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GESAI AETARCTIC CONTINENT. EXTENDING TO THE SOUTH POIiE. FO3KESLY AMttD CLIMATE. i <By Telegraph.—Special Correspondent.) '; ~_ {Continued from Page 5.) CHRISTCHURCH, Thursday. Professor David, interviewed to-night, said: '-'There can be little" doubt that the harrier is formed partly of glacial ice and partly snow. This view as to "its origin" i= rendered highly probable through the discovery by Lieutenant Shackletoa and his party of a vast glacier 60 miles wide and 120 miles long, descending from an elevated inland plateau over 10,000 ft. above sea-level. This glacier is probably one of many which go to feed the great barrier. Important evidence was found by Mr Macintosh and the depot-laying party as to the actual seaward movement of the inland glacier further south. It was found that th"c Discovery's depot 'A' near Minna Blnff had travelled two geographical miles to east-north-east in a period of six years and two months. It was also- proved by the same party that Bft. 2in. of snow -had fallen during the same interval of- time at the present cite of depot 'A.' This may be considered to be a fair average estimate of the snowfall for the barrier in this latitude. "It is obvious, therefore,- that as the head of the barrier is .approximately 300 or 400 miles south ol its seaward front, -there is. time for. many hundreds of feet of thickness of snow_to accumulate on the surface of the slowly .moving glacial ice before it traverses the above distance, in order to reach the sea front from which icebergs are from time to time broken, off. "A large tabular berg grounded in ■ what subsequently proved to be 13 fathoms of water. This goes -to show that probably most of the bergs "launched from the gveat ice barrier are in their ■upper portions, at all events, if not throughout, formed, of snow, rather than from glacier ice. Glacier ice, on which enow was originally deposited, has prob- , ably been dissolved away in sea water, ;. on "which the barrier"floats, probably fori many scores of miles, before its northern ; limit is reached."One of ihe-mosfc imporfant-geologi-f cal results of the expedition is to.prove i that the Antarctic legion from Ross Sea ! to the South. Pole is a great continental the nature ota hlghplateau, its 1 northern extremity.near.Cape North, being from 6000 ft. to 7000 ft. above sea * level over 7000 ft. near the magnetic pole, and over 8000 ft- -where is was ' traversed by Captain Scott's expedition, and about 10.500 ft. at the furthermost point reached by lieutenant Shackleton and party, 88deg. 23mln- south. This plateau continues across io the South ; Pole for some distance, and probably ex- ' tends onwards in the direction, of South America, towards Coats'' Land, discover--1 ed by Bruce. ? "The discovery of coal measures, and of thick measures of limestone, as far as 80 degrees couth, is obviously .of extreme infcerest.-as- showing a former ~ -jfifld climate-close to the South Pole, for " both limestone and coal occur only un- • ■ der such conditions. The coal measure and limestone" "formations extend from. : 85 degrees south across to the magnetic pole, a distance of""over 1100 miles. Under the coal and sandstone forma-. — iion isl anTwiaelyTrßpTead . fonnda- - -tion of- very—aid-laeky: granites, schists, and a coarse crystalline marble mrneraL Monazite," from which- thorium is cominerciaTly _ extracted forincandescent gas mantles, is 6o common in places that it Is one of the local rock formations. A mineral like black mica was discovered tjy Mr Douglas Mawson at several spote along the coast oa the west side of .Ross Eea."' ' ~ ~■' - Professor David said, that the ringed penguin found at Cape Royds probably came all theTfemendous distance from Graham Land, the only bird of the sort seen at this particular spot. The speaker also stated that the results of the'meteorological observations were being worked out; and it wae hoped they ■would prove eminently useful both to New Zealand and to Australia, as solvins many important questions as to the bearing of Antarctic conditions upon the weather in these latitudes. The observations would be worked: up here by the 1 local and expedition, scientiste, and they be--enabled to_ compare a series of observations taken simultaneously o-cer a period of 15 months in the South ■ Polar regions aijd here, anft to ascertain the effect of the tremendous Mixzards. experienced in. the south upon the weather conditions of (Australasia. At Cape Royds the northern party, Lieutenant Sh&ckleton's party, and: the ship's party all took observations. Their situation - at' Cape Royds was most favourable for studying the effects of irpper air currents. A most interesting feature in this respect, was the- fact that they were • - enabled, to. watch., the clouds of smoke ■ Bioviag over tiie" top of-.Mount Erebus."

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THE GREAT ANTARCTIC, Auckland Star, Volume XL, Issue 73, 26 March 1909

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THE GREAT ANTARCTIC Auckland Star, Volume XL, Issue 73, 26 March 1909