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Farming Notes. ■ ♦— CLOSER SETTLEMENT, " Rouseabout," the writer of Farm Topics m the Timarn " Post," says :— Among practical farmers who know it has long been a contention that m many instances the Govprnment m cutting up estates purchased under the Land for Settlements Act, have made many of the sections too small. That is open to question, because nearly all of the smaller settlers have done well, and have got a footing. That may, of course, be owing to the good Beasons which have prevailed for the past three or four years, and the comparatively low rental which many of them are paying. Whon hard times come they may not do so well. The chief fault, to my miud, m cutting up some of the estrtes has been the grouping of the small sections. Too many of them have been placed m one locality. If they have been scattered among the larger holdings, so that the occupiers could have the more easily got work from the bigger farmers, it might have been a better plan. But as far as I have seen there is not much cause for complaint, at any rate so far, and many a small farmer has reason to bless the day he was successful at the ballot. By all aocounts there appears to be a tendency to go m the other direction m subdividing estates, and for that reason the Government is reconsidering the sub-divi-sion of tho Flaxbourne Estate. Some of the sections there have run up to about 3000 acres, and it is said that the pastoral land is so cut up that there is scarcely a section that will not require from £2000 ,to £3000 to put on the necessary improvements, and to stook it. Sir Robert Stout pointed out, when hearing the Flasbourne compensation oase, that the Land for Settlements Act was intended to provide homes for men with but little capital. There can be no use m buying out one set of' social pests' m order to establish another lot. The man with two or three thousand pounds can easily get a start anywhere; it is the man with only a few hundreds, or less, for whom the land fcr settlements scheme was intended. Of course, pastoral country must be cut up into payable areas, and they must therefore be fairly large. Consequently, a good deal of capital is required m going m for this country, especially now that sheep area big price. Bat if a man with a decent homestead block can keep a thousand sheep he can make a very comfortable living. The late owners put a big value on the property, and if their estimate was correct, it should be able to keep a large number of settlers. The Minister for Lands is himself going to visit the property, and he will no doubt see to it that the objects of th© Land for Settlements Act are carried out m the direction of settling men with only a small capital on the land. Mr J. A. Gilruth related rather a funny incident to show the ignorance of the average farmer concerning disease m stook m the course of his addrees at Eketahuna, says the " Express." He said that he had been summoned to the North by a report that cancer was spreading amongst stock with alarmiDg rapidity. He went up post haste, and on hia arrival was shown a beast with somefcbing wrong with its eyelid. This was really a small wart, which he (Mr Gilruth) removed. The owner of the animal, however, then pressed the eye and disclosed what he declared to be genuine cancer. Other animals were examined, and each presented the same symptoms. The •' genuine cancer" m this case, was nothing less than the third eyelid, which, apparently, without the knowledge of the farmer was present m every beast. An enterprising farmer m the Otautau district has discovered a spray which will he claims eradicate ragwort, docks, and Canadian thistle. Dried milk is certainly the twentieth century wonder of the dairying industry. Dried milk Bpells out the death knell of the condensed milk industry even if it does not actually replace normal milk m most of the great cities. Certain it is that where dependence has to be had to a milk retailer, dirty by habit, by nature, and by environment, the city consumer will bo forced to protect himself by resorting to the use of milk m the new form m which it is now put before the cousumer. Disease germs are of necessity destroyed m the drying process, and the milk is thus absolutely sterile m this form. A tin of the milk was lately sent to a dairy journal, and to secure an absolutely impartial opinion it was handed by the editor to a gentleman quite free from any idiosyncrasies about milk, and his opinion was altogether m favour of the dried milk as compared with the milk preserved m any other manner. In a little time, when the city consumer is educated up to the new product, there is no doubt that dried milk will become a regular household requisite throughout the civilised world. The most important of the reports m the Royal Agricultural Society's annual is that of Dr Voeloker on the Eoyal Agricultural Society's expHriments at Woburn. Results are given for 1903, the twenty-seventh season. One field has been m wheat and another m barley m every one of the 27 years, treated with various manures and mixtures. The greatest yield m both crops, as usual, was obtained on plots dressed with a heavy and expensive mixture of artificial manures, consisting of 3£cwt of superphosphate, 2001 b sulphate of potash, 1001 b sulphate of soda, 1001 b sulphate of magnesia aud nitrate of soda containing nitrogeD equal to lODlb of ammonia, which would be about 4cwt of the nitrate. Such a great dressing wou'd never be needed for a crop grown in 1 an ordinary rotation, and it is not clear that the sulphates of soda and magnesia are needed even for a continuous wheat or barley. The yield of wheat was I 34.1 bushels per acrw, and that oC barley 41.6 bushels. Next came 24-.3 bushels of wheat and 274 bushels of barley on plot? dressed with rape dust, containing nitrogen equal to 1001 bof ammonia. This would be ai>out l'lcwt per acre, an expensive dressing. But it beat 14. tons of farmyard manure, which is remarkable. One of the i most interesting trials was a test 0? green manuring. In 1902 .two crops, each of mustard, rape and tares, were grown and ploughed m, wheat being sown for 1903. The greatest yield was after mustard, rape coming next, and tares last. These comparative results have been obtained threo times at Woburn, and they have caused much surprise, because the tare crop is a vt eat accumulator of nitrogen. But a tare crop is well knowa to be a bad preparation for wheat, because it leaves the soil very loose, and wheat requires a solid seedbed. The mustard alone, however, did not give much yield, only 17.3 bushels per acre. Where mineral manures, presumably the same as are named above, were added, the yield was 37.9 bushels per acre.

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Ashburton Guardian, Ashburton Guardian, Volume XXII, Issue 6572, 17 May 1905

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Page 4 Advertisements Column 2 Ashburton Guardian, Volume XXII, Issue 6572, 17 May 1905