox knew in Canterbury when he arrived in 1554 was Mr Angus Mccdonald, wiiose brother William had arrived the year before. These two pioneer pa-s----t-ora'ists, who lirst had a run on the Waimakariri, afterwards became neighbours ot Mr Cox's, taking up their runs between the Orari and Rnndtat-a rivers, a..el their sons have worthily filled their fathers' places. Mr Cox had the usual experience of the pioneers in negotiating the Ilakaia and Rangitata rivers on his ars>t trip across tuo pl-imi.s l> inspect his run. After visit-ing Ti-muka Mr Cox selected a site for his head station, which w> this day is known as Raukapuka, the name that had been given to the bush ami downs which were about a mile distant. Mr Go*, returned to Australia .and brought over another shipmiwit of stock in 18">li° r his run. He then paid a visit to England, and did not revisit New Zealand till 18.37. when he finally decided: to settle in Canterbury, and "brought over }ii 3 wife ami family from Austral-, arriving at tho station by way of Tiinaru. Mr Cox some years after-



'wards sold out his interest in Raukapuka to tho late iSir Thomas rfelby Tancred, and took up land in the Waikato. Mr Cox was tho first man to settle on the east side of the* Wavhi river at Geraldine. Mr Samuol Uewlings, tho surveyor, had, however, built a houso of tho west side, wliero Mr E. H. Logan's store now stands. In its erection ho was assisted by Mr Geo. EippingaJe, now resident in Timaru. It was known as the bark house, the walls being covered wkh totara bark, and roofed with niggerhead. It is only a comparatively few years ago since this old house was burned down. On the site of the Geraldine Road Board office Air Heivlingx built a small land office, which was afterwards used us a school, itnd did sonio service as a road board olnce till the present building was srected. The late Caleb Maslin, who '.v tli his family was a passertarer by the Maori to Lyttelton in 1858, was tho next after Mr Hewlings to make a permanent home in Geraldine, first of all living in a hark and manuka hut on tho bank of the river, where a motor garage now stands. He first went to Geraldine in 1860, and, with Mr Phillip Dale, built the homestead at Ituakayuka for Mr Cox. Mr Maslin afterwards built on a section next tho Geraldine Cemetery, but twelve months later Mr Cox bought Mr Maslin's property as a site for a Church of England parsonage, the first occupant of which was the iato Rev. L. L. Brown. Tn 1862 Mr Maslin was killed while sinking a well on the property where his family afterwards lived for many years,' in the lower part of tho township. Previous to this he had started pit sawing in tho Raukapuka bush, and supplying split material for fencing purposes. Tho carting was done by Mr Maslin's eldest son, Mr W. S. Maslin, and Mr F. It. Flatman, who, after..beiiiu a.uliort time at Mr Cox's, joined Mr Maslin. In those early days Mr l r iatman used to drive a team of three harness bullocks. Among other early settlers in the Geraldine district wero Messrs John Dean, Robert Taylor, Reuben Johnston, Geo. Taylor, David Radcliffo, J. Kallaugiior, W* Gruildford, and J. Hancock, who were moro or less engaged in bush work; Mr John Buffcy, who was a carpenter and bricklayer; and Mr John Pizzey. The first steam sawmill was started in the Raukapuka bush by Messrs McKissock and McKenzie, close to where the traffic bridge over tho Waihi river now stands. THE PIT SAWYERS. Tho sawing of timber ]>y tho pit sawyers had been going on in the Pleasant Valley bush prior to its being started in the' Raukapuka bush. This bush, though rather more distant trom Xemuka, was more accessible- on account of thero being a better road to it. Among tho lirst settlers and sawyers in "The Valley," as it is usually called, were Messrs W. Grace, A. Best (who had an accommodation house), \V. Bennett, Jas. Reid, Jas. Fergusson, George, Thomas and Charles Meredith, . Win. and Jas. Guilford, T. Patterson, G. .Nicholas, W. Grace, jun., S. Taylor, W. Young, and J. Bull. In tho Waihi bush, Mr W. Scott, who had previously been sawing in the Raukapuka bush for Mr Cox, was tho first to commence /work, splitting fencing material for the Raukapuka station. Messrs Taylor and Flatman, who had been carting with bullock teams between Timaru and the Mackenzie Country, afterwards started a sawmill in the Waihi bush, and it continued working there till the timber at the lower end was cut out, Messrs Penny and Webb having a sawmill at tho upper end. Tho inevitable fire followed tho bnshmen, and swept the bush from end to end. Messrs Taylor and Flatman also carried on a store at Woodbury, as the township at tho Waihi bush is called. The KakaJiu bush subsequently claimed the _ attentiou of tho bushmen, and as with the other sources of timber supply, including the smaller bushes on what was formerly known as Rhubarb Flat, and now To Moana, it was ultimately "cut out." The timber industry, which was one of the firsthand most important in the Geraldino district-, came to an end, and many of the old sawyers and bushmen afterwards became successful farmers or business men. Some of these hardy old pioneers are living still in or near their early homes, and none are moro proud of their district— its fertility and climate, and its peaceful surroundngs—than they are. WHEN THE RUNS WERE TAKEN UP. From tho fact that the country was so well grassed, and so abundantly watered n all seasons, pastoral pursuits naturally engaged the attention of many of the early"" settlers. Mr Cpx's examplo in taking up runs in' the district; was followed by others. Mr W. K. Macdonaid settled on the north bank of the Orari, the railway lino now running through the homestead paddocks, tho date of the original license of his holding being October, 1854. His brother, Mr Angus Macdonaid, took up his run adjoining, at the same time, and subsequently built his residence, Waitui, on its well-known site on the Geraldine Downs. Mr lCdward Cooper settled at Cooper's Creek, north again of Mr Angus -Macdonald's run, haying purchased Mr F. Jollies interest in a run taken up in 1861. Messrs Walker Bros, and Clogstoun took up part of the Four Peaks run in 1856, adding to it in 1860 ,and 1861, but some twenty years later they disposed of their interest ml the back part of the run known as Clayton to Messrs Hamilton. Mr \V. Mornbrook had, in 1854. taken up tiie Arowhenua run between the Onihi and Hae-Hae-Te-Moana rivers. A portion of Air Cox's run was on the west sfde of the Hae-Hae-Te-Moana river, and north of Mr Cox, Messrs Studhohne, Banks and Wigiey subsequently held the country between the Hae-Hae-Te-Moana and Opnha rivers. The Mount Peel and Orari Gorge runs, including the Four Peaks range, was taken up by Mr J. B. A. Acland between 1858* and 1.861. It is to be noted that in the old provincial council records from which the dates of taking up these runs is obtained, the Tomuka river is called the "Umnkuba," this Maori title signifying that it was a place for flax. The Hae-Hae-Tc-Moana was then called the ''Hare.' the name that was subsequently given onl.v to the north branch. This river was most probably named after the Yon Archdeacon Hare, one of the. vice-presi-dents of the old Canterbury Association. In those days the merino sheep and cattle held sway, but crossing the merino with the English Leicester followed in due course on the lower country. Of these largo pastoral runs only the purely hill country exists as Government leaseholds, except, of

course, such properties ns have been repurchased for closer settlement. Tho agricultural land was gradually absorbed by selection, chiefly at £2 per acre, by settlors as they arrived, tho original holders securing for themselves the freehold around their homesteads. fc'OME OF THE EARLY FARMERS. Among the early farmers who settled in the Geraldino district were Messrs J. Megsou, J. Dale. A. Kelman, l>. Shaw, J. Hell, and A. Hose. In Pleasant Valley Messrs Thos. Hardcastlo, W. Upton "Slack, and E. B. O'Flanuagan hud settle<l: at Kakahu, Mr John Hay; at Valley, Mr "Win. (Japes ; at Fairfield Bush. Mr T. Qua it!: and between there and the Wailu Bush, Mr W, G. Campbell, and adjoining Mr S. Thompson, better known as "Yankee Sam," who was tho first to establish an orchard in the district. Mr Allan Maedonak! subsequently purchased his homestead and tho surrounding land. In about the year lStiO a n:\rty of Victorian <lipeers, sturdy men from tho South of Ireland, who had visited tho Ota&o and West Coast diggings, settled on the west side of tho Hao-Hae-Te-Moana rner, from Pleasant Valley towards Temuka. and those who stayed and began in a small way became, by hard work .and thrift, so'mp of the most successful farmers in the district, and from time to time they were joined by relatives and friends" from the Old Country. ; Among them vrcro "Messrs A. linn, A. { Lysai'ht, Thos. Daniel, and J Grcgan, T. Higsins. l>. Guthric. lv. and, M Jlrophy. "P. R.van, William and Job Earl, "J. Connolly, P. Bouvke, J. Scott, T. Owens, M., W. and R. Campion, and W*. Cloglier. Messrs A. Grm.shy. and T. G. Bradley and Toomey wero early farmers in the Hilton district. 'Die end of the 'seventies and early 'eighties, before tho frozen meat trade, started and caved the situation, were severe times for farmers, hut those who weathered them have done well for themselves. 3[any of the prosperous farmers owed their start in life to employment as shepherds and general hands on tho sheen stations, and a typical instance of this das* is Mr A. Mackenzie, of Gcraklinc, who was formerly a shepherd for Mr _W. K. Macdonaid. Two of his sons, Kenneth and Colin, are successful farmers in the Gernld.ine district, and the third is the well-known minister in charge of. St. Andrew's Proshvterian Church, Christclmrch. Mr Allan Macdonaid war, also an old shepherd, two of whoso sons, Donald and Farquhnr, am -.veil known as farmers in North Canterbury and Ashburt-on, and his daughter, Mrs A. Allan, of Waikari, has a reputation for the quality of tho fat sheep she regularly supplies to the Addington market.'Mr Alexander Frnser, the head shepherd at Four Peaks for about half a century, has only recently retired from active service. THE TOWNSHIP OF GERALDINE. Geraldino is one of the prettiest inland towns in the Dominion, so charmin,!;ly is it situated at the foot of the downs, with its. background of natiive i bush, reserved with commendable iore- '■ sight by the pioneer surveyor when he laid off tho township. Geraldine may bo said to have begun with tlm erection of Mr houso and office, though tho Maoris had a small settlement thero in and before Mr Hewling's time. It was not till a few years after tho bushmen wero at work that any business premises were erected. Stores had to lie obtained direct from Timaru; or from Messrs Mendelson and Morris, who' had eominenoed business in Pleasant Valley, in a building that existed untii three or four years ago. This storo at Pleasant Valley was the nucleus of what afterwards became _ a large business, Mr Mendelson opening and taking charge of a branch at Temuka, and subsequently opening other branches at Pleasant Point and Ashburton. It was with this firm that the i Messrs Friedlander Bros, wero first asj sociated on their arrival in the Domi- [ nion, and they subsequently took over I the Ashburton branch. The original I business at Pleasnht Valley was some-, where about 1880 transferred to Geralliine, including a new building that iiad been erected as a store. Before tlic days of shops in Goraldine tho following wero the prices paid for some of the necessaries of life: — Tea 3« (id per lb, coffee 2s 6d, candles Is 9d, sugar 7d, butter 2s, salt M, Hour 4JH to ;C3 100 per 2001b, bar of sonp 2s Gd, tobacco 9s per lb. At tho same tinjie tho usual rate of wages was £1 per utck. It may be mentioned that the first oats grown in Geraldine put in by Mr W. S. Maslin and Mr P. R. Flatman were i sold at "-Is pt?r sack. The ploughing was j done by a bullock team, the. grain cut with a .scythe, threshed with a flail, and winnowed with a tin dish. Mr Robert Morrison opened a store in Geraldine- in 18(57, but so.'d out Messrs Brown and Plantc, whoso head business place was. in Tcmuka. !sui>sequently Messrs R. Morrison and N. Dunlop purchased tho business, and now it is carried on by Mr Morrison's sons. Mr W. Grimmer opened a store and 'butcher's shop on tho opposite side of the road, and later on Mr W. S. Moslin started a storo at tho lower end of the town. This business was afterwards taken over by Mr X. Dunlop, and later by Mr T. Sherratt, who still carries it on. Mr R. Taylor opened the first hotel in Geraldine in 18G5, and Mr W. Dawson was for a number of years the licensee, iiie Bush Inn and Crown Hotels were opened some years afterwards. Since the last local i option poll Geraldine has been a "dry" i district. Mr D. Taylor, at Orari, was the first blacksmith in tho district, and later on Mr J. Kennedy commenced business in Geraldine, I'ir D. Clouaton being the first wheelwright. The Church of England wns the first to send a clergyman into the district, tho Rev. L. li. ii.-own having charge of a i largo and scattered pa mil. The Anglij enn Church at Geraldine was 'built in I ISM, and that at Pleasant Valley in tho same year. The latter is the oldest ecclesiastical building in Canterbury, having been in continual since its ! erection. The. Geraldino Church for many years had been used as a Sunday school after the new church had been built, and a few years ago it- was removed to the. Orari. Mr W. (J race gave tha land and tho timber for the .Pleasant Valley Church, ami Mr A. Cox obtained a grant from the Provincial Council towards the cost of its erection. The Rev. L. L. Brown was succeeded by the Kov. J as. Preston, who laboured bo acceptably in the parish for many years, and the present vicar'is the Rev. S. Hamilton. Tho Wesleyans were the next body to open a church, followed by tho* Presbyterians, tho Rev. Geo. Barclay being the first minister, and since,his retirement thf' Rev. A. B. Todd has had charge. The Roman Catholics came next, and the Primitive Methodists have taken the plate of the Wcsleyan body. The township of Goraldine is now well supplied with shops of all kinds, both general stores and those devoted to one particular lino of business. The township, which is nearly two miles long, is gradually concentrating it.s business in the upper or central part. It is there that the residential as well as business extension has gone on. Across the river there is ample room for extension, and a move has already been made in that direction. Tho township so prettily -.'tuated. and enjoying a genial climate, is destined to become a popular residential quarter and holiday resort as time goes on. It has not been too well served by railway facilities during the last two years, but it has good coach and carrying services. On the completion ■of tho I'pper Ita agitata traffic bridge in the early 'seventies Cobb and Co.'s coaches froni Christchurch ran through Gernldine until the railway line was completed, and the.first local coach services were started by Messrs Kennedy and Mundell. THE GKRALDTX.E BUSH. Tho bush that covered the eastern slopes of the downs was formerly known as the Raukapuka bush, or Talbot Forest, but what now remains

is usually called the Geraldino bush. All lovers of our natiTO bush, and par-■ tioularlv the residents of Geraldme and district, should feel grateful i«r the splendid bush weerve that was set apart before tho bushman s axe ana saw wont into it. It is typical oftlio early mixed bush found m fcoufch Canterbury, and contains, besides giant totaras and white and black pines, a «reat variety of smaller trees ana shrubs. By planting trees for protection from nor west nvinds, and securely fencing tho reserve from stock, the bush is practically in its virgin state, and it is only by means of the walks that have been cut through it that one can with ease lenotrate ite dense growth. Besides the bush reserve- the township lias a domain, in which is provided an up-to-date sports ground, and there is also an additional reserve fienerally known as "Tho Little Park,' , in which a few native trees still remain. A suggestion has recently been mnde thnt this little park should bo Civen into the charge of the- local ■Horticultural Society, which is a live institution, in the same way that- tbe care of the reserves in Climtchuroh is given over to the Beautifying Society. It has boon further suggested that the efforts of the Society should be mainly directed to introducing trees, shrubs, etc.. from other parts'of the Dominion, which are not found in tho Herakline bush, and thus making the smaller bush reserve an interesting adjunct to the larger. • LOCAL COVERXMENT. Geraldine is the headquarters of two large local bodies. besides its own municipal council. The Geraldine County Council has its offices, and originally this body had jurisdiction over the irroater part of South Canterbury. Tho j iiirst Geraldine County Council was elected in 1877, and held its first meeting on January 4th, 1878, the members being Messrs W. Postlethwaite. Geraldine; C. 6. Trinp, Orari Gorge; E. Acton, Pleasant Point: E. Cooper. Pool Forest, J. Mclntosh, Levels; P. B. Uussell, Timani; J. Mendelson nntl Ales. Wilson, sen.. Temnka. Mr Pcstlethwaite was elected chairman, and also acted as secretary till Mr W. Wills was appointed to that position in 1878. Mr F. V>\ Stubbs was elected clerk in 1830, a position he> still holds. In 18S3 the Moimt Cook Road District seceded from the Geraldine County and formed the ■ Mackenzie County. Tho Levels district took similar action m 185)4, and the Geraldine County now comprises tho .Road Districts of Geraldine, Tenvuka, and Mount Peel. Tho present members of tho Gcralduio County Council are Messrs G. J. Dennistoun (chairman), B. 11. Mncdonald, A. Metcalf. l>. Grant, W. G. Armitage, W. Dixon, and A. Kclman. The Geraldiuo R-cad District first wont under the name of Rnukapuka, but this was only retained for a year after tho district w.-us constituted. Tho first meeting oi the road board was held on February Mth, 1871, tho members being Messrs W X Macdonald (chairman), Geo. Taylor, J. Roberts. R. Rac, and W. 17 ■ Slack. Mr C. E. Sherratt was tho first clerk and overseer, a position ho occupied for a number of years. Ho ims succeeded by Mr W. Shiars, who also did lengthy and good service. Mr O'Malley followed and the present olerU and overseer is Mr Thos. Dyer. Since the rateable value of tho district has almost doubled, in that year it was £102,240, and now it- stands nt £B ln'j'une, 1884, tho Gcraklino Town District was constituted, and the nrst commissioners were Messrs R. H. Pearpoint (Chairman*, W. S Maslin, R. Taylor, J. Mundell, N. Dunlop, rhofi. Farrell, and J. Huffey. . Mr C. fc. Slierratt was appointed clerk and Mr II Annan overseer. A further step in local government was taken seven years whan the town district was formed into a borough, the first Council beinc Mr W. S. Maslm (Mayor, and Councillors R. Baylor, E. H. Logan, J. Maling, J. £?""& Dawßon, and* Bislop, and, Mr A. Herlihy was appointed town clerk: ana overseer, and still occupies this position The nresent Council consists of Mr F. R. Flatman (Mayor), and Councillors T. W. A. J. Kennedy, R. Taylor, J. M. Sutherland and Dr. Patcrson. When constituted a borough the valuation of Geraldine was £09,000-7----whilo the present capital value is £109.177, showing, again, how progress lias been made in the district, judged by the standard of valuation of property.* The splendid roads throughout the district testify to the excellent way they were formed, and aro being maintained.

PROGRESS ON OTHER LINES. Tho Goraldino school has always been looked upon os one of the most successftil country schools in Canterbury. It began, lite other institutions, in a small way. The Land Office, built by Mr Hewlmgs, was afterwards converted into n sclux)], in which tho first teacher was' Mrs Grimmer; Mr J. Slipper also taught there, as did Mre T. Ash. The first Hoard school was erected in 1873, Mr Upton, of Timaru, being the architect. The first master was Mr J- Hordcastle, now > of Timaru. Hβ wa?t followed by Mr J. B. Chisholm, and then for many years Mr T. Hughes, now one of the North Canterbury Board's inspectors, had charge, and under him it achieved great success. The present master is Mr J. Montgomery., and the school lias now the status of a ■high'school: The Horticultural Society hold its first show-about 1884, and has sincn had a very successful career. A fire brigade was established some years :iyo. and sports associations of various kinds take a prominent part in the .'iocial life- The Geraldine Racing Club, which has- its course at Orari. owes its existence to racc> meetings that first were held in Pleasant Valley in the early 'sixties, and then, as popHlation incrensod. they were transferred to Geraldine, and for a number of years were held in one of Mr Postlethwaitc's naddocks immediately nvor the rivnr from the township. There are flourishing cricket, tennis, and bowling clubs. The fret that there are branches of. three banks at Geraldina shows that it is an important, business centre, and the now post office erected in 19GS is :\n ifpes'" , * building. The fortnightly stock sales form an excellent local market. te DAIRY INDUSTRY. In the early days dairying was carried on by a number of the settlors to supply Timaru and other centres with butter and cheese, and tho latter article was also required for the digin Australia as well as New Zealand. Among those who had tho hirgest dairy herds iv the district were Messrs T. Hardeastle, at Pleasant ValIzy, and J. Hay, at Kakahu, and for a number of years these were the prin-oip.-t! exhibitora and prize-takers in the cheese classes at the Timaru show. The former, whose dairy consisted of over 10') cows, had been :«, regular supplier of outter to the Timaru market, which Ta?; triirtv mites distant, and delivery in those , days was no easy task. Towards the end of thfi 'seventies clieeseuiaking became unprofitable, and many pave it »ip, only see prices rise again. Cattle-bm'dinGt, tor beef principally, to supply the West Coast market, then largely t<;->k the place of dairying. About 1884 a factory was started at Geraldine for the manufacture of cneeKc, and though a first-class article was turned out there was not a s'lflif'icntlv good local market, and shipment to London proved a failure in the absence of cool chambers on the vessels. Of late creameries have been erected to stinnly the Timaru Dairy Factory, but farmers appear to find that general farming and sheep are more suitable thrn dairying. When the country was in its virgin state, and before it became heavily stocked with shci'j). the carrj-ing capacity for cattle was exceptionally good," and the duality of the dairy produce made off the native pasture cannot be equalled now. VOLUNTEERING. At the time of the Itussian scare, in 1885, Geraldine raised a volunteer corps

and n brass band wns also started, am interest in the volunteer niowment b& been maintained ever since. Twoi of th original membersof tlK> corps. IWr TV M.'Moore ami Mr K. McKenne, th former being the first captoin corps, and the latter occupying tha pcsitiun Inter, luive risen to the rank c iioutenjto.t-ooloncls in the volunteer sei vies, and it ivas largely through th interest and enthusiasm of those to officers that the volunteer spmt ha been kept up. During the South, Afr can war the district sent its quota < men to the front. The present office in eharg© of the Geraldine RiUee i Captain' Gresham. There is ft (»dc tx>rps in connection with th© Dwtnc High Sclwol, under Captain Mon. pornerj-, and its , shooting team is note for its scoring abilities on th© EangX A strong mounted riflo corps_ has x< cently been formed in th«y district, v»J tain Kennedy being in command. OTHER TOWNSHIPS. Though Orari is connected wit Geraldine from tfco fact, that it is tfl nearest railway station, it is more ass« ciated in its derelojimont witb. W»i Chester mid Torauka, and may be lei for a further article. Woodbnry Lγ not mad? much procrws sinco tho da? when saw-milling was its mainstay, j is n quiot country village, posisessing v store, school, nnd blacksmith's shop. A one time it had ite hotel, but this wt closed us a- licensed honso many ycai ago. Bird's accommodation house a the Goraldino-Woodbury road wae'.om a yvcll-knouu place of call. TllO totri sJiip of Hilton has not made the pn press that was anticipated when it wj laid out. Hope then lay in the d«ve opnient of tho Kakahu district, whei was not only tho hush, but lignii coal, and oven Rold had been foun< nnd lime-burning had commence* Thoro is also an extonsivo supply < pipo-clny. Though Mr Goo. Meredii spent considerable time and money i attempting to develop tJie coal mmm] it was without success, as tho best co lie found was under the lied of the. K. kahii river, and could not bo worked c account of water. This district may time prove to bo worth further dovelo; ing.

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