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The Kiel Canal is to remain free and I ooen to ships of war and merchant shipping of all nations at peace with Germany. Goods and ships of all States are to be treated on terms of equality in the use of the canal, and charges are to be limited to those neces-. sarv for the upkeep and improvement lof the canal, for which Germany is to :be responsible. In cases of violation of ; these provisions, or disagreements as to : them, the States concerned may appeal to the jurisdiction established by the League of Nations, and may demand the appointment of an international commission.


THE LABOUR CONVENTION. Under the provisions of the Labour Convention (1) an international conference is to be held annually* to propose labour reforms for adoption by tho States composing; the League. of Nations; (2) there is to be a governing body to act as executive and to prepare the agenda for the conference, and an international labour office for the ■ collection and distribution of information and reports. The hend of this office will be responsible to the governing body. (3) The annual conference will consist of four representatives from each State—two for the State and one each for the employers and employed. Each delegate may vote independently. The . conference will have power to adopt by a two-third majority recommendations on draft conventions on labour matters. Recommendations or draft conventions so adopted must be brought by each State before the authority or authorities within whose competence the matter lies for enactment for legislation or other action. If a draft convention receives the approval of the competent authority, the State in question :is under obligation to ratify it and carry it into effect...Should any State fail to observe the above obligations, it will .be open to the, governing body to supi port a commission of inquiry, as a rej suit of whose findings the League of : Nations may take economic measures j against the offending State. (4) Special I provision is made to prevent any conflict with the Constitution of the , United States or other Federal States. (5) To meet the case of countries where 1 the climate, imperfect industrial development, "or other circumstances' render labour conditions substantially ; different from those obtaining • elsewhere, the conference . must • take difference into account in framing any convention. . - ; / * ! A protocol attached to the convention provides that the first meeting shall be at Washington in the present .';; year, and sets up an international .organisation committee for- that pur- ■ pose. The protocol also contains tub for the first meeting, which j include the principle of .an eight hours'" [day, the question of unemployment, and J employment of women and children, especially in dangerous trades.. - Apto the section containing the i Labour Convention is an affirmation by j the high contracting parties of the . methods and principles for regulating labour conditions, which all industrial communities should endeavour to apply '.. as far as their special circumstances : permit. , Amongst these are that labour 'should not.. be regarded... merely. as a commodity or an article of commerce; the right of association for all lawful purposes for employer as well as emI ployed; payment to the employed of a wage. implying a reasonable standard or life as understood in their time ami country. The addition of an eightj hours' day, or a 48-hours' week whore !it is not already attained; the adoption •of a weekly rest of at least-'24 hours, including Sundays, where practicable; abolition of child labour and limitation 'of labour of the young so as to permit :a. continuance of their education and ; proper physical development; princinle of eqiial pay for men and women for i equal work; any legal standard for eonj ditions of labour to have regard in each country to equitable economic treatment of all workers resident therein; provision by each State of a system of inspection for the protection of the ; employed in which women should take narfc. ! ;


GUARANTEES. i Western Europe: As a guarantee for the execution of the. treaty, German territory to the west of the Rhine, 1 toeether with the bridgeheads, will be occupied by the Allies and associated troops for 15 years. If the conditions are faithfully carried'out by Germany, certain districts, including the bridgeheads of Cologne, will be evacuated at ■ the expiration of five years. Certain ! other districts, including the bridge- | heads of Cbblenz, will be evacuated j after ten years, and the remainder, in- • eluding the bridgeheads of Mainz, will be evacuated after 15 years. In the case where the Inter-Allied Reparation Committee finds that Germany has failed to observe the whole or part of , her obligations either during the occu- : pation or after the 15 years have exj pired. the whole or part of the areas specified will be occupied immediately. ;If before the expiration of 15 years ' Germany complies with all the undertakings resulting from the present i treaty, the occupying forces will be withdrawn immediately. ii Eastern Europe: Similarly, all German troops, present-in -territories east ;of the new frontier.shall return as soon !as the Allies think most suitable. They j are to abstain. jfrom all requisitions, etc., land are in no way 'to interfere with I such measures for national defence a.s j may., be adopted by the provisional Governments concerned. ;■ Evacuation of territory : All questions regarding occupation not provided for by the treaty will be regulated by a subsequent convention, or conventions, which will have similar force and effect.


MISCELLANEOUS. Germany agrees to recognise the full validity of the treaties of peace and the conventions to be concluded by Allied and associated Powers with the Powers allied with Germany, and to agree to the decisions to be taken regarding the territories of Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey, and recognise the new States in the frontiers to be fixed for them The high contracting parties recognise the r treaty of July, 1918, between France and the Principality of Monaco. 'They agree that the Chairman of Commissions shall, under certain cir-

eumstances, have a casting vote. ' Work of religious missions maintained by German societies in territory transferred to or belonging to Allied or associated Powers is to be continued under trustees appointed by those Powers. In another clause Germany undertakes not to put forward any pecuniary claim against any Allied Powers signing the present treaty based on events previous to the coming into force of the treaty. Germany accepts all decrees as to German ships and goods made by any Allied Prize Court, and the Allies reserve the right to examine all decisions of German Prize Courts. The present treaty, of which the French and English texts are botli authentic, shall be ratified, and the dcDosit of ratification made in Paris as soon as possible. Various diplomatic provisions as to s the ratification follow. The "treaty is j to enter into force in all respects for ' each Power on the date of its ratification. .

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Bibliographic details

KIEL CANAL., Ashburton Guardian, Volume XXXIX, Issue 9606, 10 May 1919

Word Count

KIEL CANAL. Ashburton Guardian, Volume XXXIX, Issue 9606, 10 May 1919

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