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BEFORE MAN'S ADVENT.

MS. WKAGGE ON THE PEEHISTORIC. CHANGES IN THE EARTH'S GIIMATE. A CANDLE, A PEAR, AND A HAT-PIN. "I read Professor David's report of the geological results of the Antarctic expedition with great interest," said Mr. Clement Wragge to a "Star" reporter th's afternoon, and from the reports to hand I think that he has arrived at perfectly accurate conclusions with respect to the high plateau existing at the South Pole and over the whole Immediate regions surrounding the Pole. "I am most especially interested in reading that coal measures and thick measures of limestone have been discovered there. Of course, it proves conclusively that the inclination of the axis of this earth to the plane of its orbit was not always what it is now, namely, about two-thirds of o. right angle, but that in ages past it has varied considerably and far more than astronomers have hitherto imagined, perhaps even almost through ninety degrees. AREAS WHICH ONCE EXISTED \T THE POLES. "Thus there may have 'been a time when the axis of this earth was nearly perpendicular to the plane of its orbit, and another time when the earth's axis was nearly horizontal thereto, and these far before the advent of man. "And if we accept these latter conditions there would 'therefore have been a. time when tropical or semi-tropical areas would have existed not only around the Antarctic cirde but also' around the Arctic circle. CLIMATIC VARIATIONS. "The variations in climatic zones of the planets of our solar system generally are determined by the degrees of inclination of their axis to the planes of their, orbits. A REMARKABLE ILLUSTRATION. The enthusiastic scientist rose, lighted a candle, produced a pear, hunted up a hat-pin, and placing the candle in the centre of an imaginary orbit gave excellent illustrations of his contentions, and showed that when the earth's axis was perpendicular to the plane of its orbit there was no change of season, and when it was horizontal thereto there were extreme seasons. MOTOR CAR USELESS. " (By Telegraph.—Press Association.) CHRISTCHU.RGH, this day. The motor car was not an unqualified success. Tlie ear did about 450 miles depot laying, 'the clas3 of country travelled over was sea ice, with patches of snow, which varied from about six inches in depth. They had trouble with the lubricating machinery, finding the oil froze minus 30deg. It was absolutely useless to expect that the car would run on the surface of the barrier, ac it was so soft, being composed of compressed snow layers about one foot in depth, into which the wheels of .the car esmfc ito the axles. The rate of progress was about six miles per hour, but if the surface was good the car sometimes did nine or ten miles. Without a load the car could do 30 miles an hour over sea ice. Jlr. Day sta.ted definitely that the motor cars were absolutely useless on the great ice barrier. No car could meet such a varied character of country as had to be traversed, and no car could be built light enough ito gd over .the deposits of snow. He was of opinion that motor sledges similar to those to be used in the French Antarctic expedition, under Charcot, would be very useful in Ant-' arctic exploration.

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BEFORE MAN'S ADVENT. Auckland Star, Volume XL, Issue 73, 26 March 1909

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