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THE THEORY OF VOLCANOES.

(To the Editor.) Sir,—Tho volcanic outbreak of NgaUTuhoe, an inland volcano,' touches rather adversely one of the theories put forward by Professor Milne in his article in this month's "Review of Reviews." "Do volcanoes cause earthquakes?" He says: "To get volcanic activity you must have water to make steam. If mountain ranges are formed inland or at long distances from the ocean we only get earthquakes, not volcanoes as in the Himalayas or Alps." Now, Sir, our active volcanoes are inland and far from the ocean! So far as getting water to make steam, as Professor Milne assumes is the cause of outbreaks (this is strongly debated By other professors), you can find that in the rivers of water that percolate through the sub-strata of every land. We have the artesian wells of New Zealand and the bores of Australia pouring out millions of gallons of water daily, quite enough—upon Professor Milne's theory —to set • volcanoes going every day. The ranges of Mountains, Himalayas, Alps, Pyrenees, etc., subject to earthquakes only run latitudinally E. and W.; while ranges ■with volcanoes and subject also to earthquakes run longitudinally N. and S., thu3 bringing them into the magnetic line, which to my mind forms a very strong connecting link wit- my theory that earthquakes and volcanoes are due to and caused by clectro-magnetio action. —I am, etc; ____ EMILY NICOIi.

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THE THEORY OF VOLCANOES. Auckland Star, Volume XL, Issue 68, 20 March 1909

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