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LEAGUE OF NATIONS.

REVISED COVENANT.

NHW YORK, April 27. Tho revised text of the Covenant of tho League of Nations, to be presented at the plenary session of the Peace Conference, is a lengthy document, consisting of 26" articles.

.Article 16 states:—Should a nation resort to war in disregard of its covenants, it shall ipso facto, be deemed to have committed an act of war against all the other members of the who shall immediately subject it to the severance of all trade and financial relations, the prohibition of all intercourse between their nationals and tho nationals of tShe covenantbreaking member and the prevention of all financial, commercial or personal intercourse between the nationals of the covenant-breaking member of the League and tho nationals of any other State, whether a member of the League or not. It will be the duty of the-Coun-cil', in such'case; to recommend to the several Governments concerned what effective forces, naval or military, the members, of the League can contribute to protect the covenants of the League, the members also agreeing to support one another tit. the financial ■ and economic measures taken. Any member violating -the covenant of the League may be declared no longer a member of the League by vote of the Council, concurred in by all the other members represented therein.

Article 17 states:—ln the event of a dispute between a member of t}ie League and a State not a member, or between States not members of tlie League, they shall be invited to accept the obligations of membership of the League for the purpose of -such dispute, upon fliich conditions as the Council may deem just. Upon giving an Invitation the Council shall immediately institute an inquiry into the dispute and recommend the necessary action. If both States- refuse membership of the League, the Council shall take measures to prevent hostilities and settle the dispute. *'..,.,.■-,

Article 20 requires members to agree ,to the Covenant being accepted as abrogating all obligations or understandings which are inconsistent with the terms of the Covenant, and to undertake not to enter into future engagements inconsistent with .the terms of the Covenant. Article 21 provides that nothing in the Covenant shall,be deemed to affect the validity of international engage-1 ments such an treatiesof arbitration or regional understandings' like the Monroe Doctrine for securing the main-' ienance of. peace. - Article 22 provides that those colonies and territories which, in conse--quence of the late war, may not be under the sovereignty of the State formerly governing them, and which are inhabited by peoples which are unable to stand by themselves under-the strenuous conditions of the modern world,.-, there shall be applied the principle that the' well-being and development of such peoples shall .form a sacred trust of civilisation and securities for the performance of the trust shall be embodied in the Covenant. This is provided for by mandatories on the part of the- League, the mandates to differ according to the stage of development of the people, geographical situation, economic condition and other similar circumstances. It mentions certain communities, formerly belonging to the Turkish. Empire, other peoples in Central Africa and South-West Africa, and certain South Pacific Islands. Where mandates are required,, in every case the mandatory shall render to the Council an annual report m reference to the territory committed to its charge. The degree of authority, control or administration .shall, if not previously agreed upon by members of the League, be explicitly defined, and a permanent commission shall -be constituted to examine tho reports of man-, datories and advise the Council on all matters relating to the observance of mandates. Article 23 states, that subject to p and in accordance xnth the provisions of the international conventions existing or hereafter agreed upon, members' of tlie.'■ League shall endeavour to secure and maintain fair and humane conditions of Labour for men, women and children both, in their own countries and in all countries to which their commercial and industrial relations extend, and for that purpose they will establish and maintain the necessary international' organisations. Provision will be made to secure and maintain freedom of communication and transit and the equitable treatment for commerce of all members ol

the League, also the prevention unci control of uiseas© will lie made a- matter of international concern. Article 25 provides for the encouragement, promotion and establishment of national Red Gross organisations. Article 26 provides for any amendment of the Covenant to take effect when ratified by the Council of the

League. . The following original members 01. the League of Nations are .signatories of the Treaty of Peace:—United States of America, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, British Empire, Canada, Australia, SoutJi Africa-, New Zealand, India, China, Cuba, Czeoho-Slovakia, Ecuador, France, Greece, •Guatemala, Hayti, Hedja/., Honduras. Italy, Japan, Liberia, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, "Poland, Portugal!, .Roumania, Serbia, Siani and' Uruguay. The States invited to accede to the

Covenant ai'e-t-r-Argentine Republic, Chili, Columbia, Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, .Persia, Salvador, Spain, Sweden.'Switzerland and Venezuela. PARIS, April' 28.. President Wiltpn, in a speech, jnoved the adoption of the League of 'Nations Covenant. Ke expressed the hope that the free nations of the world wouitl maintain justice in their internat'onri) relations. The Japanese claims for racial equality were withdrawn and will be submitted to the League later. Tho enunciatory principles of th<> Labour Charter will be inserted in the Peace Treaty. NEW YORK, April 20. The New York "Times" "Washington cot-res;..-.indent states that party line* :m> Kinder divide opinion on the League j Covenant. Many Republican Senators wtoo strongly objected to the first draft now declare- Hhafc tb,ey are satisfied with the amendrfrenfcsf' while :feever'al Democrats contend that the Covenant- is still Senator Chamberlain,

a Democrat, points out that the Covenant faLKs to leave control of immigration definitely in the hands of individual countries, as the League Council may arbitrate in immigration disputes. Tlie general opinion of Senators is that the revised Covenant will be ratified by Congress.

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Bibliographic details

LEAGUE OF NATIONS., Ashburton Guardian, Volume XXXIX, Issue 9598, 30 April 1919

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989

LEAGUE OF NATIONS. Ashburton Guardian, Volume XXXIX, Issue 9598, 30 April 1919

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