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Parliamentary Reporter.

WELLINGTON, this day An earnest hope that ratification of the United Nations Charter and the setting up of the organisation for which it establishes the procedure will mark the beginning of a new epoch in the affairs of'the world is expressed by the Prime Minister Mr. Fraser, in his report on the qan' Francisco Conference presented to Parliament yesterday.

P.S- rts imperfections, it (the Charter) constitutes the rallying- ?£ in th2 f those J ho strive and hope !u e - peace -°S- mankind," declares the Prime Minister. "It will by no means automatically open the door to peace and progress; it will by no means resolve in. advance all the problems that lie in the way of nations and of the world. It can do no more than set up the rules and procedures by which those problems may be approached, and its success depends on the sincerity and the moral determination of all those peoples who took part in the San Francisco Conference to adhere to their pledged word and to observe loyally and faithfully the principles of international conduct that the Charter sets forth."

May be "Last Chance" Not security itself, but the way to security, is embodied in the Charter says Mr. Fraser, in strongly urging Parliament to ratify it. The way offered must be taken, he continues and it must be followed in full consciousness of the difficulties and hazards, and the great responsibilities that may be met along it. "The Charter offers to us an opportunity, which may be our last, to work in unison with all other peaceloving peoples of the world towards the realisation of the hope and the longing that find a common meetingplace in the hearts of all of us to establish in the world of our time, and of the time of our children and of children unborn, a peace that will be real, lasting, -and worthy of the dignity of mankind," he declares with great emj>hasis.

"Can Lead to lasting Peace" Mr. Fraser seeks ratification of the Charter because it is "at least a beginning, and, with all its imperfections, marks the first step that, with the help of experiment and experience in the years ahead can lead us to reach the goal of real and lasting international peace and security."

Paramount among the achievements of the representatives of the nations assembled, he says, was the finding of common ground in their single-mindedness of ■ purpose to save the world from another war. Therefore, they set up an organisation on which rneh and women everywhere might earnestly, although not blindly, base their hope and faith that the purpose expressed will some day be fulfilled.

In recommending ratification, the Prime Minister sets out the solemn obligations which every State assumes by such an act. Some of the pledges, he says, should present no difficulty, and New Zealand should have no hesitancy in giving general undertakings. of international .good conduct on her part, pledging herself to submit any international dispute to procedures of peaceful settlement, or declaring her readiness to comply with the decision of the International Court of Justice in any case to which she might be a party.

Vital National Pledges j More weighty, however, are the pledges which involve the possible use of armed forces and the other measures which, though of a nonmilitary nature, might be far-reach-ing in their effects. ■ Mr. Fraser sets out briefly what these pledges are:— Use of Armed Forces.—All members of the United Nations when called upon in terms of their Charter obligations must supply "armed forces., assistance and facilities, including rights of passage, necessary for maintaining international peace and security." The size of these forces will-be a matter of negotiation, but Mr. Fraser deems it wise to assume that each member will be required to make a substantial contribution, in order- that the total forces and facilities will furnish, the means on which the United Nations "must rely for the repression of threats to the peace. Once the agreement is made, the forces stipulated must be supplied on the "call" of the Security is, wherever the Security Council, of which New Zealand may not often be a member, considers that the occasion,for their use has arisen.

Use of Air Contingents.—Of the forces to be made available some are to be "immediately available." The Charter lays it down that "in order tc enable the United Nations to take urgent military measures, members shall hold immediately available national air -force contingents for combined international enforcement action."

Non '- Military Measures.—The Security Council has power to decide "what measures not involving the use of armed force are to be employed to give effect to its decisions, and it may call upon the members of the United Nations to apply such measures." The obligation to respond to this call of the Security Council is absolute, and is not subject to any further agreement. The measures may include "complete, or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the severance of diplomatic relations.' Economic and Social Obligation.--All the United Nations pledge; themselves to tafce "Joint Mid separate action in co-operation with the Organisation" to promote higher qtandard<? of living, full employS," and Wious other economic and social objectives. will be expected to..conclude an of this obligation are not^roateruug different from purred unaer the mandate, except u fred Zealand Government willbe jjgjgjg to designate "one specially W in ea person" to represent it on we Trusteeship Council- , . . w Obligation, Ze7 By ratifying the garter, bly.

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Bibliographic details

MOVE IN HOUSE, Auckland Star, Volume LXXVI, Issue 171, 21 July 1945

Word Count

MOVE IN HOUSE Auckland Star, Volume LXXVI, Issue 171, 21 July 1945

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